(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Federally funded with LSTA funds through the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners 



http://archive.org/details/transactionsofm184751mass 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 



SOCIETY. 




VOLUME I. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 
BY WILLIAM D. TICK NOR & COMPANY, 

CORNER OF WASHINGTON AND SCHOOL STREETS. 

MDCCCXLVII. 



TUTTLE & DENNETT PRINTERS 21 SCHOOL STREET. 



CONTENTS 



OF 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PASS. 

Preface, -..-...-...3 

Camellia Japonica, var. Wilderii, (with plate,) - - - - - -11 

Camellia Japonica, var. Mrs. Abby Wilder, (with plate,) 12 

The Van Mons Leon Lc Clerc Pear, (with plate,) - - - - - - 13 

Character, History and Culture of the Pear. By Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, 15 

The Williams Apple, (with plate,) ........ 27 

Some Remarks on the Superiority of Native Varieties of Fruit. By A. J. Downing, Esq., 29 
The Baldwin Apple, (with plate,) ....... 33 

The Hybridization of the Camellia Japonica and its varieties. By Hon. M. P. Wilder, 35 
The Dix Pear, (with plate,) - - - - - - - - - 41 

Analysis of the Forms of Pears, ........ 43 

Simple Forms, ....... . - 45 

Compound Forms, - - - - • - - - - 47, 49 

The Andrews Pear, (with plate,) - - - - - - • >51 

The Tyson Pear, (with plate,) .... ... 53 

Results of the Cultivation of six kinds of Garden Pea. By J. E. Teschemacher, Esq., - 55 
Downer's Late Red Cherry, (with plate,) ------ 59 

Historical Sketch of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. By Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, 61 
The Beurre D'Aremberg Pear, (with plate,) » - 93 

The Dearborn Seedling Pear, (with plate,) - - - - - - - 97 

The Heathcot Pear, (with plate,) ....... 101 

The Red Astrachan Apple, (with plate,) - - - - - - - 103 



PREFACE. 



The great diffusion of a taste for Horticulture, and for all kinds of 
knowledge connected with the pursuit of it, throughout this country within 
the last few years, together with the munificent patronage the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society has received from the public in consequence 
thereof, encourage the Society to believe that the period contemplated 
since the time of its first President, Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, has arrived, 
when sufficient materials may be collected to issue regular volumes of 
Transactions, which in point of practical information will command the 
attention of a numerous body of fellow-citizens, and Avhich in point of 
mechanical execution can be rendered an ornament to the library and an 
honor to the State. 

Very far from wishing to depreciate the labors of other Horticultural 
bodies, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, both as a Society, and 
through their individual members, has always endeavored to stimulate the 
efforts of all to encourage and extend Horticulture, being sensible that 
the existence and prosperity of the Society depended entirely on its widest 
diffusion. But it must be evident on referring to the quality and number 
of varieties of fruits at the annual exhibitions in Boston for some years 
past, that there does exist here a vast accumulation of knowledge and 
experience in the selection, growth and cultivation of these bounties of 
Providence — and that in this knowledge and experience, the public 
demand and have a right to expect to share, in return for the patronage 
bestowed on the Society with so unsparing a hand. 

The following simple statement of the number and varieties of Pears 
contributed at the four last annual exhibitions will confirm the foregoing 
impression : — 



IV 


PREFACE. 












1843. 


1844. 


1845. 


1846 


From M. P. Wilder, President, about 


91 


102 


120 


154 


Messrs. Winship, 




47 


50 




40 


Pomological Garden, 


Salem, 


160 


159 


240 


176 


Samuel Walker, 




13 




36 


45 


Ebenezer Wight, 




21 








Otis Johnson, 




32 


24 


35 


41 


J. L. L. F. Warren, 




34 






34 


J. S. Cabot, 






43 


60 


74 


Josiah Lovett, 2d, 






15 


68 


23 


Hovey & Co., 








17 


18 



The beauty and qualities of these Pears cannot be represented by 
numbers, but those who saw and tasted them can bear witness to their 
great excellence in these points, and the large number of sorts will show 
the pains that have been taken to put all on trial for the purpose of making 
selections best suited to this climate. 

The perseverance in cultivating many varieties, of high character else- 
where, which at first do not appear to thrive in this section of the country, 
deserves notice, as it has been rewarded in several instances by successful 
acclimation ; and has given rise to the decision that Pears should not be 
rejected without a fair trial of four or five successive seasons. 

Equally interesting statements respecting Apples, Grapes, Plums, &c. 
might be drawn up, but this is sufficient for present purpose. 

As the experience acquired in the cultivation of these must of course 
be extensive, its wide dissemination is certainly of great importance, and 
the same is true of another object, that is, the method of keeping Fruit, in 
the most perfect state, throughout the winter, particularly apples and 
pears. 

Mr. Victor Paquet, of Paris, published a little work on this subject in 
1844. He gives an extract of the printed award of the Royal Society of 
Horticulture of Paris, decreeing a medal to him ; this states that M. 
Paquet had on the 12th of June exhibited one hundred pears and apples, 
and that those the judges tasted had perfectly preserved not only their 
beauty, freshness and flavor, but even their perfume. In one year he 
preserved seventeen thousand apples and eleven thousand pears : the finest 
of these latter fetch sometimes three francs, (about sixty cents each,) in 
the Paris market. 



PREFACE, 



His method, although at first expensive, deserves to be known. His 
fruit house is a circular building expressly for this purpose, with an outer 




Ground Plan. A, B, doors; F, windows. 

and inner wall, as will be seen on reference to the above figure. The 
height and thickness of the walls as Avell as the dimensions of the house 
are with him arbitrary. The distance between the two walls is about three 
feet six inches ; both have windows, as he thinks a diffused light preferable 
to entire darkness. The inner room is of course the depository of the 
fruit, and the object here is to attain a constant temperature of about 
50 Fahr. ; as low as 39 would not be injurious, but 66 to 73 destructive. 
The intervention of fire heat, he considers very prejudicial. 

He has a number of tight wooden boxes made with drawers, of oak, 
which wood he prefers, as being easier to be cleaned from the remains of 
any fruit which might decay ; softer woods allow the moisture and seeds of 
fungi, causing decay, to sink into their open pores, where they remain and 
vegetate another season. In these drawers the fruits are placed with small 
intervals between each, on a slight bed, one-sixth of an inch thick, of 
sawdust, (not pine, which would communicate an unpleasant flavor,) 
highly dried in a baker's oven, eight parts, and one part of very dry 
pulverized charcoal, and with this mixture the interstices between the fruits 
are filled to about two-thirds of their height, leaving one-third exposed. 
M. Paquet discusses at some length the various substances generally used 
to envelope fruits, such as moss, cotton, paper, &c, and finally gives the 



Vi PREFACE. 

preference to the mixture mentioned, objecting totally to wrapping each in 
paper. 




Form of the Boxes. 

Previous, however, to depositing in the fruit house, many precautions 
must be taken ; the fruit should be gathered with the greatest care, the 
slightest bruise, or pinch, would be fatal ; the fairest and finest specimens 
must be selected. It should be gathered about ten days before it is ripe, 
but must have attained its full size ; after gathering, should be left in an 
open airy situation for about fifteen days, to sweat, and on no account be 
wiped — previous to its final deposition in the boxes in the fruit house. 
With all this care some will decay ; the boxes should, therefore, be 
occasionally looked over, and those showing the slightest symptoms of 
perishing be immediately removed. 

Mr. Paquet's small publication contains many valuable hints on the 
preservation of fruit on the trees ; on the acceleration and retardation of 
the period of ripening, and on the artificial means of increasing the beauty 
and coloring of Fruit. 

Our winter and summer climate, however, differs so much from that of 
Paris, that judgment must guide our operations here ; to folloAV implicitly 
all his ideas might lead us into error. 

The writer has received a communication from an American friend in 
France, who is enthusiastically devoted to rural pursuits, which states, that 
their Apples in France are abundant and good, and many kinds keep well, 
although he has eaten none which he thinks equal to those here ; but he 
adds, " their Pears are truly magnificent, and their St. Germains are even 
now (April, 1847,) in eating; Fruit, however, in general, is enormously 
dear, I paid yesterday four cents for an ordinary pear, and a franc, or 
twenty cents, Avas the price demanded for one of superior size and quality. 
The markets for Flowers are held here several days in a week, and 
certainly are extremely beautiful. I attended the other day a magnificent 



PREFACE. 



Vll 



exhibition of Flowers and Greenhouse Plants, made for the benefit of the 
poor. The display was certainly most brilliant."^ 

It is presumed that these Transactions may be rendered of equal value 
to the Agriculturist as to the Horticulturist ; for the Fruits on which they 
will chiefly treat and offer information are those, the cultivation of which 
employs a portion, sometimes a large portion, of many well conducted 
farms. 

Of the number of barrels of Apples consumed at home, no approxima- 
tive calculation can be ventured on, but every one is aware that it must be 
enormous, and even the export of this fruit is rising into importance as a 
trade; from Boston alone, in 1845, 10,229 barrels, and in 1S46, 11,092 
barrels, were exported. That the production has not yet overwhelmed the 
consumption is evident from the fact, that prices rather tend upwards than 
downwards, while the supply of the finest sorts by no means equals the 
demand. How necessary then that the public should have some authentic 
source to look to for information respecting the cultivation of these fruits, 
and how imperative on the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, under the 
weight of the liberal patronage bestowed on it, to become that source. 

The commercial value of the Pear, although it has not yet attained the 
same importance as that of the Apple, has lately received a vast impulse ; 
nor can there be the least doubt, when our Pear orchards shall have been 
sufficiently enlarged, and the method of keeping this fruit have improved, 



*There were five exhibitors of Fruit at the above exhibition, and although Mr. Paquet's name does 
not appear amongst them, the writer has understood that the fruit was in the most perfect preservation ; 
it may therefore be curious, if not useful, to cultivators, to give the names of most of the Apples and 
Pears which were exhibited. They are extracted from a Catalogue of the exhibition. 



White Calville. 

Porame d'Api. 

Blanc de Vin. 

Calville rouge d'Anjou. 

Calville de Sarreguemines. 

Winter Scarlet. 

Jeanson. 

Martrange. 

Golden Pippin. 



Bon Chretien d'hiver. 
Doyenne d'hiver. 
St. Germain. 
Angelique de Bordeaux. 
Bergamotte Beauvallet. 
Bergamotte Bernard. 
Bergamotte Easter. 
Bergamotte de Parthenay. 
Bergamotte de Pentecote. 
Bergamotte, double flowered. 
Bergamotte fortunee. 



APPLES. 

Berlin Pippin. 
Reinette de Caux. 
Reinette du Canada. 
Reinette tranche. 
Reine des Reinettes. 
Bardin. 

Mignonne blanche. 
Vougoyau. 
Reinette d'Hollande. 

PEARS. 

Bellissime d'hiver. 

Bezi Sauspareille. 

Beurre de Voirchain. 

Beurre Sentin. 

Blancperle. 

Belle Angevine. 

Capucine Van Mons. 

Catillac. 

Cent Couronnes. 

Chartreuse. 

Colmar Van Mons. 



Triomphante. 

Reinette Daniel. 

Belle fllle Normande. 

Red Calville. 

Api etoile. 

Reinette grise. 

Reinette rousse des Carmes. 

Eve. 

Saint Sauveur. 



Doyenne d'Alencon. 
Doyenne jaune d'hiver. 
Tavernier de Boulogne. 
Beurre magnifique D'lel. 
Franc real d'hiver. 
Beurre ranee. 
Leon Leclerc de Laval. 
Josephine de Malines. 
Fondante de Noel. 
Bergamotte de Soulers. 
Beurre Audusson 



Vlll PREFACE. 

that a great demand for export to the West Indies and South America will 
arise, and a valuable addition to our trade be developed. 

A small portion of these Transactions may well be devoted to the 
delineation and description of the most striking and interesting beauties of 
Flora, particularly such as are either indigenous, or new varieties, raised 
from seed in this country. Independent of the pleasure enjoyed by the 
sight of them, it will not be difficult to show that, like Fruit and Vegetables, 
Flowers may be considered as articles of considerable trade, and are 
therefore of importance in a commercial point of view. Civilization bids 
us mingle the ornamental with the useful, and the pleasures of the eye, 
although not so indispensable, are of a much more refined nature than 
those of the mouth. There is no reason why the overflowings of wealth 
may not pour forth a grateful and refreshing stream into the lap of 
Floricultural industry, as Avell as into that of the ornamental branches of 
the industry of the loom, or into that of the decorative arts of sculpture 
and painting ; none why the drawing rooms of the wealthy should not be 
rendered attractive by elegant flowers, as well as by rich flowing drapery, 
or by the choicest productions of the chisel or the pencil. And as the 
taste for Horticulture advances, few will be found without the desire to see 
their habitations environed with the ornaments of the forest ; with some 
of the vast multitude of elegant shrubs and climbers, or with perennial 
and annual flowers, a gay assemblage of which so highly enhances and 
increases the pleasures of the Spring, Summer and Autumn — 

"What were life without a Rose!" 

This feeling will be well understood by those already interested in the 
cultivation of Flowers ; others may rest assured, that examples are exceed- 
ingly rare, of men once engaged in Floriculture ever giving it up but with 
their latest breath. 

A pretty strong proof, however, of the commercial value of these Flori- 
cultural pursuits is afforded in the instance of the two exquisite seedling 
Camellias, the figures of which adorn the pages of this first volume of the 
Society's Transactions. They were obtained in the Conservatories of the 
President, M. P. Wilder, Esq., by the persevering application of the 
scientific principles of hybridisation laid down by Herbert. He sold his 
stock of these two seedlings to J. L. L. F. Warren, for one thousand 
dollars, and Mr. Warren has since nearly tripled this original price for 



PREFACE. IX 

them in Europe. Nor need this remain a solitary instance, for there is, 
perhaps, no climate in the world so admirably adapted as this to produce 
perfection in seed, consequently nothing is wanting but industry, care 
and ingenuity in the selection and cultivation of flowers, to enable us to 
produce the finest displays of what are termed florists' flowers. To the 
President, for these Camellias, and to Mr. Feast, of Baltimore, for Roses, 
have been decreed the highest rewards of the Society. These will, no 
doubt, prove strong incentives to continue this pursuit. 

Although the description and delineation of our Native Fruits and 
Flowers will be the most prominent features of these Transactions, it is 
hoped that the Society will soon be enabled to offer such premiums for 
Papers, to be inserted in then volumes, as will ensure communications on 
the best methods of cultivating various Vegetables. There are many 
delicious esculents which are by no means common, and some yet to be 
introduced. The fine curled endive, delicately blanched, the Scotch kail, 
do not yet decorate our Autumnal markets. Experiments of the writer 
have shown, that they can be cultivated here in perfection, with the greatest 
ease ; the same may be said of the beautiful large Cos lettuce. Sea kail 
is almost unknown, yet it is raised, for sale, in large quantities in other 
countries, where it is considered delicious and very wholesome, and when 
the taste is once acquired, it will, no doubt, become a favorite vegetable. 
The delicious " Couve tronchuda,"^ a very large cabbage, the whole of 
which, but particularly the stalk of the leaf, is of a much finer flavor than 
asparagus, is nearly unknown. These enumerations might be extended 
to some length, but it is not necessary in a preface. 

In this age of the application of Science to Agricultural pursuits, a large 
sphere is offered for similar experiments in Horticulture ; there never has, 
or perhaps never will be a period in which more opportunities may occur 
for establishing improved methods of cultivating all objects of horticultural 
interest. The Society hopes that in the pages of their Transactions will 
be found the earliest accounts of experiments with various new manures, 
on Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables. 

*The writer received this Spring, from Mr. Henry Colman, at Paris, a few seeds of what was repre- 
sented to him as a very extraordinary Cabbage, but which he had not seen. After distribution amongst 
a few friends, the remainder were sown ; from the appearance of the young plants, they are undoubtedly 
this Couve tronchuda. For an interesting account of this plant, see the Horticulturist, for January, 

1847. 

2 



X PREFACE. 

Notwithstanding the greatest care, various diseases abound to vex the 
industrious tiller of the soil. The gum, the yellows, the curculio and the 
black wart desolate our peaches and plums ; the borer and other insects 
devastate our apples and pears ; the aphis and slugs, our cabbages 
and flowers ; various destructive fungi rapidly spread their minute and 
disfiguring existence over many of our fruits, trees and tubers : all these 
are objects of much solicitude to the horticulturist, and if the friends of 
Horticulture will lend their aid, by communicating then observations and 
experiments, these Transactions will become, as they ought to be, an 
honor, both to the State and to the Society from which they emanate. 

An attempt will be made to give the descriptions of the fruits as clear 
and yet as concise as possible, and on a uniform plan. The whole of 
these have been, and will be, carefully drawn from actual observations, 
under the immediate supervision of the Fruit Committee of the Society. 
The few blanks in the Characters which occur, arise from sufficient notice 
of them not having been taken ; these will be supplied in future numbers 
of the Transactions, it being thought better to do this than to give any 
Characters which might prove erroneous. J. E. T. 




C AMELIA "WILDER 1L 



' ■ >'.- W"W Sharp. 



CAMELLIA JAPONICA. 

Plate 1.— CAMELLIA JAPONICA, var. Wilderi. 

2. —CAMELLIA JAPONICA, var. Mrs. Abby Wilder. 

These Camellias were first exhibited on the 14th February, 1846, in the 
rooms of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

The following extract is from the proceedings : < — 

" At a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, on Saturday, 
February 14, 1846, a vote was passed, directing the Committee on Flowers 
to take special notice of the fine seedling Camellias exhibited at that time 
by Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society. 

" Agreeably to this vote, the Flower Committee submit the following 
report : — 

" The number of seedling Camellias exhibited was five. Two of them 
were of surpassing beauty and perfection. As the committee have had the 
pleasure of often examining the extensive collection of the President, as 
well as those of other gentlemen in the vicinity, embracing the most 
perfect varieties known among amateurs, they feel themselves sufficiently 
acquainted with this beautiful class of flowers, to judge of the comparative 
merits of the seedlings under consideration, and they have no hesitation in 
pronouncing them as varieties of the very first order, and such as will 
be difficult to surpass in this or any other country. The production of two 
such remarkable varieties, by one person, we believe unprecedented, and 
will reflect much honor on our President abroad, as well as upon the 
Society of which he is the head. 

"We therefore recommend, that a gratuity be awarded to the President, 
for these two superb American Camellias, and that it consist of a piece of 
plate of the value of fifty dollars, and of such form and design as he may 
elect. Joseph Breck, Chairman.'''' 

The piece of plate was awarded accordingly. 

DESCRIPTION. 

1. Camellia Japonica, var. Wilderi. 
A shrub of free, upright, but rather slender growth. Leaves one and a 
half inches broad, three long, oval, acuminate, slightly dentate, very dark 
green, midrib prominent, petioles short ; bud quite round, with pale green 
scales ; flower medium size, three and a half to four inches diameter, 
perfectly circular ; color delicate clear rose ; petals seventyfrve to eighty in 
number, regularly imbricated, of the most perfect rose shape, and arranged 
with exquisite regularity from the circumference to the centre ; style of 



12 CAMELLIA JAPONIC A. 

flowering free, each flower expanding perfectly, remaining on the stem and 
retaining its beauty a long time. 

The superiority of this variety compared with old established favorites, 
such as the Double White, Lady Hume, Imbricata, and others, consists in 
the perfect and beautiful circular form of the petals, which have scarcely a 
serrature or indentation on their edges. 

Raised from the Single Red Camellia, fertilized by C. japonica, var. 
punctata. The original mother plant, and all the stock, with the exception 
of a single graft, were destroyed by accidental fire in the year 1841. 



2. Camellia Japonica, var. Mrs. Abby Wilder. 

This name was given by the Committee on Flowers, in honor of the 
lady of the President of the Society. 

A vigorous shrub of upright growth ; strong branches, large handsome 
foliage. Leaves two and a half inches broad, four long, roundish oval, 
rather reflexed, coarsely dentated, acuminate, midrib and nerves pale and 
prominent, yellowish green, resembling those of var. Lady Hume; bud 
round, with pale green scales ; flower large, about four inches in diameter, 
very circular, of great depth or thickness, full and perfect ; petals very 
numerous, of beautiful form, the exterior rows broad, circular, gradually 
diminishing in size to the centre, arranged with great regularity ; color 
azure white, with an occasional suffusion of light rose, somewhat after the 
style of the Duchess d? Orleanse. 

Raised from the seed of C. var. Middlemist, fertilized by C. pomponia. 

The production of these two beautiful flowers having resulted from the 
application of certain specific principles of impregnating the seed, the 
action of which subsequent experiments have shown to be nearly uniform ; 
a knowledge of these principles must be considered of much interest to the 
Horticulturist, particularly as it is not probable that this action should be 
confined solely to the Camellia. 

The President, M. P. Wilder, Esq., has promised a communication, 
containing the details of this method, for publication in the succeeding 
number of the Society's Transactions. 






camelijaj:^ abby wilder. 







VAN M UN'S LEON I.E CLERC PEAR 



THE VAN MONS LEON LECLERC PEAR. 

SYNONYMS. 

Louise Bonne de Boulogne, j 

„ _ > of some French Catalogues. 

Poire Celestine, ) 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Oblong ovate, pyriform • sometimes resembles Monsieur le Cure. 

Calyx. — Well denned, open, much expanded, in a shallow depression ; segments 
large, broad, flat. 

Stem. — Moderately strong, about an inch and a half long, inserted obliquely in a 
very slight depression. 

Color. — Yellowish green, slightly marked with russet in small irregular streaks, 
particularly near the stem. 

Skin. — Slightly rough. 

Flesh. — Yellowish white, very buttery and melting. 

Flavor. — Rich saccharine, slightly subacid, highly flavored, perfumed. 

Maturity and Use. — October and November — Dessert. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 4^ to 4% inches. 
Do. across 2% to 3^ do. 

Wood. — Two and three years old light silvery grey, of a greenish olive color, with 
light spots ) rather inclines to canker. 

Leaf. — Narrow oblong ovate, acuminate, often attenuated towards the point ; margin 
widely and obtusely seriate • serratures very shallow, and in the earlier 
leaves often so faintly developed as to escape observation. 

Bud and Blossom. — Bud pointed • clusters of blossoms lax, seven to nine blossoms 
in each ; petals with a long claw, medium size, slightly cupped. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

It is not now necessary to enter into the statements of the errors well 
known to have occurred during the early dissemination of this magnificent 
fruit, particularly as the pear with which it has been confounded is too 
worthless for general cultivation. Its authentic history is as follows : 

It was raised from seed by Mr. Leon Leclerc, of Laval, celebrated for 
his practical knowledge of Horticulture. Wishing to do honor to the first 
pomologist of the age, Van Mons, he associated the two names to desig- 



14 THE VAN MONS LEON LECLERC PEAR. 

nate this pear, the triumph of their mutual pursuit, and called it the Van 
Mods Leon Leclerc pear. 

Mr. Rene Laugher, a nurseryman of eminence hi Jersey, one of the 
islands in the British Channel, obtained the whole stock from Mr. Leon 
Leclerc, and distributed it, at first at very high prices ; it has now, how- 
ever, become pretty well disseminated. It fruited probably about the year 
1S35 or '36 and was introduced here direct from Mr. Langlier's establish- 
ment about 1840. There has scarcely been time, therefore, for sufficient 
experience in its cultivation to state with precision the soil and methods 
best suited to it. The fine specimens exhibited in the Hall of the Society 
have unquestionably been produced by good cultivation, nor is it probable 
that a poor soil would be adapted to so fine a produce. 

This fruit has the singular property, just after setting, of having a 
slightly wrinkled appearance, as if it would shrivel and drop off; but this 
gradually leaves it and the pear swells and comes to maturity. 

Scions come into bearing in about three years ; they succeed admirably 
on quince as well as on pear stocks, and form an upright symmetrical 
head. 



CHARACTER, HISTORY AND CULTURE 

OF THE PEAR. 

[By Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, First President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.] 
(i I have given you every tree, in which is fruit, yielding seed." 

As the food of man, in his primeval condition, chiefly consisted of the 
alimentary products of the natural forest, the culture of trees which 
yielded the most nutritive and agreeable kinds of fruit, must have been his 
first step in the march of civilization ; while the method of ameliorating 
their character and multiplying the varieties, may be considered as taking 
precedence of all human efforts in the industrial arts. 

The cereal grains next claimed attention, in consequence of such an 
increase of population as rendered it necessary, that the greatest quantity 
of food should be obtained from the smallest area of land, to meet the 
demand, which had thus been augmented far beyond the means to be 
derived from the original sources of supply. 

Those two branches of rural industry, may, therefore, be traced back to 
the most distant periods of history ; but, with the advancement of civiliza- 
tion, the culture of fruit trees assumed a reversed position, and became an 
occupation, which administered to the comforts and pleasures, rather than 
the necessities of man ; and ultimately attained such an important elevation, 
by the developements of letters and science, the extension of commerce, 
the achievements of mechanical ingenuity, the creations of painting, archi- 
tecture and sculpture, the accumulations of wealth, and the luxurious 
refinements of nations, as to be ranked among the most exalted of the arts. 

To trace the progress of cultivation, and give even a succinct account 
of the numerous species of fruit which can be reared within the temperate 
zones, belongs to a more expanded field than can be explored on the 
present occasion. It is, therefore, deemed sufficient, if we confine ourselves 
to the history, character and culture, of one species, in the first number of a 
work which is intended to afford such exact information on the pomology 
of the United States, as will require many years for its completion, and 
we have consequently selected the Pear, as being the most valuable in the 
whole catalogue, which can be acclimated in this portion of our country. 

Among all the fruits which are produced upon the earth, the highest 
position has been given to the Mangostan,^ which is indigenous to Java 



*Garcinia, mangostan. 



16 CHARACTER, HISTORY AND 



and other islands in the Indian Archipelago ; the second has been assigned 
to the Pine Apple, the third to the Orange, the fourth to the Peach, the 
fifth to the Grape, and the sixth to the Pear ; but as all, except the three 
last, are natives of, and can only be reared within, or near the tropics, and 
as the Grape can be produced in perfection, in the open air, in but a 
very small portion, if in any, of the United States, the Pear takes the second 
station. And if the long period of nearly ten months during which the 
numerous most admired varieties are successively matured for our tables, 
is taken into consideration, with the diversity of graceful forms, beauty of 
color, agreeable aroma and delicious flavor of many of them, which rival, 
if they do not surpass, the Peach in these qualities, it may, with propriety, 
be placed at the head of the list of fruits, 'in all the States where the 
Orange cannot be cultivated. 

The genus Pyrus, of the class Icosandria and order Pentagynia, includes 
the Pear, Apple, Quince, White Beam, Service, Mountain Ash and a few 
other species of trees. 

The derivation of the word pyrus is involved in obscurity. Some 
authors have traced it to the Greek synonym apios ; but others believe it to 
have originated from the Celtic word penen, whence the Anglo Saxons 
have taken pere, the Flemings peere, the Swedes peeron, the French poire, 
and the English pear. 

Generic characters. Calyx — Perianth superior, of one leaf, concave, 
with five spreading segments, permanent. Corolla — Petals five, roundish, 
concave, inserted by their claws into the calyx. Stamens — Filaments 
twenty, awl-shaped, shorter than the corolla ; anthers simple, roundish. 
Pistil — Germen inferior, roundish; styles from two to five, thread-shaped, 
the length of the stamens; stigmas bluntish. Pericarp — Pear, elongated 
at the base. Seeds — Two, rarely more, in each cell, oblong, obtuse, 
pointed at the base, convex on one side, flat on the other. 

Pyrus communis. Common Pear — tree tall; wood of a reddish color, 
heavy, firm, of a very fine and close grain, and takes such a permanent 
black stain, that it resembles ebony, and is often substituted for it, and is 
used, instead of box, by engravers on wood; leaves simple, alternate, 
oblong-ovate, serrated, of a glossy green, but downy when young ; flowers 
white, large, concave, with pale red anthers, arranged in corymbs, at the 
ends of the branches, while the infloresence of the apple is umbellate. In 
the wild state the branches are thorny. Fruit generally obovate, more or 
less elongated at the base, or pyramidal, but sometimes round, or apple- 
shaped. 

Pears are divided into two classes, from their peculiar distinguishing 
qualities of consistence, viz. : the Melting- and Breaking- ; each class is 
then subdivided into Summer, Autumn and Winter ; and those into Table 
and Cooking. 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 17 

The earliest writers mention the pear as a fruit growing abundantly in 
Syria, Egypt, and Greece ; and a number of esteemed varieties Avere 
introduced into Rome, about the period that Sylla conquered the last 
named country ; but several kinds had been there cultivated, before that 
time. It is indigenous in Europe and Asia, but not in any portion of 
America. 

Although so many trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are mentioned 
in the Old and New Testaments, neither the pear, or apple is named ; for 
it has been conclusively established by Dr. Harris, in his Natural History 
of the Bible, that the tree and fruit described by Joel, and in the books of 
the Canticles, Proverbs and Leviticus, was the citron, and not the apple, as 
the Hebrew word has been rendered in the English translations. 

The art of grafting by approach, being the only mode, which was 
derived from nature, of multiplying and extending the various species, was 
known at a very remote period ; and the process of cleft grafting and 
budding, and of cultivating trees, for the purpose of ameliorating their 
fruits, was carried to great perfection, as early as the age of Hesiod, ■ — or 
more than nine hundred years before the christian era ; and, from paintings 
and sculptures in the temples and tombs of Egypt, it is evident that the 
cereal grains; many of the culinary vegetables and most delicious fruits, 
which have accompanied man, in a very remarkable manner, through 
all the vicissitudes of his condition, since the dawn of civilization, were 
known and raised in that country, several thousand years before the birth 
of Abraham. 

Theophrastus, Xenophon, Dioscorides, Cato, Varro, Virgil, Juvenal and 
Pliny mention the pear, as one of the varieties of fruit, which were highly 
appreciated, at the periods in which they flourished. At the epoch when 
Homer wrote the Odyssey, gardening must have been well understood, for 
he represents the aged Laertes planting fruit trees, when his son Ulysses 
returned from the Trojan war. But even as late as the reign of Vespasian, 
the number of varieties of fruit must have been very limited, for, besides 
the following described pears, Pliny only names, in his Natural History, 
twentynine apples, eleven plums, eight cherries, four peaches, and the 
grapes, which were commonly cultivated ; and as he possessed several 
magnificent villas, where it is probable all the fruits, as well as ornamental 
trees were collected, which could be reared in that climate, and as he was 
the Linnaeus of antiquity, it is to be presumed that none were omitted, — 
or, at least, only those of the most ordinary kinds. 

Among the Roman Pears the Crustumia were held in high estimation, 
from then being the earliest. The Falerna succeeded and were very juicy. 
Other varieties, which were dark colored, were called Syrian. Several 
were designated by the names of the countries from whence they were 
introduced. Those which bore Roman names, received them from the 

3 



18 CHARACTER, HISTORY AND 

persons who produced them from the seed. Such were the Decimiana; 
from whence came the name Pscudo decimiana ; the Dolabc/liana had long 
stems; the Pomponiana received the cognomen of Mammosa, from their 
peculiar form ; the Liceriana, derived their name, in the opinion of some 
commentators, from Licinius, while others think, that the original name 
Avas Luceriana, from Lucerius, an illustrious tribune ; the Seviana were the 
progenitors of Turranina ; but the stems of the latter are longer ; the 
Favoniana were red and a little larger than the Crustumia ; the Laleriana 
are called Lateritiana by Columella ; the Aniciana, were a late Autumn 
variety, and had an agreeable acid flavor ; the Tiberiana were thus named, 
on account of then being much admired by the Emperor Tiberius ; they 
differed from the Liceriana, by being larger and higher colored. 

The pears which bore the names of the places of their origin were the 
Armenian, — which was the latest variety ; the Picentina ; Numantina ; 
Alexandrina ; Graeca ; Numidiana ; Terentina. The Signina was also 
called Testacea, in consequence of resembling, in color, the red vases which 
were made of baked earth; it was also from their peculiar colors, that 
the Onichina and the Purpurea were thus named, they being of a purplish 
tint. The Myrapia, Laurea, and Nardina were thus named from the 
aroma which they emitted. The Hordearia, or Barley-Pears, were so 
called because they were ripe at the time of harvesting that grain. The 
Ampullacea resembled, in form, bottles of that name, which had long necks. 
The Laneo-bruta were indebted for their name to the down with which 
they were covered, and were of the family of the squash-shaped pears, 
Avhich were very acid. 

The origin of the names of the exotic pears was not known; or of those 
which were called Venereis ; which latter were highly colored. The Royal 
pears were of a flat form, with short stems. The Patriciis and Voconiis, 
were oblong and of a green color. 

Cato mentions the Volema pear, which was of a large size, and included 
it in his list of the winter pears. The late varieties, and particularly the 
Greek, called Ampidlacea and Laurea, were not gathered until winter, as 
they were ripened by the frost. 

Pliny censures Virgil for neglecting to sing of gardens ; and among the 
trees and plants named in his Georgicks, there are, of the fruit bearing 
species, only the citron, fifteen kinds of the grape, three of the olive, and 
three pears— -the 

" Crustumiis, Syriisque pyris, gravibusque Volemis." 

Juvenal, who lived during the reigns of Nero and Domitian, mentions 
two varieties of the pear, among the three kinds of fruit, in the description 
of the frugal entertainment promised to Persicus, 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 19 

" Grapes long kept, yet pulpy still and fair, 
And the rich Signian, and the Syrian pear, 
And apples, that in flavor and in smell, 
The boasted Picene equal, or excel." 

Pliny states, that although the culture of fruits had been carried to a 
high point of perfection, by the numerous experiments which had been 
made during the lapse of centuries, still it was a long time, since the 
industry of man had enabled him to produce a single new variety. 

A taste for the culture of fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers, 
was developed with the revival of letters, science and the arts, after the 
long period of barbarism, which succeeded the fall of the Roman empire ; 
but, as some of the first must have been introduced into Gaul and Britain, 
during the many centuries that those countries were held in subjection by 
the imperial legions, the pear was among the earliest which claimed the 
attention of sovereigns, nobles, and ecclesiastical fraternities. It was 
gradually extended over the whole of both kingdoms, and ultimately 
became common, on the humblest cottager's rood of land, as well as on 
the estates of the affluent. 

The pear is described, by the earliest writers of modern times, on rural 
economy ; and Gerarde, a distinguished surgeon, who established the first 
botanical garden in England, and published the " Herald, or General b~t 
History of Plants," in 1597, says, that " every county hath his peculiar 
fruits ; myself knowe some one curious, who hath in one peece of ground, 
at the point of three score sundrie sorts of Pears, and those exceeding 
good ; not doubting but, if his mind had been to seek after multitudes, he 
might have gotten together the like number of those of worsse kindes. 
Master Richard Pointer, has them all growing, in his ground at Twicknam, 
near London, who is a most cunning and curious grafter and planter, of 
all manner of rare fruits; and also in the ground of a excellent grafter 
and painful planter, Master Henry Banbury, of Touthill street, neere vnto 
Westminster ; and like wise in the ground of a diligent and most affec- 
tionate louer of plants, Master Warner, neere Hornsey Down ; and in 
divers other grounds about London." 

Miller, who was a celebrated botanist and gardener, and author of the 
" Gardener's and Florist's Dictionary," which was published in 1724, 
enumerates eighty varieties of pears which were cultivated in his day. 

To La Nostre may be given the precedence in ornamental cultivation ; 
but he was also eminent in all the branches of horticulture. He was 
brought into notice by Fauquet, for whom he laid out the magnificent 
gardens of Vaux-la-Vicompte, when he invented and introduced those 
grottoes, labyrinths, terraces, covered walks, canals, cascades and jets 
d'eau, which were deemed wonders during that period of the formal art 
of rural embellishment, which preceded the style of landscape gardening, 



20 C H A R A C T E R , II I S T R Y A N D 

that was announced by Milton, in his Paradise Lost, introduced by Shen- 
stone and Pope, and is now making the tour of the globe. 

The skill and taste which La Nostre had thus evinced, attracted the 
attention of his sovereign, and he was employed in decorating the royal 
residences of Versailles, Trianon, and Fontainbleau. He afterwards went 
to England, at the invitation of the king, and laid out St. James's and 
Greenwich Parks. 

Quintinie Avas the first distinguished author in France, on the culture 
of fruit trees. He was educated for the bar, and acquired distinction in 
the profession ; but a passion for agriculture induced him to read all 
ancient and modern authors on that subject. He states, that he was 
indebted to the Memoirs of the Curate of En'onville, for his first views of 
the principles of ornamental gardening. Having visited Italy, then the 
seat of science, letters and the arts, he made great additions to his knoAv- 
ledge of cultivation, and on his return devoted himself to experiments in 
grafting, pruning, training, and the culture of fruit trees and other plants, 
and soon became so celebrated, for his horticultural acquirements and 
practical skill in the management of all kinds of gardens, that he was 
invited to England, by Charles II., and offered a liberal pension to engage 
in that monarch's service ; but he preferred the appointment of Superin- 
tendent of all the royal palaces in France, which was conferred upon him 
by Louis XIV. 

In 1680 he published " Illustrations for Cultivating Fruit and Vegetable 
Gardens," which contained the first most complete system, that had ever 
been formed for the management of fruit trees. The work obtained such 
celebrity, that it Avas translated in 1693, by Evelyn, — the author of the 
most valuable Avork, on the culture of forest trees, that has ever been 
Avritten. 

Before the treatise of La Quintinie appeared, the system of gardening 
Avas conducted upon such absurd and superstitious practices, that the signs 
of the zodiac and the phases of the moon Avere consulted, before they 
dared to plant, prune or till the earth, for any purpose ; but he reduced 
horticulture to a science, by collecting and arranging all the elements, 
establishing its precepts and laws, furnishing instruction on the numerous 
practical operations, and making knoAvn its extent and importance, and is 
justly entitled to occupy an exalted station among the great men, who gave 
lustre to the age of Louis XIV. 

There Avas no subsequent author, Avho was so eminently distinguished, 
as La Quintinie, until the Duhamel Demonceau appeared ; and so far 
did his various extensive works on all the departments of husbandry 
surpass those of all preceding Avriters, that he obtained the right to be 
called the father of Agriculture; and it is doubtful Avhether the position 
Avhich his numerous volumes occupy in the estimation of the most enlight- 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR, 21 

ened of the present age, will ever be superseded. He was born in Paris, 
at the commencement of the eighteenth century, and so rapid and brilliant 
was his career in the acquisition of knowledge, that he was received as a 
member of the Academy of Science, at the early age of twentyeight 
years. The great number of his works on science, the arts, agriculture, 
manufactures and navigation, is an honorable monument of the immeasur- 
able service which he rendered to his own and every other nation, in all 
the great departments of human industry. 

His invaluable treatise on Fruit Trees was a vast addition to the fund of 
intelligence, upon that interesting branch of tillage, and was then, and still 
is, considered indispensable for the acquisition of exact information in 
relation to the identity and character of most of the fruits which can be 
successfully cultivated in the temperate zones. The plates presented 
accurate delineations of many of the fruits, blossoms and foliage ; but they 
were not colored, which is much to be regretted, for so very necessary 
is it that they should be, to enable us to identify specimens, that it is found 
utterly impracticable to do this, in many cases, without the aid of portraits, 
which are as perfect in color as contour. 

Many new kinds of fruit having been introduced within the period 
which had elapsed after the publication of Duhamel's work, an enlarged 
edition became necessary to meet the demands of the age ; and Thouin, a 
member of the Institute, and Professor of Culture, in the Museum of 
Natural History, employed A. Poiteau and P. Turpin, to perform the 
difficult and laborious duty of revision. Those gentlemen were eminently 
qualified for the responsible stations which had been assigned to them, not 
only by theix extensive attainments in letters, and all the arts and sciences 
connected with Horticulture, but from twenty years experience in the 
practical operations of every branch of rural industry. Bosc D'Antin, the 
Inspector of the Imperial Nurseries, having taken a deep interest in this 
laudable enterprize, generously co-operated with them, to render the result 
of their zealous efforts as eminently successful as it was important. Great 
advantages were derived from his exact information in botany, vegetable 
physiology and arboriculture ; and the opportunity of examining the trees 
and fruits reared in the immense nurseries under his superintendence. 

Noisette, a no less distinguished horticulturist, having established a 
"Methodical School and Garden of Fruit Trees," in Paris, to facilitate the 
acquisition of a knowledge of the species and varieties, by comparing one 
with another, rendered Poiteau and Thouin essential service. 

Although the terms used by the most distinguished writers on the 
culture of fruit trees, are generally similar to those employed by botanists, 
still there is this peculiar difference, — the former calling species, such as 
the latter designate as varieties ; but the learned editors of the revised 
edition of Duhamel, scrupulously adhered to the established botanical 



99 



CHARACTER, HISTORY AND 



system, so far as it was practicable, in their descriptions of trees and their 
fruits ; and they made it an invariable rule, neither to describe nor have 
drawn, or colored, any fruit, without having samples of it before them. 
The illustrations are remarkable for their accuracy and beauty, as the 
ablest artists of Paris were employed, to make the original paintings, 
engrave the plates, and color the impressions. The work was published 
in large folio numbers, the first of which was issued in 1807, and may be 
favorably compared, in magnificence and intrinsic merit, with any which 
has been printed, in either of the branches of Natural History. 

The zealous efforts of the London Horticultural Society, and the publi- 
cation of its Transactions, have powerfully contributed to excite attention to 
the science and art of fruit culture, and to multiply and extend the species, 
by the experiments which have been made in their Garden at Chiswick, 
and by the collection and diffusion of intelligence, in all the departments 
of Gardening, not only throughout Great Britain and her dependencies, 
but throughout Europe and this country. 

The Annals of the Royal Horticultural Society, of France, contain most 
valuable information on the culture of Pears, and descriptions of most of 
the new celebrated varieties, which have been produced in Europe, as well 
as in this country ; but the Horticultural School of Fromont, long under the 
direction of the late illustrious Soulange Bodin, has done more than any 
other institution in France, to educate practical cultivators of fruit trees, 
while the Annals, which Avere periodically published by Bodin, may be 
classed among the first which have appeared in any country, for the variety 
and extent of the information they afford in relation to seminaries and 
nurseries, transplanting, pruning, training, grafting, budding or otherwise 
propagating fruit, forest and ornamental trees and shrubs. 

In the works of the authors^ which have been named, and in the " Pomone 
Francaise," of Count Lelieur, the " Manuel Complet du Jardinier," by 
Noisette, the " Cours de Culture," by Thouin, the " Traite des Arbres 
Fruitiers," by Turpin and Poiteau, the " Cours de la Taille des Arbres 
Fruitiers," by Dalbert, and Van Mons's account of the Belgian Pears, is 
to be found nearly all that is of value upon fruit trees. 

From the time of La Quintinie, until towards the close of the last 
century, there had been but few additions made to the catalogue of Pears ; 
and they were accidental productions, rather than the creations of any 
systematic research or artificial culture. This fact is so well established, 
that Professor Poiteau stated, in a report to the Horticultural Society of 
Paris, that in casting a retrospective glance over the history of ameliorated 
fruits, whose origin was known, it was remarkable that all of them had 
originated in the woods and hedges, and always in the interior of some 
province, where superior fruits were rare or unknown, and inferior trees 
numerous. 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 23 

Duhamel, during his long scientific career, carefully planted the seeds of 
all the best fruits, which were eaten at his table, but never obtained a fruit 
worthy of being cultivated. Alfray annually made large nurseries, Avith 
the same care taken by Duhamel, and still did not obtain any new ameli- 
orated variety. His father and grandfather had done the same, and with 
no better success. No new fruits were produced in the vast nurseries of 
Vitry. 

At last, and almost simultaneously, experiments were commenced by 
Thomas A. Knight, Esq., President of the London Horticultural Society, 
and Professor Van Mons, of Belgium, to obtain new varieties ; and 
although they pursued different theories to obtain the desired result, they 
were both successful, and have thus rendered their names forever mem- 
orable, by their zealous, able and long continued efforts to enlarge the 
bounds of natural science, and by the benefits they have conferred upon 
the human race. 

Doctor Knight based his experiments upon botanical science, and the 
well known laws of vegetable physiology. The species of a genus of 
plants were considered as capable of being varied, in form and character, 
by hybridous propagation, as those of the animal kingdom ; and many of 
the admirable varieties of Pears, Cherries, Strawberries, and culinary 
vegetables, which he thus produced, are well known in this country. This 
theory has been applied to numerous families of ornamental trees, shrubs 
and herbaceous plants, with such complete success, that the domain of 
Flora has been extended, in a most remarkable manner, within the last 
thirty years. To that process are we indebted for some of the most 
superb varieties of the Camellia, Rhododendron, Azalea, Rose, and other 
exotic and indigenous plants, which now embellish our conservatories and 
gardens, and add such splendor to the weekly exhibitions of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society. 

The process of obtaining a hybrid variety is not only very interesting 
and important, but a wonderful illustration of the perfect and beautiful 
operation of one of those great and eternal laws of Omnipotence by which 
the whole universe is regulated in all its physical, vegetable and animal 
divisions ; from the blooming of a violet and the transitions of an insect, to 
the iridescent effulgence of the arc in the heavens, and the revolution of 
the planets in then* orbits. 

When it is desirable to cross any two strongly contrasted species of 
flowers or fruits, for the purpose of obtaining a new variety, the anthers 
are carefully extracted, with small scissors, from one of them, and the 
pollen being collected from the anthers of the other, is applied to the 
stigmas of the pistils in that, from which the anthers were removed. The 
seeds of the tree or plant, whose blossoms have been thus artificially 
impregnated, are planted; and the flowers or fruit, which the trees or 



24 CHARACTER, HISTORY AND 



shrubs produced therefrom may bear, will exhibit, in combination, the 
predominant qualities of each of the species, which was employed in the 
process of hybridization. 

While a student of medicine, the attention of Van Mons was drawn to 
the experiments which had been made to create new fruits ; and it having 
been satisfactorily ascertained, that the seeds of the best kinds of grafted 
fruit had never produced trees which yielded extraordinary specimens, he 
determined to try a process, which was founded on the developements of 
nature, in the occasional appearance of a wild tree bearing an excellent 
variety. This result indicated that it was probably effected by repro- 
duction, in some accidental manner, through several generations. He 
therefore planted seeds of small wild pears, and selected, from generation 
to generation, the young plants whose appearance indicated the most 
favorable characteristics of the ameliorated varieties. A change in the 
fruit was perceivable in the third generation, and, in the seventh, all the 
trees bore good pears, and a great number were pre-eminent for their 
excellent qualities. The experiment was continued for fifty years ; and he 
was amply rewarded for his indomitable perseverance, by the addition of 
several hundred ameliorated varieties, which was thus made to the cata- 
logue of pears ; many of them considered equal to any that were before 
known. 

During the period in which this remarkable and long continued process 
was carried on, the principle was adopted in an attempt to ameliorate 
apples and peaches ; and it was ascertained that the former became good 
in the fifth, and the latter in the third generation. 

It is earnestly recommended that the experiment should be repeated in 
this country, by commencing at the point to which nature had arrived, and 
using the seeds of our best native pears, apples, plums, cherries and 
peaches, which are taken from the original trees ; for it is probable varieties 
of greater excellence may be obtained, even in the first generation. 

Since the establishment of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in 
1829, great interest has been excited, throughout the country, in relation to 
the culture of fruits ; and very extensive researches have been made by 
that valuable institution, and by several of its intelligent and enterprising 
members, who are proprietors of large and well managed nurseries, to 
procure specimens of our native varieties, for the purpose of ascertaining 
their number and character, as well as to make collections of the trees, 
which bore them, from all parts of the United States ; and so successful 
have they been, that more than eighty kinds of Pears have already been 
discovered ; some of which are so distinguished, that they have been 
naturalized in Europe, and sustain a distinguished position in the list of 
those which have long held the highest rank. 

From some inexplicable cause, the St. Germain, St. Michael, Brown 



CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 



25 



Beurre, Messire Jean, and several others of the best old varieties of pears, 
have either disappeared, or are so deteriorated, as to be no longer worthy 
of cultivation. This lamentable decadence, however, is not confined to 
this country, but is experienced in France, the probable birth-place of most 
of the pears, bearing the highest reputation, formerly known in the gardens 
and orchards of both England and the United States. 

It was alledged in the remarks which were made in the Annales D'Hor- 
ticulture, upon the Report of the Commissary General of the Fruit and 
Vegetable Market of Paris, for 1830, that the Sucre Verte, Sucre Matfque, 
Bezi de la Motte, and Bezi d'Airy, had disappeared, and that very few of 
the Chaumontel or Rousselet, and none of the Royal d'Hiver, Yirgouleuse, 
or Colmars, were to be seen ; and it is stated in the Nouveau Dictionnaire 
D'Histoire Naturelle, which was published by an association of the most 
celebrated naturalists of France, in 1803, that, at the close of the seven- 
teenth century, there were not more than fifty or sixty pears of superior 
merit, and about as many more of a medium quality, among the whole 
number known at that time. 

Fortunately the meritorious and extraordinary efforts of Knight and 
Van Mons, in Europe, and the simple process of Nature in the United 
States, have more than replaced those extinct and expiring varieties, which 
have been cherished for centuries, and thus established an important era in 
the culture of fruits. 

The science and art of Horticulture had made but little progress in this 
country, after the first half century from the landing of our ancestors ; and 
but few additions Avere made to the fruits and vegetables which they 
introduced, until the commencement of the present century ; and even in 
the oldest nations of Europe had there been much attention bestowed on 
those subjects, until the establishment of the London and Paris Horticul- 
tural Societies, and the Botanical and Experimental Gardens of Plants, at 
Chiswick, Trianon, and Fromont. Before that period, the nursery of the 
fathers of the Chartreaux, near the Luxembourg, founded by Louis XIV., 
long supplied a great portion of Europe with fruit trees. 

Less than forty years since there was not a nursery in New England 
that was entitled to the name; and now there are those which contain 
nearly as great a variety of fruit trees as the most extensive in England 
and France. 

For the first impulse which was given to produce these decisive and 
cheering illustrations of the vigorous and rapid advancement in the culture 
of fruit trees, we are mainly indebted to the Hon. John Lowell, Hon. 
Christopher Gore, Samuel G. Perkins and Eben Preble, Esquires, and Col. 
Thomas H. Perkins. They imported vast numbers of trees which were 
managed with great practical skill, under their own immediate direction, 

4 



uU 



26 HISTORY AND CULTURE OF THE PEAR. 

from whence were derived many of the best kinds of fruit which are 
acclimated in this section of the Union. 

Mr. Lowell, Avho may with great propriety be called the Columella of 
the Northern States, and Mr. S. G. Perkins, were not only distinguished 
for the intelligent and successful manner in which their spacious gardens 
were tilled, but by their numerous communications on the various branches 
of Agriculture and Horticulture, which, for more than thirty years, formed 
the most interesting and instructive portions of the Massachusetts Reposi- 
tory, and the various periodical publications which were devoted to those 
great departments of rural industry. May we ever be so fortunate as to 
have like emulous competitors in that honorable career, in which they were 
so distinguished, as to have merited and received the grateful acknowledg- 
ments of their contemporary fellow-citizens, as they should, and will, of all 
succeeding generations. 

Hawthorn Cottage, ) 

Roxbury, June 9th, 1847. ] 




"WILLIAMS "APPLE 



ivn frnm Nature fr Chrome lAihi ir »' Sharp 



THE WILLIAMS APPLE 



Williams' Favorite, . . > 



SYNONYMS. 

Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 

Downing's Fruits of America. 

Williams' Red, . Magazine of Horticulture. 

Williams' Favorite Red, ) 

Williams' Early Red, . > of some Collections. 

Williams' Early, .... ) 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Oblong, slightly pyramidal, calyx not in the centre, or one sided. 

Calyx. — Closed, in a narrow angular depression. 

Stem. — Slender, in a small depression. 

Color. — Fine lake, sunny side very dark. 

Skin. — Very smooth, susceptible of a high polish.] 

Flesh. — Yellowish white, tender, moderately juicy ; sometimes suffused with the 
color of the skin. 

Maturity and Use. — August and September — Dessert ; not fit for cooking. 

Flavor. — Mild and agreeable. 

Size. — Average diameter from calyx to stem 3^ to "&% inches. 
Do. do. across 2% to 2% do. 

Wood. — Smooth, reddish brown, becoming greenish grey with age. 

Leaf. — Ovate, oblong, acuminate, simply serrate. 

Bud and Blossom. — Buds oblong, 5 to 7 in a cluster ; tint purplish rose ; lax ; flowers, 
when fully open, white tinged with rosy pink. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

Mr. A. D. Williams has favored the Society with the following account 
of this fruit. The parent tree of this apple originated in that part of 
Roxbury, Massachusetts, called Canterbury. The land on which it grew 
was purchased by Mr. Isaac Williams in the year 1765. Whether the 
tree was then in a bearing state is not known. It remained on the spot 
for more than thirty years after the purchase, and was only cut down 
after the wind had partially prostrated it. 



28 THE WILLIAMS APPLE. 

The tree being situated more than half a mile from his residence, Mr. 
Williams found it expedient to engraft some young trees nearer his house 
with scions from the old stock, and it is from these that this fruit has been 
since propagated and disseminated. The second person who grafted from 
these scions was Deacon Noah Davis, who found the preference given to 
these apples over the Sops of Wine. The length of time which elapsed 
before this apple was introduced into the market may be accounted for by 
the fact, that cider apples were formerly of more value than they are now, 
as then the farmer who made the best and the largest quantity of cider 
was held to be the greatest and the best farmer. As men's minds changed 
and good fruit was considered better than good cider, the spread of the 
apple increased, and it found its way to the lower part of the town. 

The tree in the Nursery is of slow growth, but grafted on good sized 
trees is of rapid growth, equal to the Baldwin. It requires a rich soil 
and good cultivation, with these it is a vigorous grower, and extremely 
prolific. It is a fine summer apple, and should be allowed to ripen on 
the tree. As it easily spoils when bruised, every care should be taken to 
prevent injury, by spreading hay or grass under the tree when the apples 
are gathered. 



SOME REMARKS ON THE SUPERIORITY 
OF NATIVE VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 

[By A. J. Downing, Esq., Author of " Fruits and Fruit Trees of America," " Landscape Gardening," &c] 

It is a principle, easily deduced from observation of Nature, that the 
native productions of a given country, latitude, or zone of temperature, 
will flourish better there, than those from other foreign and dissimilar 
positions. 

The principle applies to fruits and vegetables as well as to the animal 
kingdom, and though Europe has borrowed the Cherry, the Peach, and 
other fruits from other and warmer countries, there is no doubt that the 
original varieties introduced from Asia attained greater perfection there 
than in the less genial climes to which they were carried. 

It is by originating new and improved varieties, that the superiority of 
the European fruit gardens has been established ; varieties produced upon 
the soil of the country, and to which soil they are best adapted. 

This lesson is submitted to our reasoning faculties continually, yet there 
is a practical want of faith in it, which induces me to offer a few remarks 
upon it at the present moment 

The study of Pomology, the collection of fine fruits, and the planting 
of orchards, have already become matters of very general interest and 
importance in the United States, and especially in the Northern portion of 
the Union. It is easy to see, from the great adaptation of our soil and 
climate to the orchard culture of all the fruits of the temperate zone, that 
the offerings of the American Pomona are destined, very speedily, to 
become almost as plentiful, and as important, as those of Ceres are at the 
present moment. Europe, and especially England, has already acknow- 
ledged the superior quality of American apples. With the aid of a sky 
always brighter than that of the North of Europe, soil more varied, and 
much of it more fertile, we can scarcely fail, also, to surpass the quality of 
all other standard fruits grown in England, France, or Germany. 

Our many Horticultural Societies, and our numerous zealous horticul- 
turists, have been most busily employed, for the last ten years especially, in 
introducing from abroad every known fruit, the reputation of which seemed 
to mark it as worthy of cultivation. It is not surprising, therefore, that at 
the present moment some American gardens contain the largest collections 
of fruit in the world, with the sole exception of that contained in the 
Garden of the Horticultural Society of London, the greatest experimental 
grounds of the age. 



30 SOME REMARKS ON THE SUPERIORITY 

There are great and obvious benefits resulting from this accumulation of 
the choicest fruits of the Eastern hemisphere. In them we not only possess 
the concentrated result of the horticultural skill of Europe, for ages ; we 
can not only multiply them indefinitely, and stock our gardens and orchards 
with the same luscious varieties, but we have also the opportunity of 
making still further improvement by continuing the reproduction of varieties 
in our own soil and climate, from the point which the highest point of 
improvement has reached abroad. 

In the enthusiasm with which fruit collectors have imported every fine 
variety from the gardens of Great Britain and the continent, I fear the 
importance — the great importance — of this last consideration has been 
somewhat overlooked. In the belief that we ought to be content with the 
most perfect results, and most celebrated products, of European fruit 
gardens, we might easily be led to forget that our own soil and climate 
may possibly produce still superior sorts. 

Fortunately nature continually reminds us of her rights. She gives us, 
occasionally, and almost without a direct petition, a new variety, in the 
midst of a meadow, or by the side of the garden fence, which demands a 
trial, and after being thoroughly tested, takes its place among the very 
choicest European varieties — or perhaps at the head of them. 

This indeed should not surprise us. I have already remarked that the 
soil and climate of this country are naturally more favorable than those of 
England, France, or Germany, to most of the fruits in question. A single 
fact will establish this. The Peach, the Apricot, the Pear, and the Plum, 
can but rarely be depended on for fine fruit, in open standard culture, in 
those countries. They are, accordingly, in all good gardens, grown on 
walls, or espaliers. Our bright, unclouded summer skies ripen all these 
fruits most perfectly, and in great abundance, in the open air. 

There appears to be something in our new soil, and distinct climate, 
which imparts new vital powers, and gives a new type to the offspring of 
an old stock in the vegetable races of the other continent. 

Duhamel, the ancient French writer, complains that he sowed the seed 
of the finest table pears, for fifty years, without ever producing a single 
good variety. The noted Dr. Van Mons, of Belgium, acknowledged the 
same experience, and even founded his singular theory and practice of 
originating new varieties upon it. He believed, that having reached a 
certain point — that, for example, of a fruit of the first class— further 
improvement is impossible, and that the future course is not onward, but 
backward. In other words, that the seeds of the best variety of pear, for 
instance, should not be sown, because its offspring would bear worthless 
and inferior fruit ; but, on the other hand, he chose the seeds of the worst, 
or wildest sort, and, by dint of sowing the seeds for many successive 
generations, he at last reached the point where the wildness of forest 
nature being gradually subdued, she is forced to yield him the finest fruits. 



OF NATIVE VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 31 

I have not space at this moment to point out all the objections to Dr. 
Van Mons's ingenious theory. I will only remark, that in the first place, I 
cannot but believe his mode of obtaining new varieties unnecessarily 
tedious, and in the second, that, by its acknowledged process of " enfee- 
bling," trees of varieties produced by it, are not likely to be of sound and 
healthy constitutions. 

What I wish especially to call attention to at the present moment, is the 
fact, that in this country, the mode generally pursued, and pursued too 
with a good deal of success, in originating new varieties of fruit, is one 
which is totally opposed to both Duhamel's and Van Mons's views on this 
subject. 

When an American fruit grower wishes to produce a new variety, of 
excellence, he always chooses the seeds of the finest sorts within his reach. 
I do not mean to say that he is always successful ; there are circumstances 
well known to physiologists, which preclude the probability of this. But a 
great number of the best American fruits have been originated by planting 
the seeds of the finest old European varieties. To give examples, we will 
name a fruit for which the valley of the Hudson is celebrated, the Plum. 
The late Judge Buel raised that finest of all plums, the Jefferson, from a 
stone of the White Magnum Bonum. Mr. Lawrence, of Hudson, New 
York, produced those two remarkable varieties, Lawrence's Favorite, and 
Columbia, from seeds of the Green Gage. Bleecker's Gage, the hardiest, 
and one of the best of yellow plums, originated from a German prune pit, 
brought from Holland. We could quote numerous illustrations of the 
same kind relating to Apples, Pears and other fruits. 

Whatever, therefore, may be the laws of reproduction in Europe, this 
fact can scarcely be disputed, touching the subject in America ; viz. that 
new varieties, of the very highest excellence, are, and may be, originated 
here by planting the seeds of the finest celebrated old sorts. 

The next and most important point, seems to me this : in the main, 
the finest varieties originated in this country are preferable for general 
cultivation here to varieties of foreign origin. 

The fact, which lies at the bottom of this, as all practical men know, 
is the more perfect adaptation which an indigenous variety has for the soil 
and climate of its native country. It is needless to enlarge upon this. 
Every person who has had experience in proving fruits, knows that, in 
proportion as a variety has been brought, originally, from a locality in 
Europe, most nearly similar to that where we would grow it, are its vigor 
and productiveness retained in our own soil. Nay more, that certain 
few kinds of fruit, in this country, enjoy a local reputation, in the neigh- 
borhood of their origin, which is seldom equalled when they are cultivated 
in widely different parts of the Union. 

Besides this, I conceive that many of the Belgian pears, originated 



32 REMARKS ON NATIVE VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 

by the Van Mons method, have, necessarily, feeble constitutions, which 
will always prevent them from equalling in longevity and productiveness 
our native sorts originated in a more natural manner. Who ever heard, 
indeed, of one of the original Van Mons trees bearing regularly, in 
successive years, a crop of fifteen bushels of pears, like the original Oswego 
Beiure, in the State of New York ? The original Petre pear tree, in 
Bar tram's Garden, raised from the seed of the White Doyenne, has been 
equally productive. The original Columbia and Seckel pear trees, Ameri- 
can sorts of high character, have been equally productive. 

Not to multiply examples, I need only state what we believe most 
practical pomologists are ready to assent to — that the best native varieties 
of fruit have a vigor, longevity, and productiveness, which, other things 
being equal, render them more valuable for the fruit garden and orchard, 
than foreign varieties. 

It is not without great satisfaction, therefore, that I observe the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society has offered large prizes to the originators of 
native fruits of first rate excellence. I cannot doubt that pomological 
devotees of twentyfive years hence, will find that a large proportion of the 
foreign pears, and other fruits, now conspicuous in American catalogues, 
has given place to native varieties now, or hereafter originated — possessing 
equal or greater excellence, and much more perfect adaptation to our soil 
and climate. 

In conclusion, I will only recommend to all novices in the production of 
new varieties, the now well known method of improving by cross-breeding, 
as in every respect more scientific, more expeditious, more certain in its 
results, and more productive of vigorous constitution in the offspring, than 
Dr. Van Mons's, or any other known mode.^ 

Perhaps the greatest desideratum, at the present moment, to the Ameri- 
can fruit cultivator, is the production of new varieties of the Chape ; — 
varieties equal in flavor, and other qualities, to the finest European grapes, 
and as hardy as our native sorts. Nature has prodigally bestowed the 
wild vine (which she has denied to Europe) on this continent. What 
pomologist does not foresee, that between some of these native species 
and the best varieties of Europe, hybrids may be produced, which will 
give this oldest and most celebrated of fruit trees, in a hundred new and 
hardy forms with delicious fruit, to every orchard and garden in the 
Union ? 

Highland Garden, ) 

Newburgh, N. Y. May 26, 1847. j 

*There cannot be a doubt that, by the intermixture of the pollen of different varieties, assembled 
together in our gardens and orchards, chance, or accidental hybrids, are constantly produced, since many 
of our finest native sorts, reared from the seeds of kinds in the close proximity of other distinct varieties, 
show the strongest traits of both parents. Nature here, as ever, offers us the key to the most natural and 
healthful way of improving races. 




BALDWIN APPLE. 



,mn <ram Huin<t * ihromo li{h* by W. Sharp 



THE BALDWIN APPLE. 

SYNONYMS. 

Wood Pecker, ^ 

Red Baldwin, > Lond. Hort. Soc. Cat. 

Butters, . . . j 

Pecker, Downing's Fruits of America. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Round, rather tapering towards the calyx. 

Calyx. — Closed, depression rather deep and narrow, and surrounded by slight protu- 
berances. 

Stem. — About three-fourths of an inch long, slender, in a moderately deep depres- 
sion. 

Color. — Dull crimson ; dark on the sunny-side, with shades of yellow and orange ; 
streaks of russet near the stem, with a few russet spots. 

Skin. — Smooth. 

Flesh. — Yellowish white, crisp, tender. 

Flavor. — High, of a rich saccharine and subacid mixture. 

Maturity and Use. — From November to January ; keeps well until June. — Fine for 
Dessert and Cooking. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 2% to 2% inches. 
Do. across 3 to 3^ do. 

Wood. — Of second year, brown with a slight reddish tinge ; spotted ; surface rather 
silvery grey. 

Leaf. — Thick, broadly flat ovate, abruptly acuminate, biserrate, serratures numerous, 
stipules moderate size linear. 

Bud and Blossom. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

In the Magazine of Horticulture, vol. I., page 361, is a communication 
dated September 8, 1835, from Mr. Rufus Kittredge, stating that the 
original Baldwin apple tree grew on the farm of his grandfather, situated 
three miles south east of Lowell, from which tree Colonel Baldwin, of 
Woburn, obtained his scions. 

B. V. French, Esq., Vice President of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
5 



34 THE BALDWIN APPLE. 

Society, who appears to have taken much pains to investigate the history of 
this apple, has given the following account in a communication to the 
Horticulturist of January, 1847. 

" This justly esteemed fruit originated in Wilmington, near Boston, in 
the county of Middlesex, Massachusetts. The original tree grew on the 
farm of a Mr. Butters, and was known for a time as the Butters apple. 
The tree was frequented and pecked by the woodpeckers, and Mr. Butters 
called it the Woodpecker Apple, which was soon abbreviated to the Pecker 
Apple. My trees, which I set out twentyeight years since, are registered 
" Peckers." This fruit must have been known about a century. Orchards 
were propagated from Mr. Butters's tree pretty freely about seventyfive 
years since, by Dr. Jabez Brown, of Wilmington, and Col. Baldwin, of 
Woburn, and their sons, to whom the public are principally indebted for 
bringing the fruit so generally into notice. From Col. Baldwin it took the 
name of Baldwin, by which the fruit is now every where known." 

The growth is vigorous, but it is a kind which after a plentiful crop 
requires more than the usual rest under ordinary cultivation ; hence it is 
called an excellent bearer only every alternate year ; it is very possible 
that an improved cultivation might obviate this difficulty, although it might 
perhaps shorten the age of the tree, Avhich, however, would be but a 
trifling objection to the process. It appears to suit almost any soil, but a 
rich well cultivated loam certainly produces superior specimens. 

Mr. A. D. Williams, of Roxbury, has a Baldwin apple tree, one half of 
which bears plentifully one year, the other half the succeeding year, each 
half taking its alternate year of rest. From the inquiries made it seems 
probable that the scions with which it was grafted were from two different 
trees, one being in its year of rest, the other in its year of production. 

From its rich flavor, added to the inestimable quality of keeping sound 
until June, this apple is of the greatest commercial value : it is therefore 
more universally cultivated as an orchard fruit, in Massachusetts, than any 
other kind. The exports consist principally of the Baldwin, and there are 
few spots on a farm more valuable than a well cultivated orchard of this 
apple. 






THE HYBRIDIZATION OF THE CAMELLIA 
JAPONICA AND ITS VARIETIES, 

WITH THE TREATMENT OF THE OFFSPRING. 

[By Marshall P. Wilder, Esq., President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.] 

The following remarks have been prepared in compliance with a request 
of the Committee of Publication, to furnish an article on the cross-breeding 
of plants ; but more particularly to give some account of the method of 
practice, and the results of my experiments in the production of hybrid 
varieties from this beautiful family of Flora. 

In treating of this branch of vegetable physiology, I do not expect to 
promulgate any new theory in explanation of the process by which nature 
carries on this part of her secret handiwork, or of the laws and principles 
upon which an All- wise Providence has based the mysterious system of 
the re-production of the races of beings and plants. 

My earliest experiments were pursued more as a matter of recreation 
than as a scientific study, and although in many instances quite satisfactory, 
still it is to be regretted, that from causes which could not be controlled, 
by one busily engaged in other avocations, some of them need farther 
confirmation. I shall not, therefore, pretend to lay down any fixed rules, 
from which there can be no departure under any circumstances or treat- 
ment, but simply refer to such as are well established in my own mind, 
and which, it is believed, will by similar process produce like results. For 
the success attendant on these efforts, I am largely indebted to the researches 
of the late Pv,ev. Mr. Herbert, of Spofforth, England, published many 
years since, in a article on " Crosses and Hybrid Intermixtures." (See his 
Amaryllidacese. ) 

The Reverend gentleman to whom I have alluded, in his investigations 
into the structure and functions of vegetables, discovered in his experiments 
with the Camellia, that, " single flowers, or those raised from single ones," 
were the best as breeders, or seed bearers ; and that, for the production of 
fine double flowers, it was important that the pollen, used for impregnation, 
should be borne on a petaloid anther, thus becoming petaloid pollen ; and 
further, that this was still better, if from a double flower. Another precau- 
tion was to prevent the plant making any neAV wood, by cutting out the 
young shoots as fast as they appeared, thereby forcing as much nutriment 
as possible to the neAvly formed germ. 

Practising on these suggestions, and believing that every change effected 
by cross-fertilization is a remove from the normal form, and therefore more 

6 



36 THE HYBRIDIZATION OF THE 

easily susceptible of continued mutations, I have preferred hybrids for 
bearing the seed ; and in the selection of the flower to be impregnated, I 
have had special reference to the strength and prominence of the style, the 
form of the corolla, and the perfection of its petals ; and, I think, for raising 
varieties with double flowers, we are more dependent, than has generally 
been apprehended, on the kind of pollen used ; viz. that which is borne on a 
petal; this petaloid change being, as I imagine, the incipient stage towards 
a full petalous form. I entertain the opinion, that varieties possessing the 
pre-requisites thus described, when fecundated with this pollen, will, for the 
most part, produce double seedlings, with petals more or less multiplied, 
and not unfreqiiently, flowers that are full and symmetrical, and devoid 
even of the seminal organs. It may be here observed, that the larger and 
better developed this petaloid anther, the better the chance for a fine 
offspring, for, as Mr. Herbert remarks, "the corolla, in truth, belongs to the 
male portion of the flower, the anthers being borne upon it, or in some 
manner connected with it by a membrane." 

That single or semi-double sorts with perfect corollas, are more certain 
to produce flowers of a regular symmetrical formation, I have pretty 
conclusive evidence, as will presently be shown; still, I have had good 
success with those raised from the pseony, or loose waratah formation, but 
the proportion of such has been less ; and these have been more frequently 
stuffed w T ith small petals, or then' rudiments. This opinion, in relation to 
the latter class, I am happy to learn, is confirmed by the experience of Noel 
J. Becar, Esq., of Brooklyn, N. Y., who, practising on these principles, 
has produced several fine varieties from C. Middlemist, C. Colvillii, C. 
imbricata alba, &c, one of which, of first rate properties, from C Colvillii, 
by C. Donkselarii, was on exhibition at the rooms of the Society the past 
winter. 

In corroboration of what has been stated, I adduce the following illus- 
trations taken from my own memoranda ; remarking, however, that the 
offspring from the same capsule has varied much, although in my judgment 
conforming to the principles advanced. 

HYBRIDS FROM SEEDS OF SINGLE VARIETIES. 

From the Single Red, (the type of the genus,) by pollen of C. punctata. 

Camellia Richardsonii, a very full lilac crimson flower, with sixty to seventy petals, of 
the regular form. 

Camellia Maria Louisa, perfectly double and regular, sometimes hexangular, like C. 
Lady Hume • color deep rose, or crimson, with a peculiar metallic lustre. 

Camellia Wilderii, thus described in the Transactions of the Society : " flower delicate 
clear rose • petals seventyfive to eighty in number, beautifully imbricated and arranged 
with exquisite regularity." 

From a large single hybrid crimson, by C. Lindbriata, a very full perfect flower, of the 
color of the female parent, much like C. concinna in form, but more double. 



CAMELLIA JAPONICA AND ITS VARIETIES. 37 

From C. Aitonia, by C. alba grandiflova ; double white, large, nearly regular, but with 
occasionally a few anthers. 

From Single White, by Anemoneflora alba ; numerous white and parti-colored varieties, 
more or less double, the best of which is a full creamy white, striped with rose, like 
Duchesse d'Orleans, but not so regular. 

EXAMPLES FROM THE SEED OF DOUBLE VARIETIES. 

From Camellia imbricata alba, by pollen of the C. variegata ; a double white, nearly of 
the regidar form, with a few stamens. 

From C. King, by C. variegata ; a full symmetrical flower, very dark crimson, striped 
with white — peculiar. 

From C. elegans, by C. punctata ; an enormous large, globular, white flower, of the 
irregular shape. 

From C. Lindbriata, by C. punctata; very clear beautiful pink ; corolla and petals large, 
like the female plant, but not entirely full. 

From C. Lindbriata, by C. alba grand iflora ; a very thick, full, globular flower, white, 
striped with rose. 

From C. Colvillii, by C. Donkaslarii ; a double symmetrical flower; color, delicate rose 
or pink, striped with white. 

From the same, by the same, a very perfect double flower ; color, clear rose. 

From C. punctata, (male parent not known,) Eurydice Augusta, a perfect, regular flower ; 
color, light rose, broadly striped with white, and resembles Pressley's Queen Victoria, but 
surpasses it in beauty. 

From C. Middlemist, by C. pomponia ; the fine white variety figured in Transactions of 
the Society ; very circular, of great depth, full and perfect ; occasionally suffused or touched 
with light rose. 

Having explained my views in relation to the influence of petaloid pollen, 
I add, as proof, a few examples illustrative of the inefficiency of simple 
pollen to generate double flowers. This rule is not stated as invariable, but 
where the exception arises, may it not be from a state of transformation not 
visible to the eye ? 

From Camellia paeoniflora, by C. Donkaelarii, several single seedlings, one of which, of 
the exact color of the former, and singularly veined with deep red. 

From C. Colvillii, by C. Donkselarii ; seedlings, with single flowers of various tints, but 
with no disposition to double. 

From C. tricolor, fertilized with itself; seedlings, with white and red single flowers, but 
retaining in habit and foliage the character of the parent. 

From C. Donkselarii, by itself, a fac-simile, in habit and foliage, but in flower resembling 
almost precisely the old single red. 

Camellia myrtifolia, and C. imbricata rubra, having departed from their 
general double form, produced a few anthers, the pollen of which was 
seized on as most desirable for impregnating with, but the progeny of these 
crosses, although in one instance so similar in foliage to C. myrtifolia as 
hardly to be distinguished from it, brought only ordinary single flowers ; 
these varieties seldom deviate from their usual perfect form, and it was 
therefore noticed, that none of the anthers were petaloid. The seedlings, 



38 THEHYBIDIZATIONOFTHE 

also, of the Abbe Berlese and Mr. Herbert, raised from crosses by C. 
myrtifolia, were no better than mine, and Mr. H. declares his were " single 
ilowered, and the worst he ever raised." To whatever cause this sporting 
from the accustomed habit may be attributed, and Avithout regard to the 
agency which the female plant may have in generating double flowers, it 
is obvious that the pollen in these instances was deficient in the proper 
ingredient, and further, that the circumstances which induced the blossoms 
to revert to the primordial stamp, also imparted to the plants a strange 
retardation of inflorescence ; those of C myrtifolia not coming to the 
flowering state, with me, until the seventh or eighth year, and with the 
Abbe not until the twelfth. 

I have alluded in another place to the structure of the flower designed 
for seed, and although I place great reliance on the kind of pollen to be 
used, and doubt not that the juices of the style have, also, a corresponding 
duty to perform ; still I attach great importance to its perfection and 
substance ; for where the style has been feeble, distorted, or so imperfectly 
developed as to exist in numerous divisions, my success has been quite 
limited. 

Without, therefore, attempting to explain the mysteries of fertilization, or 
to define the line beyond which there can be no intermixtures or crosses of 
the vegetable kingdom, a point on which botanists are much in doubt at 
the present day, and with no pretensions " to breed to a pattern," or " to 
wash out the last tip of black from the pigeon's wing," I submit the fore- 
going observations, with due deference, to those better skilled in botanical 
science than myself. 

There have been so many treatises published on the cultivation of the 
Camellia, some of which are quite elaborate, it would be superfluous to 
enter on it here. It may not, however, in concluding this article, be 
considered irrelevant, to add the following brief directions : — 

The plants selected for fructification should be removed from the Camellia 
house to one of higher temperature ; this will essentially assist fertilization, 
and in many cases render those fruitful which would not otherwise become 
so. 

As soon as the flower to be impregnated is sufficiently expanded, the 
anthers should be cut out, taking care that this be done before they open, 
and that the pistil be not injured by the operation. 

The stigma is generally ready for impregnation in twentyfour to thirtysix 
hours, when the pollen, if mature, may be applied, selecting, if practicable, 
the middle of a bright sunny day. 

In five to ten days after the ovules are fecundated, the young capsule 
commences swelling, after which all new shoots should be removed and the 
plants, once a week, liberally supplied with guano Avater ; this I have found 
a great aid in ripening full and perfect seed. 



CAMELLIA JAPONICA AND ITS VARIETIES. 39 

The seeds, when gathered, should be immediately labelled with their 
genealogy, and stored in pots of sand, kept moderately moist and warm ; 
in about two months they will commence sending forth their young radices ; 
as soon as these are perceived, each seed should be planted in a small 
shallow pot, thus preventing the long tap, which in the common mode of 
planting descends to the bottom, without any horizontal or fibrous roots. 
The pots should then be placed in a mild hot-bed, or stove, giving a little 
air as the foliage becomes developed, and when they have attained the 
height of three or four inches, be removed to a shelf near the light, and 
carefully watered. When the first growth has ripened its wood, the plants 
should be shifted to pots a size larger, and if treated with liquid guano, 
Avill attain the first season eight to ten inches in height ; these are now 
sufficiently large for inarching, and thus, in two or three years from the 
seed, you may generally prove whether the new hybrid be worthy of 
extension. 

The compost for young plants consists of two parts well rotted turfy 
loam, one part leaf soil, and one part peat or heath mould, with sand to 
make it free. 



THE DIX PEAR. 

SYNONYMS. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Oblong, pyriform. 

Calyx. — Symmetrical, not large, well defined, upright, open, set on one side, of a 
very shallow and very unequal depression. 

Stem. — Moderate length, stout at top and bottom, a little curved and firmly set in an 
uneven very slight depression ; the uneven depressions forming shoulders 
at summit and base of this pear are characteristic ; that at the summit 
does not appear in the plate. 

Color. — Yellowish green ; sunny side occasionally dull red, mottled with small patches 
of russet, particularly near the stem. 

Skin. — Roughish, thick and coarse. 

Flesh. — Rather coarse grain, but very juicy, melting, and tender. 

Flavor. — Fine, rich sprightly subacid, saccharine, slightly perfumed, with the true 
pear flavor. 

Maturity and Use. — October and November. — Dessert. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem Z% to 4 inches. 
Do. across 2% to 1% do. 

Leaf. — Oval, acuminate, finely, simply and bluntly serrate, margins widely undulate ; 
petiole often very long ; pale green ; glossy. 

Wood. — Second year pale grey, a little mottled • new wood with a yellowish tinge ; 
sterile spurs often terminating in thorns. 

Core. — Small. 

Seeds. — Below medium size, ovate, pointed, plump and full. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

This Pear is so great a favorite that we may be pardoned for entering 
into the following details. The original tree is now alive in the old garden 
of Madam Dix, on Washington street, opposite Harvard street, and may 
be distinctly seen from Dix place. It is about twenty feet high, and 
measures one foot in diameter at five feet from the base ; it has not borne 
much for the last two or three years, in consequence of having been injured 



42 THEDIXPEAR. 

by the alterations made in the neighboring land. The widow of the late 
Rev. Dr. Harris, who was the daughter of Madam Dix, states that it first 
sprung up in the shrubbery of the garden, and Avas supposed to have been 
a cross between the Bon Chretien, the St. Germain, or the White Doyenne, 
these varieties having been cultivated in this as well as in the adjoining 
gardens. The tree did not come into bearing until after the death of her 
father, Dr. Dix, which occurred in 1809. 

It is hardy, but does not make a rapid growth, and although it does not 
come into bearing until it has attained a considerable size, yet the crop is 
generally certain and abundant. The young branches are slender, and the 
sterile spurs often armed with thorns, being an approach to the pear in its 
pristine state. With good cultivation it forms a thick head, but has a 
tendency to throw up long straight shoots from the centre of the tree, 
which require thinning out. It begins to bear when about fifteen years old, 
and although in some soils the fruit is liable to crack, it is deservedly a 
favorite pear among cultivators. When grafted on old trees it will often 
come sooner into bearing. 



ANALYSIS OF THE FORMS OF PEARS. 

[By J. E. Teschemacher, Corresponding Secretary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.] 

At the request, and with the assistance of the President and several of 
the Fruit Committee of the Society, I have devised the following Analysis 
of the various forms of Pears, which it is hoped will render the descriptions 
more intelligible, and be useful to those who are inclined to make themselves 
acquainted with these forms. 

It will be seen that the analysis is performed by means of the simple 
fundamental figure of a circle, on the variations from which, combined 
with the different pyramidal forms of the pear, the descriptions are founded ; 
and in order to exhibit these distinctly, the original circle, when not a 
portion of the outline of the form, is delineated by dots. 

The examples of pears, of the different forms, will also be of much 
assistance, yet it must be remembered that it is impossible to give more, 
than a general idea of the outlines, as there are both large and small pears 
of almost every form, and degree of form, and their outlines, although in 
some symmetrical and well denned, are, in others, so irregular, one-sided, 
and varying, as to puzzle even those most conversant with the subject 
always to describe them correctly. 

The same forms and explanations may also be used in descriptions of the 
Apple, with the substitution of pyramidal for pyriform ; and with the 
observation that the small end of the pyramid in the apple is at the calyx, 
while in the pear it is at the stem. Thus we have forms of globular, ovate 
obovate, ovate pyramidal, &c. apples, to all of which the method of analysis 
of the forms of the pear will equally well apply. 

8 



SIMPLE FORMS. 





1. GLOBULAR. 

Example. — Cross, D,,* p. 432. 
H., vol. 7, p. 134. 



2. OVATE. 
Example.— Croft Castle, D., p. 372. 




3. OBOVATE. 

Examples. — Gansel's Bergamot, D., p. 366. 
Fulton, D., 391. 
Passans de Portugal, H., vol. 8, p. 61. 




4. OBLONG. 

Example. — None. 



*D. means " Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of America." H., " Magazine of Horticulture," by C. M. Hovey. 



COMPOUND FORMS. 





GLOBULAR, OBTUSE PYRIFORM. 

Examples. — Buffam, D., p. 356. 
Cushing, D., 373. 
Do. H., vol. 9, 371. 



GLOBULAR, ACUTE PYRIFORM. 

Examples. — Beurre Capiaumont, D., p. 357. 

Do. do. H.,vol.ll,174. 

St. Ghislain, D., 411. 

Do H., vol. 11, 178. 




7. OVATE PYRIFORM. 

Example. — Washington, D., 422. 

Do. H., vol. 10, 296 



OBOVATE, ACUTE PYRIFORM. 

Examples. — Beurre Bosc, D., 359. 

Do. H., vol. 9, 139. 

Queen of the Low ) D., 406. - 
Countries, J H., vol. 8, 59. 



COMPOUND FORMS. 




9. OBOVATJE, OBTUSE PYRIFORM. 

Examples — Winter Nelis, D., p. 451. 

Do. H., vol. 10, 128. 
Flemish Beauty, D., 387. 

Do. H , vol. 8, 62. 

Beurre Diel, D.. 360. 

Do. H., v. 12, 172. 



10. OBLONG PYRIFORM. 

Examples. — Van Mons Leon Leclerc, D., p. 419. 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, D., 397. 

Do. do. H., vol. 10, 134. 





11. OBLONG, OVATE PYRIFORM. 
Examples. — Vicar of Winkfield, D., 448. 

Do. do. H., vol. 10, 137. 

Bishop's Thumb, D., 369. 



12. OBLONG, OBOVATE PYRIFORM. 
Examples.— Bartlett, D., 334. 

Duchesse dAngouleme, H., v. 11, 180. 




ANDREWS - PEAR, 



THE ANDREWS PEAR. 
SYNONYMS. 

Amory, ) 

Gibson, > of some Catalogues. 

Harris, ) 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Oblong, rather obovate, acute pyriform, one sided, not symmetrical. 

Calyx. — Open, rather large, set in a moderately deep uneven depression. 

Stem. — Short, much curved, sometimes a little twisted, set obliquely on one side, with 
scarcely any depression, sometimes with a fleshy protuberance at its base. 

Color. — Dull yellowish green, tinged with dull brownish red on the sunny side, with 
a few scattered russet spots. 

Skin. — Fair, smooth, susceptible of high polish, rather thick, but tender. 

Flesh. — Fine grained, greenish white, very juicy and melting. 

Flavor. — Rich subacid, vinous, with a fine cinnamon perfume. 

Maturity and Use. — September. — Dessert. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 3 to 3% inches. 
Do. across 2% to 2% do. 

Leaf. — Oblong oval, acuminate, simply and finely serrate, margins widely undulate. 

Wood. — Pale slate color ; young wood with a reddish tinge. 

Core. — Medium size. 

Seeds. — Medium size, long, flat and acutely pointed. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

A highly appreciated and well known native Pear, of which Henry 
Andrews, Esq., of this city, has kindly furnished the following history. 

His father, John Andrews, a respectable merchant, of this city, obtained 
the original tree more than sixty years ago, at a Nursery, in Dorchester, 
and planted it in his garden, in Court street, the spot now occupied by the 
block of buildings recently erected by the Hon. John C. Gray, opposite the 
Court House. This tree, when purchased, had one branch engrafted with 
the St. Germain pear, then a very popular fruit, proving that the tree itself 
was a seedling, and not considered valuable. This estate was purchased 

9 



52 THE ANDREWS PEAR. 

by Nathaniel Fellows, for his daughter, Mrs. Jonathan Amory, hence one 
of the synonyms of the fruit ; it was afterwards sold to Abraham Gibson, 
hence another synonym, and finally to its present owner. How and when 
the original tree disappeared is not known. 

Tree hardy, spreading ; comes early into bearing ; crops constant and 
abundant ; it makes but little new wood ; is not liable to crack, or be 
blasted ; the fruit is almost always fair. Experience has shown that it is, 
peculiarly adapted to our soils and climate ; it is therefore one of the most 
desirable varieties of September pears, 




TYSON PILAR 



' &J I.Jh«i 



THE TYSON PEAR. 

SYNONYMS. 

Watermelon, by the old residents in the vicinity of the original pear tree. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form.— Globular, rather acute pyriform; some specimens inclining a little to obovate. 

Calyx. — Segments short, open, slightly sunk in a very shallow depression. 

Stem. — A little oblique, about \% inches in length, curved, rather stout, swollen on, 
one side with a fleshy protuberance at its junction with the fruit. 

Color. — Dull yellowish green, mottled and intermingled with red, particularly on the 
sunny side, with some russet and dark spots. 

Skin. — Slightly rough. 

Flesh. — White, very melting and juicy, fine grained. 

Flavor. — Rich saccharine, highly perfumed. 

Maturity and Use. — Early in September. — Dessert. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 2% to 2% inches. 
Do. across 2 to 2)^ do. 

Leaf. — Oval acuminate, finely shaped and simply serrate ; petiole long and slender. 

Wood. — Light brownish grey, a little silvery and spotted, the new wood with a reddish 
tinge ; the appearance of numerous fruit spurs in the young wood is 
often deceptive. 

Core. — Small. 

Seeds. — Small, pointed, plump. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

In the Magazine of Horticulture, for March, 1847, will be found an 
interesting account, by Samuel Walker, Esq., of Roxbury, of the earliest 
distribution of scions of this valuable Pear, amongst the cultivators in this 
vicinity ; and the history of its origin is contained in a letter from Doctor 
Brinckle, of Philadelphia, to the President of this Society. 

It was removed from a hedge, when about an inch in diameter, by Mr. 
Jonathan Tyson, of Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, in the year 1794. His son, 
Jonathan Tyson, Jr., wished to graft the Catharine pear upon it, but the 
father objected, observing, that it might be a better pear. In a few years 



54 THE TYSON PEAR. 

it bore three pears, which proved so fine, that a number of trees were 
grafted from it in 1800. Two trees, grown from suckers of the original, 
were shown to Dr. Brinckle ; they were then about fifty years old ; they 
were large, healthy, fine looking trees, and bore the same fruit as the 
parent ; a conclusive proof of its origin from seed. The old tree is still 
standing in the yard of a house in Jcnkintown, and in January, 1847, 
measured six feet in circumference. 

It is quite a hardy tree, and very upright in its growth, which is moderately 
luxuriant, but not very vigorous, except when engrafted on the leading 
shoots of old trees. Although it is soon furnished with what appear to be 
fruit spurs, they are in this early age but rudimentary, and it does not come 
soon into bearing. 



RESULTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF SIX 
KINDS OF GARDEN PEA. 

[By J. E. Teschemacher, Corresponding- Secretary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society.] 

Believing that the result of the following experiment with six kinds of 
Garden Pea, may be generally interesting to Horticulturists, I beg to 
communicate the same to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

The soil on which the experiment was made, is very poor, light and 
stony, with a large mixture of broken clam shells ; it has not been manured 
for five years. The crops of the last three years, since I have been in 
possession, have been grown with guano alone, and those of this year, 
1847, have been more abundant than those of the two preceding years ; 
thus proving, practically, that there has been no exhaustion of soil. 

The situation is within ten feet of salt water at high tide, and completely 
exposed to the violence of the north east as well as of the south west Avind. 
The consequence of this proximity to Boston Bay, is, that as the water 
does not grow warm early in the Spring, the air is always considerably 
cooled in passing over it ; this and the total want of shelter render the land 
what is usually termed a late piece. 

This information is requisite as I have given the dates of sowing and of 
gathering of each sort, which would naturally vary in different soils and 
situations. My land is laid out with the spade in the Autumn, in ridges, 
eighteen inches to two feet from ridge to ridge. In the Spring I strew the 
guano in the trenches, work it up immediately, but slightly, with a spade, 
cover with about two inches of soil, sow the seed on that, and cover it up ; 
this is the whole process. 

WARNER'S EARLY EMPEROR. Seed Yellow. 

Sown May 12, first gathering June 30 ; were ready, however, two or 
three days earlier. This is the earliest and quickest growing pea I have 
ever tried. Prince Albert, which is called an early pea, was sown in the 
adjoining trench April 25, and was not ready for gathering until July 6. 
The height is two to two and a half feet, consequently small sticks are 
sufficient ; it is moderately prolific, but in this quality does not quite equal 
Prince Albert. The flavor is fine, sugary, not very rich or mealy. I 
consider this pea a great acquisition to Horticulture on account of its very 
early growth, and in warm sheltered situations will no doubt prove very 
valuable ; however, like all peas above two feet growth, it is much more 
productive when grown with sticks. 

10 



56 RESULTS OF THE CULTIVATION OF 

PRINCE ALBERT. Seed Yellow. 

Sown April 25, first gathering July G. This pea is pretty well known 
here ; it grows from three to four and a half feet high, is a moderately early 
producer, and is very prolific — this latter is its most valuable quality — the 
flavor is excellent and sugary. I have now tried it for three years, and 
consider it a kind on which full reliance may be placed for a main crop. 

WOODFORD'S PROLIFIC. Seed Plump, of a Green Color. 

Sown May 15, first gathering July 18. This is unquestionably the finest 
pea I have ever tried, and possesses every desirable quality, except that of 
being early ; it is admirably adapted for supplying the table from the last 
week in July to the middle and last of August ; height two feet, to two feet 
nine inches ; extremely prolific, the pods hanging in large heavy clusters ; 
it therefore requires sticks. The pea as well as the pods are very large, 
the latter often containing eight and nine large peas. Flavor fine, very 
rich, somewhat resembling, but in my opinion superior to, the Marrowfat. 
I have tried this pea two years ; the first year without sticks, and find that 
it yields much more with them, the difference amply repaying the cost of 
the sticks. The seed should be fresh ; two and three years old seed does 
not vegetate well. This pea is a very valuable addition to the summer 
luxuries of the table. 

SHILLINGS'S EARLY GROTTO. Seed Yellow. 

Sown May 13, ready for gathering July 20. This is an excellent dwarf 
pea, not exceeding twelve to eighteen inches in height, consequently not 
requiring sticks ; the pod and pea are rather larger than medium size ; the 
flavor is very sugary and good, but by no means equal to the preceding. 
It is a great favorite with me, owing to the profusion of its blossoms ; when 
in full bloom it resembles, at a distance, pieces of linen laid out to bleach, 
the color being of the purest white ; and as very little of the foliage is 
then visible, it is quite an ornament to the vegetable grounds. It is 
very prolific. There is one point, however, doubtful — several of my 
friends who had seen it in my garden, ordered seed from London, but under 
this name received a very different and inferior pea. I can only say that I 
received it under this name from London, in 1845, with Smith's Grotto, 
and several other sorts ; Smith's Grotto being the only other dwarf, it is 
possible that the person who put it up may have written the wrong name. 
I always saved enough seed to sow the succeeding year, hence if there had 
been an original error I have certainly preserved the error with the pea. I 
have now tried it three years with success, and mention these circumstances 
because I am unwilling to give a character to a vegetable which may not 
merit the encomium bestowed upon it. 



SIX KINDS OF GARDEN PEA. 57 

QUEEN OF THE DWARFS. Seed Yellow. 

This extraordinary pea I sowed April 20, being totally ignorant of the 
method of its growth, or qualities. The seed vegetated luxuriantly, only 
attaining a height of ten to fifteen inches, but for a long time no blossom was 
visible ; at length, about the middle of July, I was astonished at finding 
under a very large foliage a number of immense pods, containing full sized 
Marrowfat peas ; in truth it is a Dwarf Marrowfat, and should not have 
been sown until the middle of May. The early blossoms I found encased 
between the leaves, destroyed by the cold of the latter end of May ; the 
produce was from the second set of blooms ; these, as usual, were not well 
filled in number of peas, but the size of them was large, and they had the 
true Marrowfat flavor. I believe that this pea sown about the 15th May, 
on good rich soil, in an open situation, would be very productive. The 
growth is robust and very peculiar, the joints from leaf to leaf are extremely 
short, and the foliage spreads out like a fan, bearing the heavy pods under- 
neath ; of course it does not require sticks. The flavor is rich and good, 
exactly resembling that of the Tall Marrowfat. It is at all events worth 
trying. 

DWARF BLUE IMPERIAL. Seed Bluish Green. 

Sown May 21, ready for gathering July 26. This pea is so well known 
here already as to make my remarks not of much value, but having sowed 
it merely for the sake of comparing it with the others, I will just state, that 
it appears to me inferior in flavor to Prince Albert, and Warner's Early 
Emperor, and much inferior to Woodford's Prolific, but it is a prolific 
bearer, and good to sow for a main succession crop. 

In order to have peas a luxury for the table, they should be gathered at 
sunrise, while cold with the dew, the pods being then crisp and fresh ; then 
put into a cool cellar, and shelled just previous to boiling the same day. 
Being light work for the hot hours, peas are very often gathered when the 
thermometer indicates the highest range, say 78 to 86°, they are then heated 
and soft ; in this state they are put into barrels ; in three or four hours a 
change in the juices commences, not exactly fermentation, but its precursor, 
and something resembling it, and instead of a tender, nutritious, agreeable 
food, of very easy digestion, they are in twentyfour hours, when eaten, 
converted into a leathery, tasteless and indigestible vegetable. 



J 




DOWNERS LATE CHERRY. 



DOWNER'S LATE RED CHERRY. 

SYNONYMS. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Round, heart shape, rather flat on the under side where the dividing line is 
visible, full round on the other. 

Color. — Light pale translucent amber red on the sunny side, light amber on the other. 

Flavor. — Fine sprightly sweetish acid. 

Size. — %ihs to Jgths of an inch diameter each way. 

Stone. — Full size rather under %. an i ncn long by ,?£ths wide. 

Leaf. — Narrow, oblong ovate, in the proportion of about two inches wide to four inches 
long ; deeply, unequally and doubly serrate, generally two ovate dark 
red glands on the petiole, just below the leaf; sometimes, however, only 
one, and sometimes three glands are present. 

Wood. — Rather light color, lively reddish brown. 

Buds. — Being a late cherry the buds are more oval than those of earlier kinds. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

This valuable variety was originated by Samuel Downer, Esq., of Dor- 
chester, who was one of the earliest and most zealous members of this 
Society, and we give his own description as published in the New England 
Farmer, Feb. 19, 1830. 

"S. DOWNER'S NATIVE MAZZARD CHERRY." 

" Fruit is as large as the Black Heart, but more the shape of the Honey 
Heart ; color light red ; flesh middling hard ; flavor very pleasant and 
sprightly ; semi transparent ; can ascertain the size of the stone, which is 
not large, by holding a cherry before a candle. A constant and great 
bearer, and has not failed to yield abundantly each season for the last ten 
years ; tree does not run up like the Mazzard, but is formed more like the 
May Duke ; ripens late, same time as the little common Mazzard ; on this 
account it is more valuable. Stands high with the marketmen, and com- 
mands a good price. I planted the stone of the above mentioned tree 
twenty two years since. It has never been moved from the place where it 
originally sprang up." 

The above cherry is now called " Downer's Late Red." 

The late maturity of this luscious cherry renders it particularly desirable, 

and it is accordingly very generally cultivated in this vicinity. It obtained 

one of the special premiums in 1847. The tree is hardy, of a vigorous, 

upright growth, round and symmetrical, a profuse and certain bearer. 

11 



ii PREFACE TO THE THIRD NUMBER. 

and profitable enjoyment, and added much to the resources of the tiller 
of the soil, must be evident to every one who has paid the least attention 
to the subject. 

But as it proceeded, a much higher aim seemed to develop itself; this 
was, to encourage the attempt to raise Native Fruits and Vegetables, of as 
great if not greater excellence than any which could be introduced from 
other countries. To understand the importance of this object, as well as 
the difficulties it presents, it is necessary to enlarge a little on the general 
subject. 

It seems highly reasonable to suppose, that trees or plants, produced 
from seeds which have been grown and matured in a climate where the 
atmosphere is clear and dry, the temperature ranging from zero to 90 
degrees of heat, would be better suited to that climate than trees or plants 
grown or raised from seeds matured in a climate with a damp atmosphere, 
where the temperature seldom falls below 25 or rises above 75 degrees ; 
and also, that the fruit should even be more sensitive than the tree or 
plant, as its qualities, such as flavor, appearance, &c. are by far the most 
delicate and fugitive characters. 

Thus two of the best native American Strawberries, " Hovey's Seedling" 
and " Jenney's Seedling," although admirably adapted to this climate, 
would, as have been amply proved during this wet season of 1850, not 
retain their flavor so well in a climate constantly damp like that of 
England, while some of the best English Seedling Strawberries have 
proved total failures in this usually much dryer atmosphere. 

Pears, Apples and Peaches raised here must also be subject to the same 
laws, the consideration and application of which can be shown to be of 
much importance. 

The fine Sugar Cane of Otaheite was introduced at great expense into 
the East Indies to replace the smaller but more hardy native Cane which 
was less productive of juice, yet after several years of careful and costly 
cultivation it was found more profitable to revert to the old native plant. 
There is no doubt that the sugar planters of Louisiana might raise seedling 
Sugar Canes much hardier and better adapted to their climate than the 
varieties, all foreign, which they now cultivate there, but a Society to 
stimulate, encourage and instruct, is wanting. The Sugar Cane has for 
so many generations been propagated by cuttings, that it has nearly lost 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD NUMBER. iii 

the faculty of producing seed for propagation, hence seeds of Sugar Cane 
have been rarely seen, and it is doubted by many whether it ever bears 
seed, but as there are many varieties known, it is clear that these, at some 
previous time, must have arisen from seed ; their origin from cuttings is 
impossible. 

Although it may have escaped the observation of the vegetable physiol- 
ogist, the practical horticulturist will understand the process by which this 
seed bearing faculty is obliterated, and by means of what cultivation and 
manures it may be revived; also, that the plant once raised from seed, 
this seed bearing faculty revives and rapidly increases. 

The Zea Mays, or Indian Corn, has produced seedling varieties adapted 
to climates from Canada to the South, each suited to its own latitude, but 
the Southern Corn would give poor crops in Canada, and the Canada 
variety would be despised by the Southern eye accustomed to the luxuriant 
growth there. 

We have, also, early and late Corn, early and late Peas, Potatoes, &c, 
and certainly varieties of Sugar Cane might be raised which would be 
earlier and of quicker growth than those at present cultivated in Louisiana, 
thereby lessening the risk of exposure to the slight frosts which sometimes 
cause considerable detriment. 

Of this valuable property the vegetable growers in this vicinity are not 
ignorant, they mark the earliest blossoms and pods of their Peas and 
reserve them for seed for the succeeding year ; by this means the earliest 
crops are obtained. ^ 

This business of raising improved Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers, is, 
however, like the same process with animals, it makes but slow and 
gradual progress, and requires not only a good stock of patience and 
hope, but the application of fixed rules, the result of study and observa- 
tion, as well as of constant stimulation and encouragement. These latter 
are afforded in England by the small fortunes made by those who are 
successful enough to obtain seedling Fruit, Vegetables or Flowers, more 
valuable than those in previous cultivation, of this an example is furnished 
by that most delicious of all Peas, the " Champion of England," recently 
brought out, and which has found its way into the hands of a few amateurs 
here. 

A very large proportion of our vegetable and flower seeds are imported, 



iv PREFACE TO THE THIRD NUMBER. 

and the business of raising them for our own supply has not yet been 
systematically undertaken in this country, but it is destined in a few years 
to become an important and highly profitable occupation, and is, therefore, 
now a subject deserving the special and weighty consideration of our 
Horticultural Societies. For these must not be considered as mere play- 
things, for the sole exhibition of fine fruit or showy flowers, but Societies 
in whose prosperity and success are bound up some of the most important 
interests of our industrious community. 

A glance at the schedule of prizes offered by the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society for 1851, will show an appropriation of seven hundred 
and fifty dollars, in sums from thirty to sixty dollars, for the best native 
Seedling Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers, exhibited during the year ; this 
is an increase on the appropriation of 1850, and shows not only that the 
Society is quite attentive to this branch of horticulture, but that it has well 
grounded hopes of effecting much good by thus farther encouraging and 
stimulating such efforts. 

It has been elegantly said, that Horticulture is the poetry of Agriculture, 
wilh less of imagination, but more of fact and truth, may it be termed the 
Laboratory of that extensive manufactory of offensive putrescence, into 
delicate and strength giving nourishment to man and beast. And as it 
has been found that large manufacturing establishments of almost every 
kind flourish better with laboratories attached to them than those without, 
so will it be found with Agriculture. 

All the preliminary experiments with Guano which will hereafter employ 
annually fifty thousand tons of shipping to transport to this country, were 
made in the garden ; all the experiments and improvements in budding, 
grafting, &c, all the selections of fine fruits which now fill the orchards 
of our farmers, were made in the garden, and it will be in proper estab- 
lishments of this nature that many other discoveries and improvements 
will be made, to be hereafter transplanted to the farm. 

Many of those who gave the first impetus to Horticulture here, are 
sleeping in the lap of their favorite mother earth, and the few who remain 
will scarcely live to witness the immense extension and importance to 
which it will arrive in the progress of years of peace and accumulation 
of wealth in this country. 

The vicinity of our large cities will be covered with gardens, each 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD NUMBER. V 

vieing with the other in beauty, neatness and magnificence, the example 
will spread to the villages, and scarcely a house will be without its gay 
parterre and productive plot. 

Other arts seem often to require the inspiration of deeds of war in 
order to attain to excellence, but Horticulture is essentially an art of 
peace, and has made more real progress in Europe during the last 
thirty years of peace than it did in the whole preceding three centuries 
of almost unintermitted war. 

This country, therefore, where peace will probably last for ages, is 
destined to witness and enjoy its greatest development, and the existing 
Horticultural Societies, as the chief instruments in quietly and universally 
spreading a love of peace, a hatred of every approach to the devastations 
of war, must be deserving of public patronage and support. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 



SOCIETY. 



BY 



H. A. 8. DEARBORN 



1850. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

His pleasant garden God ordain'd ; 

A happy rural seat of various view ; 

Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and balm ; 

Others whose fruit, burnished with golden rind, 

Hung amiable, and of delicious taste : 

Flowers of all hue, and without thorn the rose. 

The birds their choir apply ; airs, vernal airs, 

Breathing the smell of field and grove, attune 

The trembling leaves, while universal Pan 

Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance, 

Led on the eternal Spring. 

The science and art of Horticulture, even in the oldest and most 
enlightened nations of Europe, had not claimed that earnest attention to 
which they were eminently entitled, before the middle of the last century ; 
and it was not until the commencement of the present, that a zealous spirit 
of inquiry was excited, and efficient measures adopted for accelerating 
their development, by accurate experiments, in a manner commensurate 
with that which had been realized in all the other great branches of 
industry. 

From the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VIII. but little progress 
had been made in the culture of fruits, flowers and culinary vegetables, 
as the portions of land which could be safely appropriated to those 
purposes were small compartments within the area enclosed by the exterior 
walls of the feudal castles, which were kept in a constant state of defence, 
by moats, drawbridges and armed men. Leland states, that " the gardens 
within the moat, and the orchards without, were exceeding fair. The 
latter were mounts writhen about Avith degrees, like turnings in a cokel- 
shell, to come to the top without payn ;" thus indicating how limited were 
the spaces appropriated to those purposes. 

Henry VII. states, that in his time " apples cost from one to two shillings 
each — red ones fetching the highest price ;" and when Catharine, the first 
Queen of Henry VIII., desired a sallad, it was brought from Flanders. 

13 



02 HISTORICAL SK ETCH. 

Prance and Holland had preceded England in all the departments of 
rural economy ; but no advancement had been made, in either country, in 
the embellishment of public or private grounds, in conformily to those 
principles of landscape gardening which are based upon the beautiful, the 
picturesque and the grand in natural scenery. Quadrangles, circles and 
straight avenues, denned by edgings of box and symmetrically arranged 
rows of trees, clipped into arbors, pyramids, obelisks, spheres, quadrupeds, 
birds and other fantastic forms, were the elements of the elaborate and 
expensive system of ornamental cultivation, which was munificently patron- 
ized by sovereigns, and adopted by all classes of the people, from the 
noble to the peasant. It was of Roman origin, and first employed by 
Caius Martius, a favorite of Augustus Caesar, and the effect being admired 
and celebrated by Pliny, under the name of Topiary-work, it was greatly 
extended by the prevalent passion of the exalted and affluent for magnifi- 
cent villas, in the midst of their immense estates, or on the coast and 
isles of the sea, and in the fertile vallies of the Apennines ; and finally 
descended to the imperial colonies of Western Europe, where it survived 
the fall of the empire. With the rise of modern nations it again claimed 
precedence, especially in the Netherlands, from whence it was introduced 
into Great Britain. 

During the era of the house of Lancaster, and especially that of the 
succeeding family, this style was universally adopted, and the gardens 
of Nonesuch, Theobalds, Greenwich, Hampton Court, Hatfield, Moor 
Park, Chats worth, Beaconfield, Cashiobury and Haw, with many others, 
presented superb examples of that stately formality which Henry and 
Elizabeth so much admired, and in which the Surreys, Leicesters, Essexes, 
Wolseys and Burleighs, and the nobles and ladies of the dynasties of the 
Tudors and Stuarts appeared on gala days, in the splendid costumes of 
that age of courtly ostentation, gallantry and extravagance. 

At last the correct and refined principles which had been announced by 
Bacon and Milton began to be comprehended ; and their names, with those 
of Shakspeare, Spenser, Sidney, Evelyn, Sir Walter Raleigh, Cowley, 
Waller and Cowper, will ever be remembered in connection Avith the 
history of gardening. Although living in an age when the stiff, monot- 
onous and inelegant system of rural decoration was held in the highest 
estimation, the capacious mind of Milton was as unaffected by the errors 
of taste in the arts, as it was uncontaminated by the licentiousness of 
manners ; and his disenthralled genius triumphantly soared into the bright 
regions of truth and purity, far above and beyond the deleterious influence 
of both. He had, in a pre-eminent degree, a clear and vivid conception 
of the requisites for producing those admirable results, which have since 
justly rendered the country residences of the gentlemen of England models 
for imitation in every civilized country throughout the globe. This is 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 63 

conclusively verified in his ideal creation of an appropriate domain for the 
progenitors of the human race, which is as wonderful as it is original in 
design and execution, and does equal credit to his mighty attributes as a 
poet, and his. consummate taste as an artist. 

It is but to read, in his immortal poem, the graphic description of that 
" blissful Paradise in the east of Eden planted," to be enabled to fully 
estimate his transcendent powers of imagination ; for there were no existing 
prototypes, but those revealed to his expansive vision and discriminating 
perception, in the magnificent works of Omnipotence. Yet how exactly 
and with what consummate skill did he select and harmoniously combine 
the most beautiful, august, majestic and interesting features of diversified 
nature, for the embellishment of that " heaven on earth." 

The taste and skill in picturesque gardening which had been first illus- 
trated at Twickenham, and the Leasowes, by Pope, and Shenstone, was 
gradually appreciated, and the publications of Addison, Walpole and Sir 
William Temple, ultimately induced such a thorough reformation, that the 
precise and absurd style which had been vastly extended by the professional 
labors of Wise, Brown, Eames and Repton, was abandoned, and Bridge- 
man and Kent became successful and eminent pioneers in the establishment 
of the modern theory of gardening. 

Temple so delighted in horticulture, that he directed in his will that his 
heart should be buried beneath a sun-dial in his garden, at Moor Park, 
where it was deposited in a silver urn. 

Walpole states, that " Kent was painter enough to taste 1he charms of 
landscape, — bold and opinionative enough, to dare and to dictate, — and 
born with a genius to strike out; a great, system, from the twilight of 
imperfect essays. He leaped the fence, and saw that all Nature was a 
Garden." 

He was succeeded by Price, Knight and numerous other intelligent 
disciples, who have enabled the present generation to appreciate the 
distinguished services rendered by the illustrious authors which have been 
named, as the heralds of instruction in one of the most pleasing depart- 
ments of rural industry ; for their achievements, like the renowned paintings 
of Claude Lorraine and Salvator Rosa, emphatically indicate, that such 
correctness of design, fidelity of execution, and beauty in effect, had only 
been attained by a studious imitation of nature. 

With the important change in the manner of laying out and embellishing 
grounds, a more enlightened and general disposition was disclosed for 
increasing the varieties, and extending the culture of forest and fruit trees, 
shrubs, flowers and vegetables ; and conservatories, green-houses, graperies 
and stoves, for tropical plants, were rapidly multiplied, both, for ornament 
and profit, which caused numerous large nurseries to be established from 
London to Edinburg, to supply the immensely increased demand for the 



64 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

useful and beautiful productions of the vegetable realm, in every portion of 
the earth. 

But the far greatest advancement in all those branches of gardening, has 
been made since the foundation of the London Horticultural Society, in 
1805 ; and so notoriously favorable had been its influence in Great Britain, 
that the highly commendable example was not only followed in Paris, in 
1826, but like institutions were speedily organized in nearly all the nations 
of Europe. 

The immense extension of nautical enterprise, after the discovery of the 
routes to the oriental empires and the islands of the Pacific and Indian 
Oceans, round the southern Capes of Africa and America, gave a powerful 
impulse to the study of all branches of natural history, but none of them 
advanced so rapidly as Botany ; for it was not only ardently investigated 
as a science, but its splendid trophies, gathered in every clime, from the 
polar circles to the equator, were as eagerly sought, for giving increased 
value and elegance to the compartments of a garden, as to enrich the 
cabinets of the enthusiastic disciples of Linnseus. 

The Experimental Garden at Chiswick, and that of Plants, in Paris, 
were, therefore, of the greatest consequence to the Horticultural Societies 
of England and France ; for the seeds and plants which were received 
from all parts of the world, were there carefully cultivated, for the purpose 
of testing their qualities, and the ultimate distribution of such as might be 
deemed valuable acquisitions, by affording nutriment for man and his 
domesticated animals, materials for raiment, elements in the arts, or 
precious additions to the ornamental collections of the horticulturist, not 
merely within the bounds of those nations, but of all others. 

To facilitate this diffusion, the proprietors of numerous spacious nurseries 
in the vicinity of those vast emporiums, and many other parts of the 
respective nations of which they are the capitals, easily obtained specimens 
of each new species, for propagation and sale ; and an approximate 
estimate of the demand may be made from the fact, that the annual 
average value of the plants in Lbddiges' great establishment, at Hackney, 
near London, has been represented as exceeding eight hundred thousand 
dollars. 

The influence of the periodical publications of those distinguished Soci- 
eties, has been as extensive, as it is notoriously beneficial, for they contain 
information of the highest importance to the people of all countries, who 
are interested in garden cultivation. 

While such laudable efforts for the promotion of Horticulture occupied 
the zealous attention of the most intelligent and eminent men, as well as 
every occupant of a rood of land on the Eastern Continent, a cheering 
spirit of inquiry was arousedon this side of the Atlantic. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 65 

To the gentlemen named in a preceding article, on the " Character, 
History and Culture of the Pear,"^ and to Gov. Lincoln, Hon. Timothy 
Bigelow, Richard Sullivan, J. Quincy, P. C. Brooks, Theodore Lyman, 
Stephen Higginson, John Prince, Gorham Parsons, E. H. Derby and J. 
Barrell, Esquires, are we chiefly indebted for many of the most valuable 
products of the garden, as well as for the earliest experiments and improve- 
ments in useful and ornamental cultivation. 

The well managed grounds of those gentlemen, had a most propitious 
influence in the several towns where they were situated, and was gradually 
experienced in all parts of New England ; but it became apparent, that a 
zealous co-operation of all persons interested in gardening, was required 
for producing a more general and speedy extension of scientific and prac- 
tical knowledge in all its branches ; and in the winter of 1829 a number 
of gentlemen of Boston and the adjacent towns, determined to attempt the 
establishment of a Horticultural Society, for the accomplishment of that 
very desirable object. A meeting was, therefore, holden in Boston on the 
24th of February, for the consideration of the subject, when the Hon. 
John Lowell was chosen Moderator, and Z. Cook, Esq., Secretary ; and 
after mature deliberation, there being no discrepancy of opinion as to the 
great advantages which would be derived from the organization of such an 
institution, a Committee was appointed, consisting of H. A. S. Dearborn, 
Z. Cook and S. Downer, to form a Constitution and By-Laws ; measures 
were also adopted for procuring subscribers to the Society. 

An adjourned meeting was holden on the seventeenth of March, and 
Mr. Lowell having been prevented by illness from attending, General 
William H. Sumner was elected Moderator, Avho announced, that since 
the previous meeting the subscribers had increased to one hundred and 
sixty. A Constitution and By-Laws having been reported by the Com- 
mittee to whom those subjects were referred, they were unanimously 
adopted. 

The Society was then organized by the election of the following Officers : 

H. A. S. Dearborn, of Roxbury, President. 

Zebedee Cook, Jr., of Dorchester, Vice President. 

John C. Gray, of Boston, " " 

Robert Manning, of Salem, " " 

Enoch Bartlett, of Roxbury, " " 

Cheever Newhall, of Boston, Treasurer. 

Jacob Bigelow, of Boston, Corresponding Secretary. 

Robert L. Emmons, of Boston, Recording Secretary. 
The Society was incorporated by an Act of the Legislature, on the 12th 
of June, 1829. 



* See page 15, of Transactions. 



C)6 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Before the close of the year, two hundred and fifty members had joined 
tlit- Society, and fortyseven honorary and twenty five corresponding mem- 
bers had been elected. 

The first Annual Festival was held at the Exchange Coffee House, in 
Boston, on the nineteenth of September, 1829. An Address was delivered 
by the President in the Picture Gallery of the Athenaeum. 

The fruits and flowers which were presented for premiums, and for 
decorating the hall and dinner tables, far exceeded, in variety and quantity, 
the anticipations of the Society, and excited cheering hopes for the future. 

It Avas early perceived that an Experimental Garden was indispensable 
for the full development of all the great purposes of the institution, and the 
only cause of delay in commencing the important work, on an enlarged 
plan, was the deficiency of adequate means. 

A Rural Cemetery had, for several years, claimed the attention of a 
number of gentlemen in Boston, and soon after the establishment of the 
Society, Doctor Jacob Bigelow suggested to the President the expediency 
of combining it with an Experimental Garden, — he having taken a leading 
part in the unsuccessful efforts which had been made. The proposition 
was cordially received and communicated to the Society, and although 
often discussed during several months, still no definite measures were 
adopted. This subject was again commended to the serious attention of 
the members by Z. Cook, Jr., Esq., in the Address which he delivered 
before the Society on its second Anniversary Festival ; but no forward 
movement was made until George W. Brimmer, Esq., proposed that a 
tract of land which he owned in Cambridge, should be purchased for a 
Garden and Cemetery ; and the President having visited it, to ascertain 
whether it was capable of being appropriated to those purposes, reported 
that he was fully satisfied that a more eligible selection could not be made. 
He was then requested to present a plan for accomplishing those objects, 
Avhich was done on the third of December, 1830 ; and having been submit- 
ted to, and approved by, a large number of gentlemen, whose co-operation 
was very desirable, a special meeting of the Society was called, and the 
President, Doctor Jacob Bigelow, G. W. Brimmer, George Bond and 
Abbot Lawrence, were appointed a Committee to report on the expediency 
of establishing a Garden of Experiment and a Rural Cemetery ; and subse- 
quently it was authorized to increase the number of its members. In 
conformity thereto it was enlarged, and consisted of the following members: 
Joseph Story, Daniel Webster, H. A. S. Dearborn, Samuel Appleton, 
Charles Lowell, Jacob Bigelow, Edward Everett, George Bond, George 
W. Brimmer, Abbot Lawrence, Franklin Dexter, Alexander H. Everett, 
James T. Austin, Charles P. Curtis, Joseph P. Bradlee, John Pierpont, 
Zebedee Cook, Jr., Charles Tappan, Lucius M. Sargent and George W. 
Pratt. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 67 

The Committee had numerous consultations, and at a meeting of the 
Society, held on the eighteenth of June, 1831, the President submitted a 
Report in their behalf; and as it contains a brief account of the transactions 
of the Society from its organization to that period, as well as the reasons 
by which the committee were actuated in arriving at the result of their 
deliberations in relation to the establishment of a Garden and Cemetery, it 
may be here appropriately introduced. 

" When the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was founded, it was 
confidently anticipated, that at no very distant period a Garden of Experi- 
ment would be established in the vicinity of Boston ; but to arrive at such 
a pleasing result, it was deemed expedient that our efforts should first be 
directed to the accomplishment of objects which would not. require very 
expensive pecuniary resources ; that we should proceed with great caution, 
and by a prudential management of our means gradually develop a more 
complete and efficient system, for rendering the institution as extensively 
useful, as it was necessary and important. Public favor was to be propi- 
tiated by the adoption of such incipient measures as were best calculated 
to encourage patronage and insure ultimate success. 

" With these views, the labors of the Society have been confined to the 
collection and dissemination of intelligence, plants, scions and seeds, in the 
various departments of Horticulture. An extensive correspondence was, 
therefore, opened with similar associations in this country and Europe, as 
, well as with many gentlemen who were distinguished for their theoretical 
attainments, practical information and experimental researches, in all the 
branches of rural economy, on this continent and other portions of the 
globe. 

" The kind disposition which has been generally evinced to advance the 
interests of the Society, has had a salutary and cheering influence. Many 
interesting and instructive communications have been received, and valuable 
donations of books, seeds and plants have been made by generous foreign- 
ers, and citizens of ihe United States. A liberal offer of co-operation has 
been promptly tendered, in both hemispheres, and great advantages are 
anticipated from a mutual interchange of good offices. 

" A Library ( f considerable extent has been formed, containing many 
of the most celebrated English and French works on Horticulture, — ■ 
several of which are magnificent ; and the apartments for the accommoda- 
tion of the Society have been partially embellished with beautiful paintings 
of some of our choice native varieties of fruits. By weekly exhibitions, 
during eight months of the year, of fruits, flowers and esculent vegetables ; 
by awarding premiums for proficiency in the art of gardening, and the 
rearing of new, valuable, or superior products ; by disseminating intelli- 
gence, and accounts of the proceedings of the Society at its regular and 
special meetings, through the medium of the New England Farmer ; and 



68 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

by an Annual Festival and Public Exhibition of the various products of 
Horticulture, an interest has been excited and a spirit of inquiry awakened, 
auspicious to the institution, while a powerful impulse has been given to all 
branches of rural industry, far beyond our most sanguine hopes. 

" To foster and extend a taste for the pleasant, useful and refined art 
of Gardening, the time appears to have arrived for enlarging the sphere 
of action, and giving the most ample development to the original design 
of the Society. 

" The London, Paris, Edinburgh and Liverpool Horticultural Associa- 
tions have each established Experimental Gardens. We must emulate the 
meritorious examples of those renowned institutions, and be thus enabled 
to reciprocate their favors, from like collections of useful and ornamental 
plants. An equally enlightened taste will be thus superinduced for those 
comforts and embellishments, and for that intellectual enjoyment which the 
science and practice of horticulture afford. 

" With the Experimental Garden, it is recommended to unite a Rural 
Cemetery ; for the period is not distant, when all the burial grounds within 
the city will be closed, and others must be formed in the country — the 
primitive and only proper location. There the dead may repose, undis- 
turbed, through countless ages. There can be formed a public place of 
sepulture, where monuments can be erected to our illustrious men, whose 
remains, thus far, have unfortunately been consigned to obscure and iso- 
lated tombs, instead of being collected within one common depository, 
where their great deeds might be perpetuated, and their memories cherished 
by succeeding generations. Though dead, they would be eternal admoni- 
tors of the living, — teaching them the way which leads to national glory 
and individual celebrity. 

"When it, is perceived what laudable efforts have been made in Europe, 
and how honorable the results, it is impossible that the citizens of the United 
States should long linger in the rear of the general march of improvement. 
They will hasten to present establishments and to evince a zeal for the 
encouragement of rural economy, commensurate with the extent and 
natural resources of the country, and the variety of its soil and climate. 

"Your Committee have not a doubt that an attempt should be made in 
this State to rival the undertakings of other countries, in all that relates 1o 
the cultivation of the soil. The intelligent, patriotic and wealthy will 
cheerfully lend their aid, in the establishment of a Garden of Experiment, 
and a Cemetery. Massachusetts has ever been distinguished for her public 
and private munificence, in the endowment of colleges, academies, and 
numerous associations for inculcating knowledge, and the advancement in 
all branches of industry. A confident reliance is, therefore, reposed on 
the same sources of beneficence. The Legislature will not refuse its 
patronage, but will readily unite with the people in generous contributions 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 69 

for the accomplishment of objects so well calculated to elevate the charac- 
ter of the Commonwealth, and that of its citizens. 

" The Experimental Garden is intended for the improvement of Horti- 
culture in all its departments, ornamental as well as useful. 

" The objects which will chiefly claim attention, are the collection and 
cultivation of common, improved and new varieties of the different kinds 
of Fruits, Esculent Vegetables, Forest and Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, 
Flowering, Economical and other interesting Plants, which do not exclu- 
sively belong to the predial department of ptillage ; — aying particular 
attention to the qualities and habits of each ; — instituting comparative 
experiments on the modes of culture to Avhich they are usually subjected, 
so as to attain a knowledge of the most useful, rare and beautiful species ; 
the best process of rearing and propagating them by seeds, scions, buds, 
suckers, layers and cuttings ; the most successful methods of insuring 
perfect and abundant crops, as well as satisfactory results, in all the 
branches of useful and ornamental planting, appertaining to Horticulture. 

" Compartments to be assigned for the particular cultivation of Fruit 
Trees, Timber Trees, Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Esculent Vegetables, 
Flowers, and for the location of Green Houses, Stoves, Vineries, Orangeries, 
and Hot Beds. 

" For the accommodation of the Garden of Experiment and Cemetery, 
at least seventy acres of land are deemed necessary ; and in making the 
selection of a site, it was very important that from forty to fifty acres 
should be well, or partially, covered with trees and shrubs, which could be 
appropriated for the latter establishment ; and that it should present all 
possible varieties of soil common in the vicinity of Boston ; be diversified 
by hills, valleys, plains, brooks, and low meadows and bogs, so as to 
afford proper localities for every kind of tree and plant that will flourish in 
this clime ; be near to some large stream or river, and easy of access by 
land and water ; but still sufficiently retired. 

" To realize these advantages it is proposed, that a tract of land, called 
1 Sweet Auburn,' situated in Cambridge, should be purchased. As a large 
portion of the ground is now covered with trees, shrubs and wild flowering 
plants, avenues and walks may be made through them, in such a manner 
as to render the whole establishment interesting and beautiful, at a small 
expense, and within a few years; and ultimately offer an example of land- 
scape and picturesque gardening, in conformity to the modern style of 
laying out grounds, which will be highly creditable to the Society. 

" The streams and parcels of bog and meadow land may be easily 
connected into ponds and variously formed sheets of water, which will 
furnish appropriate positions for aquatic plants, while their borders may 
be planted with Rhododendrons, Azaleas, several species of the superb 

14 



70 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Magnolia, and other plants, which require a constantly humid soil and 
decayed vegetable matter for their nourishment. 

" On the south eastern and north eastern borders of the tract can be 
arranged the Nurseries, and portions selected for the culture of fruit trees 
and esculent vegetables, on an extensive scale ; there may be arranged the 
Arboretum, the Orchard, the Culinarium, Floral Compartments, Melon 
Grounds, Strawberry Beds and Green Houses. The remainder of the 
land may be devoted to the Cemetery. 

" By means of a more extensive correspondence with eminent horticul- 
turists, it is certain that many rare, valuable and beautiful plants may be 
obtained, not only from all parts of our own country, but other regions of 
the globe, which could be naturalized to the soil and climate of New 
England. This can be efficiently undertaken so soon as a Garden of 
Experiment is formed ; but it would be almost useless to procure large 
collections of seeds or plants, until we are enabled to cultivate them, 
under the immediate direction of the Society. 

" Accounts of the experiments which may be made should be periodi- 
cally reported and published ; and seeds, buds, cuttings and uncommon 
varieties of rooted plants may be distributed among the members of the 
Society, and be sold for its benefit, in such manner as may be found most 
expedient, to render the garden the most extensively useful in all its 
relations with the wants, comforts and pleasures of life. 

" Such an establishment is required for 'collecting the scattered rays of 
intelligence, and blending them with the sciences and accumulating experi- 
ence of the times,' and then diffusing them far and wide, to cheer and 
enlighten the practical horticulturist in his career of agreeable, and profitable 
industry. It will powerfully contribute to increase the taste for rural 
pursuits ; stimulate a generous spirit of research and emulation ; suggest 
numerous objects worthy of inquiry and experiment ; multiply the facilities 
of information, and the interchange of indigenous and exotic plants ; 
develop the vast vegetable resources of the Union ; give activity to enter- 
prise ; increase the enjoyment of all classes of citizens ; advance the 
prosperity, and improve the general aspect of the whole country. 

" The establishment of a Cemetery in connection with the Garden of 
Experiment, cannot fail of meeting public approbation. Such rural burial 
places were common among the ancients, who allowed no grave-yards 
within their cities. The Potter's Field was without the walls of Jerusalem, 
and in the Twelve Tables it was prescribed, ' that the dead should neither 
be buried nor burned in the city' of Rome. Evelyn states, 'that the 
custom of burying in churches, and near about them, and especially in 
great cities, is a novel presumption, indecent, sordid and very prejudicial 
to health ; it was not done among the Christians in the primitive ages ; 
was forbidden by the Emperors Grotian, Valentian and Theodosius, and 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 71 

never sanctioned until the time of Gregory the Great.' The Eastern 
Christians do not now inter their dead within their churches. 

" During the age of the patriarchs, graves were selected as places of 
sepulchre. When Sarah died, Abraham purchased ' the Field of Ephron, 
in Machpelah, with all the trees that were therein and the borders round 
about, as a burying place,' and there he buried his wife ; ' and there they 
buried Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, and Leah ;' and when Jacob had blessed 
his sons,' he said unto them, ' I am to be gathered unto my people : bury 
me with my fathers, in the Cave, that is in the Field of Ephron.' Deborah 
( was buried beneath Bethel, under an oak ;' and the valiant men of Jabesh 
Gilead, removed the bodies of Saul and his sons from the wall of Bethshan 
and ' buried them under a tree.' Moses was buried in ' a valley in the 
land of Moab ;' Joseph in ' a parcel of ground in Shechem;' Eleazer, the 
son of Aaron, ' in the garden of Uzza,' 

" The planting of Rose Trees upon graves is an ancient custom ; Anac- 
reon says, that ' it protects the dead ;' and Proper tius indicates the usage 
of burying amidst roses. 

" Plato sanctioned the planting of trees over sepulchres, and the tomb of 
Ariadne was in the Arethusian Grove of Crete. The Catacombs of Thebes 
were excavated in the gorges of the forest-clad hills on the opposite bank 
of the Nile, and those of Memphis were beyond the lake Acherusia, from 
whence the Grecian mycologists derived their fabulous accounts of the 
Elysian Fields. There it was supposed the souls of the virtuous and illus- 
trious retired after death, and roamed through bowers, forever green, and 
over meadows spangled with flowers, and refreshed by perennial streams. 
In the mountains near Jerusalem, were located the tombs of the opulent 
Israelites ; and in a garden, near the base of Calvary, had Joseph, the 
Arimathean, prepared that memorable sepulchre, in which was laid 1 he- 
crucified Messiah. The Greeks and Romans often selected the secluded 
recesses of wooded heights and vales, as favorite places of interment, on 
the borders of the great public highways, where elegant monuments were 
erected, and surrounded with cypress and other ever verdant trees. Many 
of the richly sculptured sarcophagi and magnificent tombs, reared by the 
once polished nations of Asia Minor, are still to be seen in the vicinity 
of the numerous ruined cities on the deserted coast of Karamonia. 

" The Athenians allowed no burials within the city. The illustrious 
men who had either died in the service of their country, or were thought 
deserving of the most distinguished honors, were buried in the Ceramicus — 
an extensive public Cemetery on the road to Thria. Tombs and statues 
were erected to their memory, on which were recorded their exploits ; 
and to render these familiar to all, to animate every citizen to a love 
of virtue and of glory, and to excite in youthful minds an ardent desire 
of imitating those celebrated worthies, the spacious grounds were embel- 



72 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

lished with trees and made a public promenade. Within the Ccramicus 
was the Academy, where Plato, and the great men who succeeded him, 
met their disciples, and held meetings for philosophical conference and 
instruction. Connected with the Academy was a Gymnasium and a 
Garden, which was adorned with delightful covered walks, and refreshed 
by the waters of the Cephisus, which flowed under the shade of the plane, 
and various other trees, through the western borders. At the entrance, 
and within the area of the Garden, were temples, altars and statues of 
the gods. 

" The bodies of the Athenians, who had fallen in battle, were collected 
by their compatriots, and after they were consumed on the funeral pile, 
their ashes were collected and carried to Athens ; there they were exposed 
in cypress sarcophagi, under a large tent, for three days, that the rela- 
tions might perform those libations and rites which affection and religion 
enjoined ; then they were placed on as many cars as there were tribes, and 
the procession proceeded slowly through the city to the Ceramicus, where 
funeral games were exhibited, and an orator, publicly appointed for the 
occasion, pronounced an eulogium. 

" Even the Turks, who are so opposed to the cultivation of the fine arts, 
embellish their grave yards with evergreens. With them it is a religious 
duty to plant trees around the graves of their kindred, and the burying 
ground of Scutari, is one the most interesting objects in the environs of 
Constantinople. Situated in the rear of the town, and extending along the 
Asiatic shore, toward the sea of Marmora, it presents a vast forest of 
majestic trees ; and thither the inhabitants of the imperial city generally 
resort, during the sultry months of summer, to enjoy the cool breezes 
which descend from the Euxine, or are wafted over the waters of the 
Propontis. 

" Throughout Italy, France and England, there are many Cemeteries, 
which are ornamented with forest trees and flowering shrubs. Pere La 
Chaise, in the environs of Paris, has been admired and celebrated by every 
traveller who has visited that beautiful Garden of the Dead. 

" In Liverpool a similar burying ground was completed three years 
since, and a meeting has recently been held in London for forming one in 
the vicinity of that city, of a size and on a scale of magnificence which 
shall quadrate with the wealth and vast extent of the mighty capitol of a 
great nation. Within the central area are to be exact models of the superb 
temples, triumphal arches, columns, and public monuments of Greece and 
Rome, as receptacles, or memorials of the departed worthies of the empire. 

" The establishment of Rural Cemeteries has frequently been adverted to 
in our literary and scientific journals. No one can be indifferent to a 
subject of such deep and universal interest. In whatever point of view it 
is considered, who is there that does not perceive numerous and powerful 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 73 

inducements for aiding in its accomplishment ? How consoling and pleas- 
ing is the thought, that our memories shall be cherished after dealh ; and 
that the spot where our ashes shall repose shall be often visited by dear and 
constant friends ; that they will there linger to call up the soothing, yet 
melancholly reminiscences of by-gone days ; that the sod which covers us, 
will be kept ever verdant ; that a magnificent forest will be reared to over- 
shadow our graves, by those truly kind hands which performed the last sad 
office of affection ; that flowers will fringe the pathways leading to our 
lowly resting place, and their fragrance, mingled with the holiest aspirations, 
ascend towards the throne of the Eternal. 

" To those who mourn, what a consolation to visit the bower-sequestered 
monument of a much loved friend, under circumstances, and with associa- 
tions, so favorably calculated to revive agreeable recollections of the past ; 
and where those revolting ideas are excluded which obtrude upon the mind 
while standing in the usually dreary, desolate and ruinous repositories of 
the dead. 

" In a Rural Cemetery the names and virtues of the departed would live 
in perpetual freshness, and their souls seem to commune with those who 
came to do honor to their manes. Thus would all like to repose in death ; 
and who would not deem it a blessing to be able to confer that favor on a 
parent, child, wife, husband, or friend ? How can this object be so 
successfully accomplished as in connection with an Experimental Garden ? 

" That part of the land which has been recommended for a Cemetery 
may be circumvallated by a spacious avenue, bordered by trees, shrubbery, 
and perennial flowers, — rather as a line of demarcation than of discon- 
nection, for the ornamental ground of the Garden should be, apparently, 
blended with those of the Cemetery, and the walks of each so intercom- 
municate as to afford an uninterrupted range over both, as one common 
domain. 

" Among the hills, glades and dales, which are now covered with ever- 
green and deciduous trees and shrubs, may be selected sites for isolated 
graves and tombs ; and these being surmounted by columns, obelisks and 
other appropriate monuments of granite or marble, may be rendered inter- 
esting specimens of art ; they will also vary and embellish the scenery 
embraced within the scope of the numerous sinuous avenues which may be 
felicitously opened in all directions, and to a vast extent, from the diver- 
sified and picturesque features which the topography of the tract of land 
presents. 

"Besides the great public advantages which will result from the horticul- 
tural compartments, and that portion of the land which may be consecrated 
to the dead, and rendered, like the Elysian Fields of the Egyptians, a holy 
and pleasant resort for the living, the whole will present one of the most 
instructive, magnificent and pleasant promenades in our country. From 



74 HISTORIC A L SKETCH. 

its immediate proximity to the Capitol of the State, it will attract universal 
interest, and become a place of healthful, refreshing and agreeable resort, 
from early Spring until the close of Autumn. 

" To accomplish these two great objects, it is necessary that a fund 
should be created immediately, sufficient for the purchase of the land, 
surrounding it with a substantial fence, the erection of a Gardener's Lodge, 
laying out the grounds, and preparing them for the purposes of an Experi- 
mental Garden and Cemetery. That this can be done, your Committee 
do not entertain a doubt, and respectfully recommend the adoption of the 
following measures, as best calculated to insure success. 

" 1. That it is expedient to purchase, for a Garden and Cemetery, a tract 
of land, commonly known by the name of Sweet Auburn, near the road 
leading from Cambridge to Watertown, containing about seventy acres, for 
the sum of six thousand dollars ; provided this can be raised in the manner 
proposed in the second article of this report. 

" 2. That a subscription be opened for lots of ground in the said tract, 
containing not less than two hundred square feet, at the price of sixty 
dollars for each lot, — the subscription not to be binding until one hundred 
lots are subscribed for. 

" 3. That when a hundred or more lots are taken, the right of choice 
shall be disposed of at an auction, of which reasonable notice shall be given 
to the subscribers. 

" 4. That those subscribers who do not offer a premium for the right of 
choosing, shall have their lots assigned to them by lot. 

" 5. That the fee of the land shall be vested in the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, but that the use of the lots, agreeably to an Act of 
the Legislature respecting the same, shall be secured to the subscribers, 
their heirs and assigns forever. 

" 6. That the land devoted to the purpose of a Cemetery shall contain 
not less than forty acres. 

" 7. That every subscriber, upon paying for his lot, shall become a 
member, for life, of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, without being 
subject to assessments. 

" 8. That a Garden and Cemetery Committee, of nine persons, shall be 
chosen annually, first by the subscribers and afterwards by the Horticul- 
tural Society, whose duty it shall be to cause the necessary surveys and 
allotments to be made, to assign a suitable tract of land for the Garden of 
the Society, and to direct all matters appertaining to the regulation of the 
Garden and Cemetery ; five, at least, of this Committee shall be persons 
having rights in the Cemetery. 

" 9. That the establishment, including the Garden and Cemetery, be 
called by a definite name, to be applied by the Committee." 

The Report submitted to the Society, by the President, on the third of 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 75 

December, 1830, included, besides the Experimental Garden and Cem- 
etery, a plan for an " Institution for the Education of Scientific and 
Practical Gardeners," which was as follows: — < 

" In this age of general improvement, when institutions and associations 
have been formed for inculcating intelligence in every branch of knowledge 
and among all walks of society ; and when it is perceived how successful 
have been the efforts for affording instruction in the Mechanic Arts, to 
masters, journeymen and apprentices, it is not only desirable, but highly 
important, that measures should be taken for extending similar advantages 
to those persons who may wish to become accomplished Gardeners. 

"As a Science and an Art, Horticulture embraces a wide field, of 
intelligence, requiring an extensive acquaintance with Natural History 
and Physics. Botany, Mineralogy, Hydraulics, Mechanics, Architecture, 
Chemistry, and Entomology are called upon to furnish their respective 
contributions, while many of the practical duties of the profession are of 
such a delicate and difficult character, that they cannot be satisfactorily 
performed without proper instruction, and long experience, under the 
tuition of capable Gardeners. 

" Theory and practice must be taught in such a manner, that science 
and skill may be cotemporaneously acquired ; and this can only be done 
in a well managed establishment, where all the varieties of trees and plants, 
commonly introduced into a garden, or which may be employed in the 
embellishment of grounds, are collected and constantly cultivated in the 
most perfect manner. 

" How harmoniously, then, may a Horticultural School be combined with 
an Experimental Garden. Such an institution has been recently founded 
at Fromont, in France, by the Chevalier Soulange Bodin, under the 
patronage of the King ; and among the objects which the London Horti- 
cultural Society had in view, in forming the Garden at Chiswick, was 
' The education of young men, to fill the places of Gardeners,' and that 
is now considered ' one of the most important advantages which is accru- 
ing to the public,'^ from that celebrated establishment. 

" The practical information and skill can be pleasantly and easily 
acquired, under the chief Gardener, and the aid of such Assistants as may 
be found necessary for superintending the Pomological, Floral, Esculent, 
Arboricultural and other departments. 

" Whatever relates to the theory and subservient sciences and arts, must 
be confided to competent Professors, who should be required to deliver 
lectures on Botany, Vegetable Physiology, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Archi- 
tecture, Hydraulics, Mechanics, Entomology, and such other branches of 

* Report of the Garden Committee of the London Horticultural Society, 1826. 



76 HISTOK ICAL SK ETCH. 

Natural History and Physics as arc applicable to Horticulture, ihe culture 
of Fruit, Forest and Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Flowering Plants and 
Culinary and such other Vegetable products as are employed in the indus- 
trial arts, and in the composition of Landscape and Picturesque Gardens. 

" To complete these theoretic studies, there should be a Library, a Cabi- 
net of demonstrative apparatus, instruments, models and implements, and 
an Herbary. 

"Instructors will likewise be required for Teaching Topography and 
Drawing, to enable the pupils to project maps, lay out grounds in the most 
correct and tasteful manner, and furnish plans and elevations for rural 
edifices of all kinds. Beside the advantages to be derived from drawing, 
for these purposes, it will be a useful accomplishment in the fruit and flower 
departments of cultivation, as it is frequently necessary, or desirable, at 
least, to delineate specimens in an accurate and beautiful manner. 

" To obtain admission, the pupils should not be under fifteen years of 
age ; be correct in their morals ; able to read and write, and acquainted 
with arithmetic, and engage to remain at least three years. No compensa- 
tion to be required of them, as their labor in the Garden will be sufficient 
to defray the expense of instruction." 

This branch of the establishment, it was not deemed expedient to com- 
mence, from an apprehension that it might involve such an expense as 
would jeopardize the success of the two others, which were considered of 
primary consequence ; but it was only postponed, for it was never lost sight 
of by the Society ; and it is now to be hoped, that the day is not distant 
when it will be founded, for the importance of such an institution cannot 
be doubted by any person, who desires the advancement of intelligence 
throughout all classes of the people, in every portion of their numerous and 
diversified occupations. 

The Report of the Committee having been accepted, " Sweet Auburn" 
was purchased, and several adjoining tracts, which augmented the area of 
the grounds to about one hundred acres. On the twentythird of June, an 
additional Act of the Legislature was obtained, authorizing the Society to 
hold real estate to the value of twenty thousand dollars, and to appropriate 
a part of it for a Rural Cemetery ; which having been accepted on the 
second day of July, the following gentlemen were elected members of the 
Garden and Cemetery Committee : Joseph Story, Henry A. S. Dearborn, 
Dr. Jacob Bigelow, George W. Brimmer, Edward Everett, B. A. Gould, 
Charles Wells, G. W. Pratt and George Bond. 

The duty of laying out the grounds, and preparing them for the purposes 
of a Garden and Cemetery, was devolved upon a sub-committee, consisting 
of Henry A. S. Dearborn, the President of the Society, Dr. Jacob Bige- 
low and George W. Brimmer, Esq., and they immediately commenced the 
labors assigned them. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 77' 

The name of Mount Auburn was applied to the ground, and it having 
been determined, on the third of August, to consecrate the Cemetery, by 
appropriate ceremonies, on the twentyfourth day of September, 1831, the 
Honorable Joseph Story was requested to deliver an Address on that 
occasion. 

The site selected for the ceremonies was a deep circular dell, formed by 
the united bases of four beautiful hills, in the centre of which was a small 
pool, supplied by perennial springs, and from its margin the acclivities on 
three sides formed a magnificent amphitheatre, sufficiently capacious to 
accommodate six or seven thousand persons. The area, more than five 
hundred feet in circuit, was covered with majestic trees and shrubs, under 
which seven ranges of seats were formed for the accommodation of the 
audience. Near the northern margin of the miniature lake, a rostrum was 
formed, a few feet above the surface of the water, for the orator, clergy 
and officers of the Horticultural Society. This was covered with ever- 
greens, giving it the appearance of a natural bovver, open towards the 
south. On the right of the rostrum, in a grove, an orchestra AVas prepared 
for the choristers and band of music. 

The approach from the gateway was by a broad, umbrageous avenue. 
The introductory Prayer was made by the Rev. Dr. Ware, and the Bene- 
diction was given by the Rev. John Pierpont, who also composed an 
appropriate Hymn for the occasion. 

■ At the close of Autumn considerable progress had been made in laying 
out the grounds, and such measures adopted as were considered requisite 
for recommencing the work early in the following Spring, which was done, 
and prosecuted in the manner, and to the extent, stated in the following 
extract from the Report, which was presented to the Society, at the close 
of the year 1832, by the President ; — - 

" Most of the avenues and paths which were laid out last year, were 
constructed during the Spring, affording a carriage drive of nearly three 
miles, and an equal extent of foot walks, which rendered Mount Auburn 
the most pleasant place of resort in the vicinity of the capital, during the 
whole season. The visitors were numerous beyond all expectation. 

" Early in August other avenues were laid out and constructed, and a 
road made on the eastern side, which united the highways on the south and 
north-east, and completed the line of intercommunication with the main ■ 
road from Boston to Watertown, thus furnishing a new and most interesting 
approach to the establishment from Brighton, Brookline, Roxbury, and 
other tow 7 ns south of Charles river, as well as from the city, 

" The grounds have been enclosed by a neat and substantial fence, seven 
feet high. The main entrance has been embellished by an Egyptian Gate- 
way, twentynve feet high, with Lodges, in imitation of small temples, for 
the Porter and Superintendent, making the entire front one hundred and 

15 



78 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

ten feet, terminated by obelisks. The plan of the gate was taken from one 
of those in Thebes, described in the great work of the French savans 
on Egypt. 

" The Experimental Garden, including an area of more than thirty 
acres, has been laid out, and the paths and avenues constructed, and 
bordered with turf, so that the whole will be in readiness for cultivation, 
and to be planted with fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs next Spring. 

" A Cottage, for the Superintendent and Gardener, has been raised and 
will be finished, with the requisite offices, by the last of February. The 
upper Garden pond has been excavated, to a sufficient depth to afford a 
constant sheet of water, with a fall, at the outlet, of three feet, and being 
embanked, paths with a border, six feet wide, for shrubs and flowers have 
been made round it. In the centre an island has been formed, having a 
path on its margin, which is connected with that on the western side of the 
pond by a bridge twenty four feet in length, neatly railed and painted ; and 
another bridge, of like form, thrown over the outlet, which affords a com- 
munication with the Cemetery grounds by the way of Indian Ridge 
path. 

" A receiving Tomb has been made, with walls formed of granite and 
covered with massive blocks of stone, and surmounted by a quadrangular 
tumulous covered with sods. 

" On the western side of Cypress avenue, a public burial lot, ninely feet 
long and twentyfour feet wide, has been laid out and surrounded with an 
iron fence. 

" Arrangements have been made for excavating, to a greater depth, 
Forest and Consecration Dell ponds, and surrounding them by embellished 
pathways, and for cleaning the eastern portion of Garden and Meadow 
ponds, of weeds and bushes, during the Winter. 

" David Haggerston, of Charlestown, has been engaged as Superin- 
tendent and Gardener, and will enter on his duties the first of March, when 
the cottage will be ready for his reception ; and from his known intelligence, 
skill and taste in the cultivation of trees and plants of all kinds, we have 
the fullest confidence that our labors the next season will be commenced 
under the most favorable auspices. 

" A number of superb marble and granite monuments have been erected ; 
many lots surrounded by beautiful iron fences, or prepared for the recep- 
tion of trees, shrubs and flowers the next year ; while several tombs, of 
superior construction, have been erected. 

" But a little more than a year has elapsed since the purchase of the 
land, and the various works were commenced ; and the result is much 
more favorable than the most sanguine anticipated, leaving no doubt of a 
successful and speedy accomplishment of the entire plan." 

In the Autumn of 1834, three hundred and fifty one lots had been sold, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 79 

and the aggregate sum produced, including premiums for a choice, was 
twentythree thousand two hundred and fiftyfive dollars. 

During the period which had elapsed, from the foundation of the Society, 
the weekly exhibitions gradually became more interesting, and the Festivals 
of each succeeding year presented conclusive testimonials of the great 
benefits which had been derived, and gave encouraging assurances of the 
future prosperity and importance of the institution, from the continually 
increasing varieties, perfection, beauty and number of the garden products, 
which were offered for premium, or the embellishment of the halls and 
other apartments of the Society. 

On each of those public celebrations, from 1829 to 1834, Addresses were 
successively delivered by Z. Cook, Jr., Esq., Dr. Malthus A. Ward, Dr. 
Thaddeus W. Harris, Hon. Alexander H. Everett, and John C. Gray, 
Esq. 

As Mr. Dearborn, the President of the Society, contemplated removing 
from the State, he resigned on the tenth of September, 1834, and Z. Cook, 
Jr., Esq., was elected as his successor; but as that gentleman had been 
invited to preside over an important commercial institution in New York, 
he retired from the office, to which he had been deservedly elevated in the 
Society, before the close of the year. 

Mr. Cook was among the earliest and most energetic projectors of the 
Horticultural Society ; and from its organization to the period of his 
resignation, he was zealous and unremitting in his efforts to promote its 
prosperity and the expansion of its influence, not only by the intelligent 
practical management of an extensive garden, but by numerous interesting 
and instructive essays upon the various branches of tillage, which were 
widely circulated through the medium of the New England Farmer, and 
other periodical publications ; and to him is the Society greatly indebted 
for the valuable services which he rendered in its establishment, and while 
connected with it, by the faithful performance of the many duties which 
were devolved upon him. 

In 1835, Elijah Vose, Esq., was chosen President. During that year 
the Proprietors of lots in Mount Auburn, who were not previously mem- 
bers of the Horticultural Society, expressed a desire that the land which 
had been appropriated for the Experimental Garden should be included in 
the Cemetery, and the management of the establishment confided to them ; 
and as the members of the Society, generally, entertained an opinion that 
it was probable many years might elapse before the income from the 
Cemetery would be sufficient to defray the expense of cultivating it, in a 
satisfactory manner, and that whenever ample means could be obtained 
for such a purpose, it was possible a more eligible selection of a tract of 
land for a Garden could be made, the Society relinquished all its control 
over Mount Auburn, to the Proprietors of lots therein, upon condition that 



gO HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

there should be annually paid to the Society one-fourth part of the gross 
proceeds of the sales of lots, after there had been first deducted therefrom 
fourteen hundred dollars to pay the salary of the Superintendent, and other 
incidental expenses ; and by an Act of 1835, authorizing this arrangement 
to be made, and for constituting the Proprietors of lots a Corporation, it 
was provided, "that the money so received by the Horticultural Society 
should be forever devoted and applied to the purpose of an Experimental 
Garden, and to promote the Art and Science of Horticulture." 

This first experiment to establish a Rural Cemetery, on this Continent, 
has been prosecuted in such a successful manner as to have far exceeded 
the anticipations of the most confident among its founders, and annually 
becomes more beautiful and interesting by the extension and embellishment 
of the avenues, paths and sepulchral compartments and the erection of 
monuments. Within a few years a lofty Egyptian Gateway, formed of 
massive blocks of granite, and a magnificent Gothic Chapel, of the same 
ever-during material, have been reared, and an elegant iron fence con- 
structed on the two sides of the Cemetery which front on public highways, 
while on the southern and Avestern sides a high and substantial range 
of cedar palisades have been placed, which securely encloses the whole 
grounds. 

The favorable influence of the establishment, in exciting a more respect- 
ful and holy attention to the obsequies of departed relatives and friends, 
has been experienced throughout the Union, as many like appropriate 
places of sepulchre have been consecrated, and before many years shall 
have passed away, they will be as numerous as are the cities and large 
towns; for, with the dictates of affection, respect and piety, sanitary con- 
siderations will be united in the achievement of objects, which are as 
indispensable for the preservation of the health of the living, as they are for 
extending due honors to the dead. 

Mr. Vose filled the office of President during five years ; and so 
prosperous was the Society under his guidance, and in such an able and 
satisfactory manner did he perform the important duties of his responsible 
station, that he eminently merited and received the grateful acknowledg- 
ments of the members and their collaborators in all parts of the country. 

He had, long before his election, and has ever since, devoted a large 
portion of his time to the culture of a garden, and particularly in rearing 
the most choice varieties of fruit trees. He has also largely contributed to 
the fund of the theoretical and practical knowledge in several departments 
of horticulture, by reports and communications, which have been published 
in the Transactions of the Society, or the literary and scientific journals 
which are patronized by the " tillers of the ground." 

The successor of Mr. Vose was Colonel Marshal P. Wilder, who was 
elected at the annual meeting in 1840. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 81 

Besides the Addresses which have been named, others were delivered at 
each successive Festival, down to 1842, by Professor John Lewis Russell, 
Ezra Weston, Jr., William Lincoln and J. E. Teschemacher, Esquires. 

As those Addresses contained much valuable information in relation to 
the history, theory, practice and importance of that very pleasing portion 
of rural industry, which pertains to all the useful and ornamental divisions 
of gardening, they were printed by the Society and liberally distributed, as 
one of the most certain and acceptable modes for accomplishing the objects 
for which it was instituted, by exciting a taste for Horticulture, and inducing 
the generous co-operation of its intelligent, enterprising and ardent friends 
throughout the United States. 

That such a Society, energetically conducted, was one of the great 
wants of the age, and that its beneficial influence was rapidly and univer- 
sally experienced, has been conspicuously illustrated by the increased 
magnitude and elegance of the Weekly and Annual Exhibitions, and the 
immensely augmented number of visitants ; and at last, so great became 
the number and variety of the Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables, which were 
brought to the rooms of the Society on those occasions, it was necessary 
to erect an edifice, including a large Hall and apartments for the Library, 
the periodical meetings of the officers, and other purposes. It was com- 
pleted and dedicated on the fifteenth day of May, 1845, on which occasion 
an eloquent Address was delivered by George Lunt, Esq. This Hall, 
including the land, cost thirlyseven thousand six hundred and eightytwo 
dollars. It is situated on the southerly side of School street, nearly opposite 
the Stone Chapel. The front is of hammered granite and is embellished 
with Corinthian pilasters. The exhibition apartment is spacious and neatly 
finished in stucco, and properly furnished with all the appendages for sub- 
serving the objects for which it was constructed. It is ornamented with 
paintings of fruits, flowers and landscapes, chandeliers, and five superb 
marble and porcelain vases — two of which were presented by Josiah 
Bradlee, Esq., and one by George B. Jones, Esq., and a clock by John 
J. Low, Esq. 

But after the lapse of only a few years, it has become apparent that this 
capacious saloon is not sufficiently large, even for the Weekly Exhibitions, 
during those periods of the year when fruits, flowers and vegetables are in 
the greatest abundance and perfection : and it will soon be necessary to 
hold the Annual, as it recently has been the Triennial, Festivals in Faneuil 
Hall, — unless by the munificence of the City, or the aid of generous indi- 
viduals, apartments can be obtained for the exclusive use of the Society in 
a central and convenient position. That this will be effected in due time, 
in some manner, cannot be doubted, when the propitious results, which 
thus far have been developed and cheered on the Society, to its present 
exalted station, are justly considered and fully appreciated. 



82 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The wonderful progress which has been made in Garden Cultivation, in 
this State, since the establishment of the Society, was verified in a most 
signal and gratifying manner, by the magnificent collection of Fruits, 
Flowers and Vegetables which were exhibited at Faneuil Hall, on its 
twentieth Annual Festival, in the Autumn of 1848 ; for it was universally 
considered that it had never been equalled in this country, and would have 
favorably compared with that of any Society in Europe. For the display 
of the Fruits alone, six ranges of tables were required, which extended the 
entire length of that hall ; and its whole area, including the windows, 
galleries and columns, was superbly decorated by a profusion of flowering 
plants, which were tastefully arranged in pots, vases, glass stands, bouquets, 
festoons, wreaths and garlands. The esculent products were equally 
remarkable for number, variety and perfection of development. 

The number of distinct parcels of specimens and varieties of Fruits, 
Flowers and Vegetables presented for exhibition, were estimated to have 
been as follows : parcels of Pears, one thousand three hundred ; varieties 
three hundred and fifty — Apples, six hundred ; varieties one hundred and 
fifty — Grapes, one hundred and twentyfive ; varieties forty — Peaches, 
fifty ; varieties twentyfive — Plums, twentyfive ; varieties twelve ; making an 
aggregate of two thousand one hundred parcels, five hundred and seventy- 
seven varieties, and over eight thousand specimens ; about three thousand 
specimens of Flowers, including more than four hundred varieties, and one 
thousand five hundred specimens of Vegetables, which comprehended 
seventy varieties. 

At the first exhibition there were only fiftyfive parcels of Fruit, including 
not over thirty varieties, and not more than one hundred and twenty kinds 
of Flowers. 

At the close of that brilliant festival Col. Wilder resigned the office of 
President, which he had filled in a most efficient and acceptable manner for 
eight years ; and was succeeded by Samuel Walker, Esq. The former 
gentleman has long been distinguished for the numerous experiments he 
has made in many of the branches of cultivation, his large importations 
of the most precious varieties of fruit trees and flowering shrubs and 
plants, and his many communications on horticultural and agricultural 
subjects. 

Having done important service in one of the two chief departments of 
geoponic industry, he has recently been elected to preside over an institu- 
tion in the County of Norfolk, which includes both ; and fortunate are the 
members and the people of that section of the Commonwealth, that a 
gentleman so competent has been selected for that station ; for they may be 
assured, that whatever can be done to render that Society as beneficial to 
the proprietors of the soil, as its organization has been creditable to the 
associates, he will earnestly endeavor to achieve. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 83 

The Horticultural Society has now become so firmly established, and its 
means have been so much enlarged, as will soon enable it to accomplish all 
those great, objects for which it was founded ; and among them the estab- 
lishment of an Experimental Garden was deemed the most important, and 
there cannot be a question, that the period of its commencement is near, 
for at the last Annual meeting of the Society, the President closed his very 
interesting Address with the following commendable and encouraging sug- 
gestion. 

" When the Society shall be provided with a suitable place for all its 
exhibitions, then, as soon as its funds will permit, the purchase of a piece 
of land for an Experimental Garden, so much needed, will, I have no 
doubt, occupy the attention of the Society. Such an establishment would 
extend the sphere of our labors, and gratify the members by placing at 
their command further means of usefulness." 

The members of the Society have increased to nearly five hundred ; the 
Library contains over four hundred volumes, and the Property and Funds 
amount to fiftythree thousand seven hundred and five dollars, which have 
been derived from its portion of the proceeds of the annual sales of lots at 
Mount Auburn, — averaging about two thousand five hundred dollars per 
annum ; fees for admission to the Society, and the Exhibitions ; the 
liberal donation of Ambrose Courtis, Esquire, of five thousand dollars ; 
of Samuel Appleton, John A. Lowell, Josiah Bradlee, Esquires, and 
General Theodore Lyman of a thousand dollars each, and a munificent 
bequest of the last named gentleman of Ten Thousand Dollars. That 
distinguished philanthropist will be ever gratefully remembered by the 
citizens of his native State, for the very generous, humane and patriotic 
manner in which he disposed of a large portion of his iortune, for educa- 
ting and ameliorating the condition of the orphan, the destitute and the 
unfortunate ; the reformation of the heedless ; the extension of knowledge 
among the cultivators of the earth, and the promotion of letters, science 
and the arts ; and by his works on the " Political Condition of Italy," 
" The Diplomacy of the United States," and various olher literary produc- 
tions, his name will be perpetuated among the scholars, and statesmen of 
the age in which he lived ; while the exalted qualities of his mind and 
heart, rectitude of deportment, and gentlemanly bearing, will cause his 
memory to be cherished, by all who were so fortunate as to have been 
included among his friends and associates. Tv-are indeed is it, that any 
man descends to the tomb so respected, so honored, and so lamented. 
How mighty is the influence of such an illustrious exemplification of what 
can be done, for the benefit of the human race, by one man. It becomes 
an impressive admonition to error, a cheering incitement to virtue, and 
verifies and unites the sublime truths of philosophy, with the refulgent 
revelations of Omnipotence, which proclaim, that the meritorious will as 



84 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

certainly receive their reward on earth, as the realization of its eternal 
fruition beyond the precincts of mortality. 

The other generous patrons of the Society have long merited and 
received the commendations of their fellow-countrymen, for their large and 
numerous public and private benefactions ; but none of the recipients of 
their largesses have greater cause for gratulalion and thanks, than the 
members of that institution. 

When the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was instituted, there were 
but four in the United States, and now there are thirtysix ; seven of which 
are in Massachusetts, seven in New York, three in Pennsylvania, three in 
Ohio, two in each of the States of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, and one 
in each of the States of New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Iowa and Wisconsin. 

There is not any department of Horticulture, which has been so rapidly 
and broadly extended, as the establishment of spacious Nurseries. Thirty 
years since there were not more than five in the Union, which could be 
considered as worthy of the name, and it has been recently ascertained 
that there are between seventy and eighty, which are justly celebrated for 
the number and variety of the plants they contain ; and numerous others 
have been commenced in all parts of the country. In this State there are 
twenty which issue catalogues, and nearly two hundred which include an 
acre or more of land. It is to be regretted that we can only allude to 
some of those which are the most distinguished. 

To William Kenrick, of Newton, is due the credit of having founded 
the first really valuable Nursery in New England, and but few persons, in 
this country, have done as much to advance all the branches of rural 
culture. He has published an excellent work, called the " New American 
Orchard ist," which deservedly maintains a high reputation. 

The Nursery of the Messrs. Winship, in Brighton, was the second, which 
justly become notorious, and has ever maintained a high character, from 
its extent and skillful management. Both of these adventurous and indus- 
trious proprietors, were conspicuous for the services they rendered in the 
organization of the Society, and for the zealous manner in which they 
co-operated for its advancement. From their beautiful grounds have been 
sent a full proportion of the products of horticulture, which have decorated 
the Hall, on the days of the Weekly and Annual Exhibitions. 

Robert Manning formed a Nursery, in Salem, about twenty years since, 
which was almost exclusively appropriated to the rearing of fruit trees, as 
he was an enthusiast in their culture, and emulous to collect, from all parts 
of the world, the best varieties of each genus and species ; and his success 
may be inferred from the fact, that at one of the Annual Exhibitions, he 
presented specimens of over one hundred and sixty kinds of Pears, which he 
had raised. He was, unquestionably, the best informed and ablest pomol- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 85 

ogist in the United States, and it is doubtful whether there were many, in 
any country, who were his equals, in that very interesting and important 
branch of Horticulture. Mr. Manning commenced a work on Fruits, and 
published several numbers, with colored engravings ; but, unfortunately, 
died before its completion, as much regretted, as he had been esteemed and 
respected throughout his industrious, useful and exemplary life. 

Messrs. Hoveys' Nursery, in Cambridge, occupies thirtysix acres, and 
they state, that it contains six hundred varieties of Pears, two hundred of 
Apples, one hundred of Cherries, one hundred of Plums, seventyfive of 
Peaches, fifty of Grapes, ten of Apricots, ten of Nectarines, three of 
Quinces, fifty of Gooseberries, twelve of Currants, ten of Raspberries, 
eight of Strawberries, and one hundred kinds of Forest, and Ornamental 
Trees. Among them are seventy Pears, one hundred and twenlyfive 
Apples, forty Cherries, ten Grapes, sixty Peaches, fifty Plums, three Nec- 
tarines, three Raspberries, two Gooseberries and eight Strawberries, which 
are Native productions — -half of which, at least, are of the first quality. 
They have five glazed houses, which contain two thousand five hundred 
plants for sale, and as many more, exclusive of Trees and Shrubs, in the 
open ground. Mr. C. M. Hovey is extensively and favorably known, not 
only by the prominent position he has attained as the cultivator of a nursery, 
but as the proprietor and editor of " The Magazine of Horticulture," and 
the author of a work on " The Fruit Trees of America," illustrated with 
beautifully executed colored engravings, of the most precious varieties of 
exotic and native fruits. Having visited many of the most celebrated gar- 
dens in "England, France and this country, he has been enabled to qualify 
himself for the discharge of his various duties, in such an adequate manner 
as to obtain the confidence, and merit the plaudits, of his fellow-citizens. 

Colonel Wilder, the late President of the Society, has within a few years 
commenced a large Nursery in Dorchester, Previously he had confined 
his horticultural operations to the collection of fruit trees and ornamental 
plants, merely for the embellishment of his own grounds, and the manage- 
ment of a conservatory, which was exclusively appropriated to the culture 
of Camellias and some of the other most rare and beautiful Flowers and 
Grapes. Of the first named elegant genus, he has nearly three thousand 
plants, including upwards of three hundred varieties, many of which, and 
of a superior kind, he has raised from the seed, and for two of them he 
received a premium from the Society, as they were considered equal to 
any of the most celebrated which have been produced in Europe. His 
collection is the largest and most magnificent in America, and rivals the 
most celebrated in other nations ; for when the Abbe Berlese published his 
" Monography of the Genus Camellia,"^ about thirteen years since, he 
states, that he had " devoted twenty years to the special culture of the 



* It was translated by H. A. S. Dearborn, and published by Joseph Breck, in 1S38. 

16 



86 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

Camellia, and had obtained, at great expense and labor, the most numerous 
collection on the Continent ;" but it embraced but two hundred and eighty- 
two varieties. It is a very difficult plant to cultivate in the most perfect 
manner. The first specimens of this plant were introduced into Europe 
from Japan in 1792, and ten or twelve other kinds have since been 
imported from Japan and China, from which all the existing varieties have 
been obtained, and chiefly by the hybrid process. Having thus rivalled the 
most successful creators and cultivators of the most precious specimens of 
this highly appreciated oriental queen of flowers, Col. Wilder directed his 
attention to the collection and propagation of all the American and Euro- 
pean varieties of fruit trees, and for that purpose established a large 
nursery, in which he has been eminently successful. He has already 
fruited over three hundred kinds of Pears. 

Samuel Walker, Esq., the President of the Society, early became a 
member, and has ever since been prominent from the deep interest he has 
evinced for, and the unremitted efforts he has made, to promote its useful- 
ness and prosperity. Like most of the officers and associates of the 
Society, he has established his Home in a Garden, which ever has been 
considered as the most eligible place of abode, which the earth affords, by 
the greatest and best men of all nations, which have altained the highest 
state of civilization and refinement. It is only in such an admirable 
position that the power, beneficence and glory of the Almighty can be fully 
realized. The first and last time that the progenitors of the human race 
heard his voice, was when " walking in the Garden, in the cool of the 
day ;" and there will his spirit ever be recognized by those who go forth to 
seek it, at " early dawn or dewy eve." It was in a garden, that the 
Messenger of man's immortality sought consolation in prayer, when his 
" soul was overwhelmed with deadly sorrow," and in a garden was formed 
his sepulchre. As an able and experienced cultivator of flowering plants 
and fruit trees ; a liberal contributor of the products of his well managed 
grounds for the exhibitions, and by the faithful performance of the various 
duties which were devolved upon him, in the several responsible offices 
which he held, previous to that which he now occupies, with so much credit 
to himself and advantage to the Society and the country, Mr. Walker has 
acquired a reputation as a horticulturist, which is as extensive as it is 
deserving. For a number of years he bestowed great attention to the 
culture of Tulips, Anemones, Ranunculuses, and Violets; and also to 
the most admired herbaceous flowering plants which can be reared in the 
open ground, and with a success that has not been surpassed in the United 
States ; but at the same time, the best kind of fruit claimed equal interest ; 
and at last having gained the ascendency, he established several nurseries, 
which have been chiefly appropriated to fruit and ornamental trees. 

Joseph Breck's Nursery, in Brighton, was commenced in 1837, and 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 87 

contains most of the varieties of fruit trees and plants which are to oe 
found in those which have been named. For several years it was chiefly 
appropriated to the raising of vegetable and flower seeds ; but much atten- 
tion has lately been given to collecting hardy shrubs and herbaceous and 
bulbous rooted plants ; and the varieties of Roses, Phloxes, Pseonies and 
Tulips, are very numerous. Mr. Breck was, for many years, the propri- 
etor and editor of the New England Farmer, which was established by 
Thomas Shepard, in 1823, and edited by the late venerated Thomas G. 
Fessenden, until his decease in 1837. That paper was not only one of the 
earliest, but long continued to be the most useful, Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural journal published in this country, as it was almost exclusively 
devoted to subjects relating to Rural Economy. For several years the 
Rev. Henry Colman and Allen Putnam were successively employed as 
assistant editors ; and their eminent qualifications for that difficult station 
were conspicuously evinced by the very able manner in which they per- 
formed their duties. Mr. Breck is also well known as the proprietor of 
the first extensive Agricultural and Horticultural Warehouse and Seed 
Store that was founded in New England, and which has been justly 
celebrated for the number, variety and excellence of the implements and 
seeds, which have there been obtained and sent to all parts of the Union, as 
well as to many foreign countries. He was one of the original subscribers 
to the Society, and as a member and officer, in various responsible stations, 
his services have been of inestimable value, during the whole period of its 
existence ; and when his labors as an editor and the cultivator of a nursery 
are duly considered, it may be truly said, that but few men in the land have 
done as much to promote its utility and prosperity. 

The Nurseries under the management of Samuel Hyde, and John A. 
Kenrick, of Newton, and several others, are all worthy of the patronage 
of the public ; and so great has become the demand for trees and plants of 
all kinds, they may be assured, that it will be found difficult to meet the 
requisitions which will be made upon them, however numerous may be the 
products of each. This may be confidently inferred from the fact, that 
the annual sales of only two of the nurseries in the vicinity of Boston, 
amount to thirty thousand dollars. They may, therefore, unhesitatingly be 
guided by the emphatic injunction of the venerated " Wood-Born" Eve- 
lyn,^ and " Arise and Plant ;" and it is equally incumbent upon all 
proprietors of land, who desire orchards and groves of forest trees, for he 
adds, " what more august, more cheering and useful, than the culture and 
preservation of such goodly plantations." 

It would be difficult to do full justice to all the members of the Society, 
and many other gentlemen, who have been conspicuous for the early and 



* In his Silva and Terra, — the Pentateuch of Arboriculture, he says, "Wood-bom as I am. 



88 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

zealously continued services they 4 have rendered, in every form which might 
best promote its interests, and render it the most extensively useful to the 
country, that was practicable ; but with those who have been named, the 
following are entitled to such high consideration, that it would be inexcu- 
sable to omit an acknowledgment of the obligations of gratitude, they have 
imposed upon us and posterity; J. E. Teschemacher, Samuel Downer, 
Enoch Bartlett, Cheever Newhall, William Oliver, E. M. Richards, I. P. 
Davis, Jonathan French, Thomas H. Perkins, R. L. Emmons, George R. 
Russell, John P. Cushing, Frederick Tudor, Benjamin Guild, Gorham 
Parsons, Thomas Lee, A. Aspinwall, Eben. Wight, Josiah Stickney, J. S. 
Cabot, Robt. T. Paine, L. P. Grosvenor, Otis Johnson, David Haggerston, 
J. C. Howard, Josiah Lovett, F. W. Macondry, William Worthington, 
Aaron D. Williams, John Lemist, Aaron D. Weld, S. Downer, Jr., W. R. 
Austin, John C. Gray, Joseph Balch, H. W. Dutton, J. F. Allen, A. 
Bowditch, W. B. Kingsbury, P. Dodge, John S. Sleeper, John Prince, 
Samuel Sweetser, S. A. Shurtleff, Samuel Pond, Edward A. Newton, 
Daniel Chandler, S. R. Johnson, P. Barnes, R. M. Copeland, John Gor- 
don, L. Davenport, and William E. Carter, the Superintendent of the 
Botanic Garden in Cambridge. 

The aid which the first named gentleman has extended to the Society, as 
an intelligent botanist, chemist and physiologist, a skillful and successful 
cultivator, and an able experimentalist on the elements of soils, the prepar- 
ation and influence of fertilizing materials, and by numerous instructive 
reports and addresses, upon those and other subjects, connected with the 
theory and practical operations of gardening, have been so important, that 
he will ever retain a distinguished position among the contemporaneous 
pioneers of the age, in the science and art of Horticulture. 

It would have been in harmony with the high estimation in which all 
those other gentlemen are held, to have done them more ample justice, 
than merely to record their names; for by the influence of their example, 
as proprietors of well tilled grounds, — the collection and distribution of 
the best kinds of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants, — contributions 
to the Exhibitions and active participants in the proceedings of the Society, 
they have shown a devotion to the great objects, which it has been emulous 
to accomplish, in a manner so conspicuous, that it can never be forgotten. 

The new kinds of fruits which have been introduced, within the last 
twenty years, have been alluded to, but the additions to the ornamental 
trees, shrubs and flowers, have been quite as remarkable, for their number 
and beauty, while many useful esculent vegetables have been made known. 
It is not possible, however, to state with precision the number of species in 
each of those genera of plants ; still, from information which may be relied 
upon, it may be assumed, that nearly two thousand of the former and 
between forty and fifty of the latter are cultivated in this State. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 89 

The floAvering plants include two hundred Camellia?, one thousand two 
hundred Roses, one hundred and twentyfive Azaleas, two hundred Tulips, 
forty Pelargoniums, fifty Phloxes, fifty Verbenas, twentyfive Carnations, 
thirty herbaceous Paeonies, fifty Cactuses, two hundred Green and Hot 
House plants, many Tree Paeonies, Lilies, Gladiolus, Rhododendrons, 
Dahlias, and at least one hundred Forest and Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs, — embracing several Native plants, and among these are fifty 
Camellias ; but none are more deserving of attention than the Prairie Rose, 
and especially its hybrid varieties. This remarkably elegant climbing 
cluster species was found growing in the oak-openings of Michigan and the 
other North Western States, where it attains a height of thirty or forty feet. 
S. Feast, of Baltimore, Md., has created six, and J. Pierce, of Washington, 
twelve hybrids which are all double and are transcendently beautiful. 

The Japan Lily, which was recently brought from that island of splendid 
plants, by Dr. Van Siebold, is deemed one of the most superb acquisitions 
in the floral department of horticulture, which has ever been made. Col. 
Wilder has raised several hundred from the seed, which have been exhib- 
ited in the Hall of the Society, and fully sustained the justice of the 
distinguished praise which had been bestowed upon this fair daughter of 
the distant East. 

It may be truly affirmed, that the erection of the Horticultural Hall, 
has had a most favorable influence, and must be considered as one of the 
most effectual means, which have been adopted for augmenting the conse- 
quence and utility, and promoting the prosperity of the Society ; and to the 
unremitted efforts of the then President, Col. Wilder, B. V. French, Samuel 
Walker and Josiah Stickney, are Ave chiefly indebted for that superb struc- 
ture ; for they not only independently and honorably made use of all the 
influence at their command, as officers of the institution, but became 
personally responsible in the first great movement — the purchase of the 
land for the site ; and Avithout Avhich it could not have been accomplished. 

Hoav perfectly in harmony with the important purposes of the association, 
was the construction of that edifice ; for it having been justly said by a 
distinguished French author, that Horticulture Avas the last and most 
beautiful of the Arts, — was it not eminently proper, that the sister Arts of 
Architecture, Sculpture and Painting should become liberal contributors, in 
doing homage to her, by the establishment of a Temple, Avhere her zealous 
votaries might lay upon her altars, on the days of the established festivals, 
the precious offerings they had gathered, from the magnificent domain of 
that tutelar divinity ? This no one can doubt ; and such meritorious 
services will be remembered with gratitude by the present members of the 
Society, who are under so many obligations to their late President, and 
his associates, and will perpetuate their names as benefactors. 

Horticulture has, at last, attained an elevation in public estimation, which 



90 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

will insure its development, in every form, within the next twenty years, to 
an extent more than quadruple that which has been experienced since this 
Society was organized. It will therefore have, progressively, far more 
numerous and higher duties to perform, to sustain the attitude of relative 
consequence it has so honorably acquired ; and that all such measures as 
may be deemed requisite for accomplishing that object will be promptly 
adopted and steadfastly pursued, has been sufficiently guarantied by its 
previous history ; while it may be confidently anticipated, that the means 
and voluntary co-operation of the people will be augmented in such a 
manner as to be fully equal to that of its prospective importance to the 
country. 

The simultaneous explorations of the botanist, physiologist, mineralogist 
and chemist in the vast Daedalus of the vegetable kingdom, for ascertaining 
the characteristics, structure, organization, aliment and manner of the 
growth of plants — the climate, position and elements of the soil most con- 
genial to each species — and the mode of improving its fertility, have been 
so vigorously prosecuted, since the commencement of this century, as to 
have immensely facilitated the process, ameliorated the qualities, and 
increased the products of rural cultivation ; and that still greater and more 
satisfactory results will be obtained in the future, cannot be questioned, 
when it is known that intelligent and ardent competitors, in all those 
branches of scientific research, are continually increasing in number, with 
far advanced points of departure, from whence they are enabled to move 
forward, with such accumulated intelligence, as to inspire a confidence of 
success, in much more important discoveries. 

Besides the facilities which the cultivation of the Garden affords for 
prosecuting inquiries and instituting experiments in relation to all those 
momentous subjects, and the pleasure and advantages derived from the 
beauty and value of its diversified products, may be added many other 
correlative objects equally worthy of attention. How intensely interesting 
is the ambiguous position which is occupied by plants ; not merely from 
being intermediate between animals and minerals, and combining the qual- 
ities of each, but from their near alliance to the former ; for while chiefly 
formed of the decomposed elements of minerals, they have a mysterious 
vitality, analogous to that of animals. Pliny says, " they have, in some 
manner, a soul, for that nothing can live Avithout one." Anaxagoras, 
E raped ocles and Plato attributed animal life to plants, and conceived that 
" they were living beings ;" and the wonderful microscopic investigations 
in embryology, recently made in Germany, and repeated by Professor 
Agassiz and other disciples of Cuvier, in comparative anatomy, seem to 
verify those assumptions, from the ascertained resemblance, in organization 
and development of the ova of animals to the seeds of plants ; and thereby 
establishing and elucidating the fact, that however various their form, all 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 91 

were created in conformity to one grand and uniform system, which was 
founded upon a single primary principle, that is as beautiful for its 
simplicity, as it is astonishing in its illimitable application. 

Not less singular and admirable are the arrangements for the circulation 
of the fluids in plants ; the peculiar kind of respiration which they perform, 
through the medium of the leaves ; the abstraction of nutriment from the 
earth and atmosphere ; the power of perpetuating and extending their 
species, by such a felicitous construction of their seeds, as to secure their 
preservation for centuries, as well as their transportation, by the winds, 
waters, birds and various other extraordinary methods, to all parts of the 
globe. 

That they have a most delicate sense of touch, is beautifully illustrated 
by the contraction and drooping of the leaves of the Mimosa ;^= and their 
great sensibility to heat and cold is evinced by all, and in such a decisive 
manner, that floral horologues have been constructed, by observing the 
successive periods during the day, when certain flowers regularly unfold 
or close their corollas. 

With the infinitely diversified objects for physical and intellectual occu- 
pation, which are thus presented within the bounds of a Garden, how 
preeminent are its claims to preference, over all other positions which can 
be selected, for the acquisition of knowledge, the preservation of health, the 
inculcation of virtue and piety, and the fruition of the greatest blessing 
bestowed upon man — domestic seclusion, tranquility and peace. 

The illimitable profusion of favors conferred upon the human race, can 
only be approximately appreciated, when we consider how very few of the 
immense number have, as yet, been appropriated to meet the demand for 
nutriment, raiment, and other purposes. Three animals, — the Ox, the 
Sheep and the Silk-worm, and three plants — Wheat, Cotton and Flax, 
ever have supplied most of the food, and nearly the whole of the materials 
for clothing, of all the nations of the earth. 

Why then were the one hundred and fifty thousand animals, and the one 
hundred thousand plants, which naturalists have enumerated, placed upon 
the earth, and " dominion over them given" to man, on the day of his 
creation ? Was it not, that with his progression, towards that exalted state 
of perfection, which he was destined to attain, they should all, at last, in 
some manner, administer to his comfort or his pleasure ? 

Additions, therefore, have been gradually made for the purposes of the 
primeval selection, or as subsidiary to labor, medicine and the arts ; and as 
empires have advanced from a state of barbarism, towards the culminating 
point of their glory, the luxury of fruits, and the embellishment of flowers, 
became so consequential, as to have induced the collection and culture of 

* See Note, page 92. 



92 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

the most precious and beautiful ; and if we have not yet discovered the 
utility of but, comparatively, a very small number, still we should gratefully 
recognize the munificence of the Almighty, and doubt not that the design 
was as beneficent, as it is immense and incomprehensible. If we look up 
into the heavens, do we not behold far grander objects of amazement ; for 
of the millions of illuminated spheres which sparkle in the firmament, we 
perceive but tAvo which appear to have been formed for our benefit — the 
Sun and Moon. How fully do we thus comprehend, the sublime signifi- 
cance of those awful interrogations, which were addressed to the astounded 
patriarch of Idumea : 

Where wast thou, when I laid the foundations of the Earth 1 ? 
Knowest thou, the ordinances of the Heavens'? 

Hawthorn Cottage, | 

Boxbury, January , 1851. j 



NOTE. 

Sensibility of Plants. — Page 91. 

I was not aware, until within two years, of the remarkable and very conspicuous sensi- 
bility of the leaves of the Rhododendron, or Rose Bay. In the Spring of 1849, I obtained a 
very excellent specimen of that unrivalled variety of flowering shrubs, from the Messrs. 
Hoveys' Nursery ; and I have been astonished, and deeply interested, at the wonderful 
changes produced in the position of the leaves, by the increase and diminution of the 
temperature of the air, more especially in the Winter. 

During the period of vegetation, and at all times when the heat reaches 70 degrees of 
Fahrenheit's thermometer, the terminal leaves of the branches are elevated at an angle of 
from twenty to thirty degrees above a horizontal line, and their surfaces are flat; but as the 
temperature diminishes, they gradually droop; and when the air is cooled as low as twenty, 
their position is perpendicular, while they simultaneously roll back longitudinally, so far, 
as that the edges touch, and each becomes a perfect cylinder ; and during this process the 
color as uniformly becomes darker, until it assumes a dusky green. On the return of a 
warm day the leaves immediately begin to unroll and to rise, and the color becomes lighter, 
until it resumes the rich tint peculiar to them when perfectly matured. These changes 
are as continual and diversified as the variations of the temperature of the atmosphere, and 
during the coldest months are very great; and are as worthy of attention as they are 
singular and impressive ; for so regular are they, as to render the plant a very delicate 
Vegetable Thermometer. 

I have not seen any allusion to this extraordinary characteristic of the Rhododendron, in 
any work in which it is described. 

Although some of the most beautiful of the few natural species of this shrub are indige- 
nous to this country, it is to be regretted that it has been but little cultivated, when in 
Europe its preeminent claims to admiration have been so universally acknowledged, as to 
have rendered it a distinguished favorite. This plant and our elegant Kahnia, Azaleas, and 
Magnolias, now hold such a high rank in the collections of the most precious specimens of 
the vegetable kingdom in England, that at the last exhibition of the London Horticultural 
Society, they were considered as entitled to precedence. 




BEURRE DAREMBERG. 



THE BEURRE D'AREMBERG PEAR. 

SYNONYMS. 

Due D'Aremberg, \ 

Deschamps, > London Horticultural Society's Catalogue. 

L'Orpoleine, J 

Orpheline D'Enghien, ] 

Beurre Des Orphelines, 

Beurre Deschamps, f Of Foreign Collections. 

D'Aremberg Parfait, 

soldat laboureur, 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Obovate, obtuse pyriform, some specimens inclining to acute pyriform, but 
tapering abruptly towards the stem, where it frequently terminates in a 
fleshy junction. Outline and surface slightly irregular. 

Calyx. — Small, closed, segments short, set in a rather deeply sunk basin. 

Stem. — Short, % to M ms °f an incn m length; stout, knobby, set obliquely on one 
side, without depression, generally fleshy where it joins the fruit. 

Color. — Dull pale green, becoming, at maturity, light yellow clouded with green, and 
covered partially with traces of patches of light cinnamon russet, particularly 
at the stem and eye. 

Skin. — Moderately thick ; a little rough. 

Flesh. — White, very juicy, melting, even to the core, and uniformly free from indurated 
spots. 

Flavor. — Highly vinous, rich, delicious, perfumed, with an exquisite combination of 
the acidulous and saccharine. 

Size. — Three inches long, by two and a half in diameter. 

Core. — Medium size. 

Seeds. — Numerous, large, plump, light brown, acutely pointed. 

Leaf. — Oval acuminate, simply and slightly serrate, margins broadly undulate, petiole 
long, midrib frequently recurved. 

Wood. — Young wood, yellowish brown, dotted with pale gray specks, moderately 
vigorous, long jointed, and with small buds; that of two years or more, 
brownish gray, mottled. Both the old and new wood are occasionally mark- 
ed with roughness, resembling slight disruptions. 

Tree. — Growth upright, moderately vigorous, head compact. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

The history of the Beurre D'Aremberg Pear has been so frequently- 
given, in the Pomological books, that an account in detail might be 
deemed superfluous. Suffice it to say, that it was originated by the Abbe 

17 



94 BEURRE D'AREMBERG PEAK. 

Deschamps, in the garden of the Hospiee des Orphclines, at Enghien, 
nearly forty years since, from which circumstances it took its synonymous 
names, and finally by an error that of Beurre d'Aremberg. It was received 
in this country by the Hon. John Lowell, from Mr. Knight, President of 
the London Horticultural Society, some twentyfive years since, and also 
by Mr. Parmentier, nurseryman at Brooklyn, New York, from his brother 
Chevalier Parmentier, of Enghien, it is believed, about the same time. 

By the liberality of Mr. Lowell, scions were presented to Cheever 
Newhall, Esq., Vice President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
who fruited it, for the first time, about the year 1832, after which the tree 
died. The next exhibition of this fruit was about the year 1835, by Mr. 
Wilder, late President of the last named Association, from a strong tree 
purchased of Mrs. Parmentier, just previous to the sale of the estate of 
her deceased husband, which now constitutes a thickly settled portion of 
the city of Brooklyn. 

For some years much confusion existed as to the identity of this variety, 
there having been previously introduced into France by M. Noisette, a sort 
which he received from the Due D'Aremberg, and to which he gave the 
name of Beurre D'Aremberg. 

Noisette's variety was the true Glout Morceau, a sort, now more exten- 
sively cultivated in France than almost any other, and which still exists in 
nearly all the French Catalogues, under the former name. The two sorts 
are, however, easily distinguished ; the B. D'Aremberg being of a highly 
acidulous, and the Glout Morceau of a saccharine flavor. The wood and 
growth of these varieties are so distinct, that any person who has had much 
experience in the cultivation of fruits, would readily observe the difference. 

The true Beurre D'Aremberg has been correctly and widely disseminated 
in the United States, but to the present time it is not absolutely known in 
France, or Belgium, where it generally bears the cognomen eilher of Soldat 
Laboureur, or D'Aremberg Parfait. This variety was early distributed by 
the London Horticultural Society, but Mr. Rivers, the celebrated English 
pear grower, entertains the opinion that it is a sub-variety of the true sort, 
which he describes as a thorny tree, with fruit of the same form and 
appearance, but of less size. In this opinion Mr. Thompson, gardener 
to the London Horticultural Society, does not concur. 

Of all the foreign sorts which have been introduced into the United 
States, perhaps none have surpassed, and but few have equalled, in excel- 
lence, the Beurre D'Aremberg Pear. As a Winter dessert fruit it has long 
been esteemed by amateurs and cultivators as one of the best, if not the 
very best late pear under cultivation. 

Its highly vinous flavor does not, however, always at first please the 
palate ; but it seldom fails to become, on farther acquaintance, a general 
favorite with good judges of fine fruit. The foliage and fruit of this 



BEURRE D'AREMBERG PEAR. 95 

variety are remarkably persistent, resisting both the frosts and gales until 
late in the Autumn. As a constant hardy sort, it is unsurpassed, and for 
prolific bearing it has no superior. A tree in the grounds of Mr. Wilder 
has borne regular, and large crops, for the last fifteen years, with one 
exception, namely, the disastrous year of 1849. 

The D'Aremberg will succeed in any tolerably good location, but to 
produce fair and highly flavored specimens, the tree requires a warm 
generous much enriched soil. Under the latter influences the whole 
character of the fruit is improved, while in cold stiff soils and damp 
locations, its highly vinous flavor becomes too acidulous. 

With proper care in gathering and packing, this fruit keeps as well as 
the Russet Apple, retaining to maturity its champagne sprightliness, with 
all the freshness of a specimen just gathered from the tree. The fruit may 
be easily excited into a ripening state in November by increased warmth, 
or it can be retarded by a low temperature until March or April. 

In conclusion, the Buerre D'Aremberg possesses all the characteristics 
of a. first rate dessert fruit, and is worthy of general extension ; but it does 
not succeed on the quince. 



ftnt 



I 




DFARBOMS SEEDLINGS PEAR 



THE DEARBORN SEEDLING PEAR. 

SYNONYMS. 
CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Roundish, inclining to obovate, rounded at the crown, and narrowing but 

little at the stem. 
Calyx. — Segment short, thick and projecting. 

Stem. — Rather long, 1 to 1^ of an inch in length, slender, smooth, curved, and 
obliquely inserted. 

Color. — Pale green, becoming of a beautiful yellow at maturity, with a delicate russet 
blotch at the base of the stem, the surface dotted with minute russety specks. 

Skin. — Smooth, and very thin. 

Flesh. — Yellowish white, fine, melting, buttery, and juicy. 

Flavor. — Rich, sugary, delicately perfumed, and delicious. 

Size. — Two inches long by two in diameter. 

Core. — Medium size. 

Seeds. — Medium size, long, pointed, and dark brown. 

Leaf. — Medium size, ovate, rounded at the base, shortly pointed, smooth, undulated, 
and a little folded at the edges, with conspicuous nerves beneath, finely 
and regularly serrated ; petioles medium length, about one and a quarter 
inch, somewhat slender. 

Wood. — Brown, freckled with small grayish dots ; old wood, dull dusky green , 
buds small, short, round, erect. 

Tree. — Vigorous, erect, and rather tall, with long shoots, extending horizontally till 
within eighteen or twenty inches of the ends, which incline upwards, and 
are very erect. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

Hawthorn Cottage, \ 

Roxbury, January 1, 1851. \ 
My Dear Sir — 

Having been desired to furnish an account of the seedling pear 

"which bears my name, I enclose a copy of a letter to my excellent friend 

and one of our most zealous pioneers in the cultivation of fruit, with the 

report of the Committee, when that pear was first exhibited to the Society, 

as they contain all the intelligence in my power to communicate ; except 

that the late much respected Mr. Manning, of Salem, informed me, the last 

time he attended an Annual Exhibition, he considered the pear the best 



98 THE DE A R B It N S E E I) 1. 1 N G P E A R . 

and most precious in his very large collection of the most celebrated 
varieties of pears. 

With great respect, your most obedient servant, 

H. A. S. DEARBORN. 
Samuel Walkkr, Esq., 

President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



Brinly Plac:;, 

Roxbury, Sept. 3, 1831. 
Dear Sir — 

In conformity to your request, I submit the following account of 

the tree Avhich produced the pears recently presented to the Committee on 

Fruits, for examination. 

Some twelve years since, I discovered a young seedling pear tree in 
the border of the avenue which divides my front yard. It came up amidst 
a cluster of Syringas and Roses, and when it was about five years old, I 
concluded to transfer it to the nursery, as a stock for budding. After 
removing the earth, for over two feet in depth, it was discovered that there 
was but a single tap root, which, from its size, probably extended as much 
farther, at least ; and being apprehensive that an attempt to deplant it 
might occasion such mutilation as to render it doubtful whether it would 
survive the operation, I had the earth replaced, concluding to let it remain, 
until it bore fruit. 

The shrubs which surrounded it were removed and the tree greAv 
rapidly ; but as it was inclined to shoot up tall and slim, I headed it down, 
so as to leave it about eight feet high. It is now twenty feet in height and 
ten inches in diameter. It has never been pruned, except by cutting off 
two small branches, which projected into the avenue. The top being so 
little filled with wood and the form so regular, there has been no occasion 
to attempt improving the appearance of the tree by pruning. 

There can be no doubt that the tree sprang from a seed accidentally 
dropped in the border of the avenue, which was constantly manured and 
tilled, as there was no pear tree.^ in the vicinity, or could there have been 
for many years, if ever ; for upward of twenty years since, when my father 
purchased the estate there were eighteen Lombardy Poplars growing in 
the front yard, to the exclusion of every other kind of tree, and which 
must have been over twenty years old, as they were at least a foot in 
diameter; and after being dug up by the roots in 1810, the whole area was 
trenched, manured and planted with ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers. 

The tree is of vigorous growth, tall for its age and the size of the trunk, 

* la the rear of the house were irees of the St. Michael, St. Germain, Brown Beurre, Monsieur Jean, 
and Catharine pears, which were nearly a hundred years old. 



THE DEARBORN SEEDLING PEAR. 99 

branches long, rather slender, extending horizontally, to within eighteen 
inches or two feet of the ends, which are turned upwards nearly perpen- 
dicularly. The bark of the annual shoots is brown, freckled with small 
grayish dots, and that of the preceding year's growth and of the trunk, a 
dusky green. 

The leaves are ovate, short, rounded at the base and pointed at the other 
extremity, finely serrated, smooth, borders undulate, bright green, paler 
beneath, nerves conspicuous. 

The fruit is of a medium size, rounded at the blossom end, largest 
midway its length, and regularly diminishing in a pyramidal manner to the 
peduncle, which is inserted in a small cavity, but little depressed, the eye 
slightly sunk, leaves of ihe calyx not very prominent. 

Skin smooth, thin, green sprinkled with russet points, and a fawn colored 
blotch about half an inch in diameter round the peduncle, which is short 
and commonly bent; but within three or four days before the maturity of 
the fruit, it begins 1o acquire a lighter green tint, and when fully ripe 
becomes a delicate yellow. 

Last year there was a cluster of blossoms near the end of a lower 
branch, which produced one pear ; this year the tree has borne thirty five. 

The fruit began to ripen on the 12th, and the last were mature on the 
30th of August. 

The qualities of the fruit I have not presumed to describe, that being 
within the special province of the Committee, of which you are chairman. 
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

H. A. S. DEARBORN. 

Samuel Downer, Esq., 

Chairman of the Committee on Fruit and Fruit Trees, 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



[Tire following' statement was published in the New England Farmer, in September, 1831 ] 

DEARBORN'S SEEDLING PEAR. 

This is the name given, by the Committee on Fruits, to the pear, whose 
history is accurately delineated by the President of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, in the last number of the New England Farmer. 

This fruit was thus characterized by the Committee: — A pear rather 
under the medium size ; skin smooth and fair, and of a light yellow color ; 
very melting and of the finest flavor. Indeed, in this respect, it appeared 
fully equal to the very ancient and once famous and delicious St. Michael ; 
and as there are appearances which indicate that, it may prove a good 
bearer, it bids fair to become a valuable acquisition to our list of summer 
fruits. 



100 THE DEARBORN SEEDLING PEAR. 

Although the Committee had, in the first instance, proposed that this fruit 
should be called the Dearborn Pear, yet they were not at the moment 
aware, that in thus naming a fruit, they had been anticipated on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

The " Dearborn Pear," properly so called, is quite another fruit. It is 
a new and most superior variety raised by Dr. Van Mons, of Louvain, in 
Belgium, and was so named by him, in honor of the President. It is not 
yet in America. 

One of the Committee on Fruits. 

September 12, 1831. 










HEATHCOT PEAR. 



THE HEATHCOT PEAR. 
SYNONYMS. 

Gore's Heathcot. Kendrick • Prince's Pomological Manual. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Regularly obovate, base obtuse. 

Calyx. — Partly closed, set in a rather narrow and shallow basin, segment of the calyx 

thick and fleshy. 
Stem. — An inch long, rather stout, planted in a small shallow cavity. 
Color. — Greenish yellow, slightly overspread with russet around the stem and eye, 

becoming cream color when fully ripe. 

Skin. — Rather rough. 

Flesh. — White, buttery, fine grained, juicy and melting. 
Flavor. — Rich, sprightly vinous and excellent. 
Maturity and Use. — October. Dessert. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 1%. to 2 /4 inches. 

Do. across 234 to %% do. 

Leaf. — Oval acuminate ; petiole rather long and slender. 
Wood. — Young shoots upright ; reddish brown. 
Core. — Rather large. 
Seeds. — Dark brown, large, and pointed at the obtuse e\\<\. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

It is now nearly forty years since the Heathcot Pear originated in the 
garden of Governor Gore, of Waltham, Mass. From the record of the 
late Hon. John Lowell, and other poraologists, in the year 1828 ;^ after 
the tree had produced a crop of fruit for the preceding four years, and 
from its reputation as a superior fruit then, as well as at the present day, it 
may, we think, be very properly classed among the best and also among 
the first native varieties which have, from time to time, been brought to 
notice. At the period when the Heathcot pear was produced there were 
lew American varieties of established reputation, except the Seckel, the 
Andrews and the Petre ; since that time many, very many, other kinds 
have been added to the list, which vie with the best European varieties in 
every respect. The community are indebted to the late Jonathan Winship, 
Esq., of Brighton, for the introduction of this valuable pear to its notice. 



* New England Farmer, vol. vii. p 83. 

18 



102 THE HEATHCOT PEAR. 

Mr. Gore, very properly, named it the Heatlicot, to record the name of the 
gardener who sowed the seed. The tree is hardy, but not a rapid grower, 
its branches are slender and thick, making a compact or bushy head. It is 
not an early bearer, but when the tree becomes matured it produces a 
yearly crop. On the quince it is found not to succeed. 




P.ED ASTRACHAM APPLE . 



THE RED ASTRACHAN APPLE. 

SYNONYMS. 
CHARACTERS. 

Form. — Roundish ; tapering towards the calyx. 

Calyx. — Rather large, set in an uneven, shallow basin. 

Stem.— About half an inch long, stout, and deeply inserted. 

Color. — Rich deep crimson, tinged with greenish yellow on the shady side, with 

occasionally a dash of russet near the stalk, the whole surface covered with 

bloom. 

Skin. — Smooth. 

Flesh. — White, sometimes slightly stained with pink, crispy, tender: and juicy. 

Flavor. — Rich sub-acid. 

Maturity and Use. — August. Good for dessert and cooking. 

Size. — Diameter from calyx to stem 2 to 2% inches. 
Do. across 3 to 3^ do. 

Wood. — Reddish chestnut, pubescent at terminations. 

, Leaf. — Rather large, wavy, deeply serrated. 

Buds. — Flower buds rather large. 

Flowers. — Medium size. 

HISTORY AND CULTIVATION. 

This beautiful Apple originated in Sweden, was introduced into England 
in 1815 or 1816, and fruited by Mr. Atkinson, in his garden, at Grove 
End, near London. The fruit was exhibited before the London Horticul- 
tural Society in the year 1820. 

For several years past, specimens of extraordinary beauty have been 
presented to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society by amateurs from the 
vicinity of Boston, and more particularly by Otis Johnson, Esq., of Lynn. 
Its singular richness of color is heightened by an exquisite bloom like that 
of a plum, and it may truly be placed among the handsomest ornaments of 
the dessert. The fruit should be taken from the tree at its earliest maturity, 
as it is liable to become mealy. 

The cultivation of this variety is at present rather limited, but it will 
undoubtedly be extended, as its merits become more generally known, 
being decidedly one of the most productive and beautiful of the Summer 
apples. The tree is upright, has a handsome head, is an early bearer and 
of vigorous growth. From a warm and well cultivated soil the best speci- 
mens may be expected. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 



SOCIETY. 




VOLUME I. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 
BY WILLIAM D. TICKNOR & COMPANY, 

CORNER OF WASHINGTON AND SCHOOL STREETS. 

MDCCCXLVII. 



CONTENTS 



OF 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PAGE 

Business Meeting, January 2. 1847, ....... 3 

Report of Committee of Finance, -...- = ..3 

Business Meeting January 9, -------- 5 

Do. Do. January 23, ........ q 

Prospective Premiums, - - ....... g 

Special Prize List of Fruits, ...... - . 7 

Premiums for Fruits, ......... 7 

Premium for Fruits during the Season, • ---... g 

Premiums for Plants, Flowers and Designs, ...... 9 

Green-House Plants, in Pots, through the season, - - - - . - 9 

Do. Do. Do. at the opening of the Hall, 9 

Bouquets, Wreaths, Designs, &c, - - - - - - . -11 

Premiums to be awarded at Weekly Exhibitions, ..... 23 

Premiums for Vegetables, - - - - - - . -13 

Rules and Regulations, --------.14 

Business Meeting, February 6, - - - - - - - - 15 

Exhibition, February 13, •------. 15 

Award of Premiums for Camellias and Primulas, - - - - . - 16 

Business Meeting, March 6, ........ jq 

Exhibition of Fruits, - - - - - - - - -17 

Business Meeting, March 13, -------- 17 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - - - - - -IS 

Premiums, .......... iq 

Business Meeting, March 20, -----... 19 

Exhibition of Flowers and Fruits, ...... - 20 

Exhibition, March 27, -------- 20 

Business Meeting, April 3, ...... --20 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - • - . . -2L 

Business Meeting, April 10, ........ 22 

. 22 
........ 2 2 

- 23 
- . - - - - - 23 

- E3 
Exhibition of Green-House Plants, --.....24 

Award of Premiums, ......... 25 

Gratuities, -------.. -26 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, - - - - - . - 26 

A 



Do. 


Do. 


April 17, 


Do. 


Do. 


April 24, 


Do. 


Do. 


May 1, 


Do. 


Do. 


May 8, 


Do. 


Do. 


May 15, 



11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Exhibition, May 22, -------.. 26 

Award of Premiums, - ...... .27 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, ---.... 27 

Exhibition, May 29,1 -*•-••-.- 27 

Award of Premiums, --------. 28 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, - - . . . . -28 

Business Meeting, June 5, ...... - - 29 

Exhibition of Flowers, ......... 29 

Award of Premiums, --.-.....30 

Exhibition, June 12, - - - - . . . . . -31 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - -'. - . . 31 

Award of Premiums and Gratuities, - - - . - - - 32 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 32 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - - - - - - -33 

Business Meeting, June 19, - - .^ ..... 33 

Report of Fruit Committee on Special Prize List for 1846, - - - - 33 

Exhibition of Flowers, ---......34 

Award of Premiums, ----.....35 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, ....... 35 

Exhibition, June 26, - - - - - - - - -36 

Exhibition of Flowers, ....... - 36 

Award of Fremiums on Roses, Pinks, &c., - - - - - - 37 

Exhibition of Fruits, ----.....35 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - - - - - - -39 

Business Meeting, July 3, - - - - - - - 39 

Exhibition of Flowers, - ........40 

Award of Premiums, - - - - - - -- -41 

Exhibition of Fruits, - - - - - - - - -41 

Exhibition, July 10, .... ..... 42 

Exhibition of Flowers, .........42 

Award of Premiums and Gratuities, .......43 

Exhibition of Fruits, - - - - - - - - -43 

Business Meeting, July 17, -------- 44 

Exhibition of Flowers, .........44 

Award of Premiums, -- - - - - - - -45 

Exhibition of Fruits, - - - - - - - - -45 

Exhibition of Vegetables, ........47 

Exhibition, July 24, ......... 47 

Exhibition of Flowers, .....---47 

Award of Premiums and Gratuities, - - - - - - -48 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 48 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - - - - - - -49 

Exhibition, July 31, - - - - - - - - - 49 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - - - - - -49 

Award of Premiums, --.-.....49 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, • - - - - - -50 

Business Meeting, August 7, - - - - - -. - 50 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - • - - - -51 

Award of Premiums and Gratuities, ....... 52 

Exhibition of Fruits, - - - - - - - - - 52 

Award of Premiums, .........53 

Exhibition of Vegetables, ...--...-53 
Exhibition, August 14, ........ 53 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - - - - - - 53 



CONTENTS. iii 

PAGE. 

Award of Premiums and Gratuities, .......54 

Exhibition of Fruits, * - - - - - - - -54 

Business Meeting, August 21, --•---"• 55 

Exhibition of Flowers, »-•-.-»*.. 55 

Award of Premiums, ....-. = ..55 

Gratuities, »»»....'. . . . . gg 

Exhibition of Fruits, ....... ..56 

Business Meeting, August 28, ........ 57 

Exhibition of Flowers, ---.--...57 
Award of Premiums, - - - - - - - - -57 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables, ....... 58 

Exhibition, September 2, - - - • - - - -59 

Exhibition of Flowers, ........59 

Award of Premiums, » - - - - - - - -59 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 60 

Award of Premiums, ..... .... 61 

Business Meeting, September 11, ....... 61 

Exhibition of Flowers, - - - - - - - - - 62 

Award of Premiums, .-.-.....63 

Exhibition of Fruits, ....... - - 63 

Fruits Tested, .......... 64 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - . - . . - - 64 

Business Meeting, September IS, ....... 64 

Annual Exhibition, September 22, 1847, - - - - - - -65 

Report of Committee of Arrangements, ...... 65 

Exhibition of Flowers, ......... 66 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 68 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - ........ 75 

Award of Premiums, ...-....-76 

Gratuities, ...........77 

Fruits Tested, September 24, -------- 78 

Business Meeting, September 25, - - • - - - - - 79 

Fruits Tested, .......... 79 

Annual Meeting, October 2, ........ 79 

Exhibition of Flowers, ........ 80 

Award of Premiums, - - - - - - - - - 81 

Exhibition of Vegetables, ........ 82 

Exhibition, October 9, ......... 82 

Exhibition of Flowers and Fruits, - - - - - - - S2 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - - - - ... - 83 

Business Meeting, October 16, -------- 83 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 83 

Fruits Tested, .......... 84 

Exhibition of Vegetables, - - - - - - - - -84 

Business Meeting, October 23, ......--84 

Exhibition of Fruits, .........85 

Fruits Tested, ........ - - 85 

Business Meeting, October 30, ........ 86 

Rules of American Pomology, - ....... 86 

Exhibition of Fruits, ......... 87 

Fruits Tested, .......... 87 

Exhibition, November 6, - - - - - - - - -87 

Business Meeting, November 13, ....... 88 

Exhibition of Fruits, ..... . 88 



IV 



CONTENTS 



Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 



Exhibition, November 20, 
Business Meeting, November 27, 
Exhibition of Fruits, - 

Business Meeting, December 4, 
Exhibition of Fruits, December 11, 
Business Meeting, December 25, 
Premiums not before Reported, - 
Business Meeting, January 8, 1848, 

April 1, 

June 3, - 

June 17, 

August 19, 

September 2, 
Annual Exhibition, September 19, 1848, 
Report of the Committee of Arrangements, 
Exhibition of Fruits, 
Exhibition of Flowers, - 
Exhibition of Vegetables, 
Reports of Committees, - 
Business Meeting, September 23, 

September 30, 

October 7, 

October 21, 

November 4, 

November 18, 

December 2, 

December 16, 

December 23, 

January 6, 1849, 

January 20, 

February 3, - 

February 17, 

March 3, 

April 7, - 

April 21, 

April 28, - 

May 12, 

May 19, 

June 2, 

June 16, 

June 30, 

August 4, - 

August 18, 

August 25, 
Annual Exhibition, September 18, 1849, 
Report of the Committee of Arrangements, 
Exhibition of Fruits, ... 

Exhibition of Plants, 
Exhibition of Flowers and Bouquets, 
Exhibition of Vegetables, 
Business Meeting, September 22, 
Do. Do. September 29, 

Do. Do. October 6, 

Do. Do. October 13, 



Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 



t'ACti. 

83 

- 89 
89 

- 89 
90 

- 90 
91 

- 93 
95 

- 95 
95 

- 96 
96 

- 97 
97 

- 97 
107 

- 108 
109 

- 112 
112 

- 112 
113 

- 114 
114 

- 114 
114 

- 115 
115 

- 117 
118 

- 118 
ll'Jr 

- 119 
119 

- 119 
120 

- 121 
121 

- 121 
121 

- 122 
122 

- 122 
125 

- 125 
125> 

- 130 
130 

- 131 
131 

- 132 
133 

- 133 



CONTENTS 



V 



Business Meeting, November 3, 
November 17, 
December 1, 
December 22, 
December 29, 
January 5, 1850, 
January 12, 
January 26, 
February 9, 
February 23, 
March 9, 
March 20, 
April 16, 
May 4, 
July 13, 
July 20, - 
August 3, 
August 17, 
August 31, 
Annual Exhibition, September 17, 1850, 
Report of Committee of Arrangements, 
Plants, Cut Flowers, &c, 
Business Meeting, September 21, 
Do. Do. October 5, 

Do. Do. November 2, • 

Do, Do. December 7, 

Do. Do. December 14, 

Do. Do. December 21, 

Do. Do. December 28, 

Report of the Committee on Gardens, 
Report of the Committee on Flowers, 
Report of the Committee on Fruits, 
Report of the Committee on Vegetables, 
Business Meeting, January 4, 1351, - 



Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do, 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 



Do. 


Do. 


January 18, 


Do. 


Do. 


February 1, 


Do. 


Do. 


February 15, 


Do. 


Do. 


March 1, 


Do. 


Do. 


March 8, 


Do. 


Do. 


March 15, 


Do. 


Do. 


March 22, 


Do. 


Do. 


April 5, 


Do. 


Do. 


May 31, 


Do. 


Do. 


June 14, 


Do. 


Do. 


July 19, 


Do. 


Do. 


July 26, 


Do. 


Do. 


August 9, 


Do. 


Do. 


August 23, 


Do. 


Do. 


September 6, 


Do. 


Do. 


September 13, 


Annual E: 


shibition, September 17, 1851, 


Exhibition of Fruits, 


Exhibition of Plants, Cut Flowers, &c, 


Exhibition of Ve 


getables, 



PAGii. 

134 

- 134 
135 

- 135 
135 

- 135 
136 

- 139 
140 

- 140 
140 

- 145 
145 

- 146 
146 

- 146 
147 

- 147 
147 

- 148 
148 

- 150 
151 

- 151 
152 

- 152 
152 

- 152 
152 

- 153 
154 

- 156 
162 

- 163 
166 

- 166 
167 

- 167 
168 

- 168 
168 

- 170 
171 

- 172 
173 

- 173 
173 

- 173 
174 

- 174 
174 

- 174 
178 

- 178 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 



Business Meeting, September 27, 

October 4, ... 

November 29, 

December 13, - 

December 20, 

December 27, - 

Report of the Committee on Gardens, 
Report of the Committee on Flowers, 
Report of the Committee on Fruits, 
Report of the Committee on Vegetables, 
Names of the Life Members of the Society, 
Names of the Annual Members of the Society, 
Names of the Honorary Members of the Society, 
Names of the Corresponding Members of the Society, 
Catalogue of Books in the Library, 



FACIE. 

178 

- 179 
179 

- ISO 
ISO 

- ISO 
180 

- 181 
185 

- 193 
197 

- 199 
204 

- 207 
211 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 2, 1847. 
President, Marshall P. Wllder, in the Chair. 
Francis Thieler was proposed for membership, by the President. 
Parker Barnes having declined to act upon the Committee of Flowers, it was 
Voted, That William B. Richards be appointed to fill the vacancy. 
The Committee of Finance made the following Report on the state of the Treasury, 



December 31, 1846: — 

RECEIPTS FROM APRIL 1 TO DECEMBER 31. 

Balance in the Treasury, April 1, 1846, 

Donation for Special Premiums, ------- 

Rent of Store, •-- 

Rent of Hall, -- 

Received for Tickets of Admission, - - - - 

Admission Fees and Assessments, 

Interest on the Lyman Fund, -.-..-. 



EXPENDITURES. 
Paid Premiums, - - - - • - - - 

Door Keeper and care of Hall, .... 

Fixtures of Hall, - 

Gas, - - - 

Diplomas. .- -. 

Interest on Loan, --....„ 

Taxes, - 

Library, - - - 

Printing, 

Salary of Treasurer and Secretary, - 

Two Vases, 

Medals from London Horticultural Society, 

One large Iron Safe, 

Premium for Stock on investing the Lyman Fund, - 

Miscellaneous Expenses, -----. 
Balance in the hands of the Treasurer, December 31, 1846, 



(Signed,) 



$10 27 

300 00 

750 00 

400 00 

790 07 

1,056 00 

40 00 



$3,346 


34 


$1,042 00 


256 


60 


208 


05 


17 


60 


40 


50 


750 


00 


90 


00 


51 


18 


25 


67 


100 


00 


95 


00 


20 


94 


109 


36 


80 


00 


399 


86 


59 


58 



$3,346 34 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 

Chairman of Committee of Finance. 



390 


00 


95 


00 


150 


00 


900 


00 


1,200 


00 


300 


00 


1,000 


00 


1,000 


00 


1,000 


00 



4 PROCEEDINGS. 

In conformity with a provision of the By-Laws of the Society, the Finance Committee 
submitted the following Schedule of the Property of the Association : — 

Horticultural Hall, in School street, valued at $36,000 00 

Three Chandeliers in said Hall, . . . «. 

Two Marble Vases, 

Two elegant China Vases, presented by Josiah Bradlee, Esq., - 

A large quantity of Glass, and other Ware, employed in the exhibition of Fruits 

and Flowers, 

Library of the Society, consisting of about three hundred volumes, 

Furniture of the Library, and Safe, -.- 

Appleton Fund, invested in the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, 

Lowell Fund, invested in said Company, 

Lyman Fund, invested in Shares of the Shoe and Leather Dealers' Bank, 

$42,035 00 

The only debt of the Society, known to the Committee, is a note secured by mortgage 
on their real estate, for fifteen thousand dollars, dated May 18, 1844, payable in five years, 
with interest, at the rate of five per cent per annum, payable half-yearly. 
(Signed,) For the Finance Committee, 

CHEEVER NEWHALL. Chairman. 

Cheever Newhall, as Chairman of the Finance Committee, delivered to the Treasurer 
two Certificates of Stock in the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, numbered 
2638 and 2599, for one thousand dollars each. 

Samuel Walker offered the following : — 

Whereas, Ebenezer Wight, Esq., has discharged the duties of Recording Secretary with 
assiduity and untiring zeal, and until the present season, without compensation or reward, 
therefore 

Voted, That the thanks of this Society be presented to our late Recording Secretary, 
Ebenezer Wight, Esq., for his valuable services. 

Voted, That a Committee of three be appointed by the Chair, to purchase a Gold Pen, 
a Gold Pencil Case, and an ornamental Inkstand, or any other article more acceptable to 
Mr. Wight, in value not exceeding fifty dollars; have a suitable inscription engraved 
thereon, and present the same in behalf of the Society, to our esteemed member, Eben- 
ezer Wight, Esq., our late Recording Secretary. 

Voted, That the Recording Secretary be requested to furnish Mr. Wight with a copy of 
the above votes at an early day. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. Samuel Walker, E. M. Richards, and C. M. Hovey, to 
carry the above into effect. 

An amendment to the 20th section of the By-Laws of the Society was proposed by 
Samuel Walker, as follows : — To strike out all after the word " them," in the 22d line 
from the top, to the end of said section, being the last line on page 9, of the present edition 
of the By-Laws. 

Voted, That the foregoing amendment be entered on the Journal, to be acted upon at 
the stated meeting of the Society, in April next. 

The following named gentlemen were proposed by the Executive Committee, for 
Honorary and Corresponding Membership, and were admitted. 

Honorary. — Baron Justus Liebig; Dr. Lindley, Secretary of the London Horticultural 
Society ; Hon. Theodore Freylinghuysen, President of the American Agricultural Associ- 
ation; Col. Thomas H. Perkins, Brookline, Mass.; John P. Cushing, Esq., Watertown, 
Mass.; Hon. John Davis, LL. D., Boston; Josiah Bradlee, Esq., Boston; Stephen H. 



PROCEEDINGS. 5 

Smith, Esq., President of the Rhode Island Horticultural Society; A. S. Monson, M. D., 
President of the New Haven Horticultural Society. 

Corresponding. — Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge ; Professor E. N. Horsford, do. ; Henry 
Colman, Esq. ; Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Editor of the Western Farmer and Gardener ; 
A.'B. Allen, Esq., Editor of the American Agriculturist, N. Y. ; Luther Tucker, Esq., 
Editor of the Cultivator, Albany; Thomas Rivers, Esq., Sawbridgeworfh, England; M. 
Laffay, Belleveu, near Paris, France ; Robert Buist, Esq., Philadelphia; J. B. Russell, Esq., 
Cincinnati, Ohio ; William D. Brinckle, M. D., Philadelphia ; Capt. James T. Gerry, U. S. 
Navy ; Hon. George Lunt, Newburyport; Edmund Beck, Esq., Worton College, Isleworfh, 
near London ; C. Mackintosh, Esq., Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh ; Joseph Paxton, 
Esq., Chatsworth England; R. Glendenning, Esq., Chiswick, near London. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 9, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following was offered by the Executive Committee : — 

Whereas, the Committee for Establishing Premiums has submitted a list to the Executive 

Committee, not in accordance, in some respects with the appropriation, and whereas, 

the offering of premiums for large designs, such as Temples, Pagodas, &c, is deemed not 

to be in good taste, but calculated to encourage the skill of the Architect rather than that of 

the Florist, therefore 

Voted, That in conformity with a desire expressed by the Committee for Establishing 

Premiums, the particular appropriation for Designs and Decorations be dispensed with, and 

that the following apportionment to the respective departments be made, instead of that 

ordered by the vote of the 26th of December last, viz. : — 

Special Prize List for Fruits, - - - -, - - - $100 00 

For Fruits, 450 00 

For Decorations, Plants and Flowers, 650 00 

For Vegetables, - - - - - ■, - •? - 150 00 

SI, 350 00 

Voted, That the foregoing be accepted. 

The Committee appointed to examine the accounts of the Mount Auburn Cemetery, 
reported, 

That they had attended to that duty, and had received of George W. Bond, Esq., the 
Treasurer of said Association, the sum of three thousand two hundred and thirtythree 
dollars and fortyone cents, being the Society's proportion of the net receipts for the year 
ending December 31, 1846. 

The Committee also report, that they have paid this sum into the Treasury. 

(Signed,) MARSHALL P. WILDER, for the Committee. 

The Executive Committee reported, verbally, that they had renewedly made claim for 
the Society's proportion of the amount received for private interments at Mount Auburn. 

Voted, That a Committee of three be appointed, at large, to nominate thirteen persons to 
act as a Committee of Arrangements to superintend the annual exhibition. 

Messrs. David Haggerston, Otis Johnson, and Samuel Walker, were appointed that 
Committee. 

Voted, That the Lowell Medals shall correspond, in size and value, with the Appleton, 
and that the Committee on Medals be, and hereby are, authorised and instructed, to pro- 
cure suitable dies for this purpose. 

On motion of Cheever Newhall, it was 

2 



6 PROCEEDINGS. 

Voted, That a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars, of any money in the Treasury 
not otherwise appropriated, be placed at the disposal of the Library Committee, for the 
increase of the Library, and that said Committee report a list of such Books as they recom- 
mend, to the Society for approval. 

Voted, To place in the hands of the Library Committee, the sum of fifty dollars, to be 
appropriated for the Salary of the Librarian. 
On motion of Cheever Newhall, it was 

Voted, That the Committee of Finance be instructed to invest twentyflve hundred dollars 
of the amount received the present year from the Treasurer of Mount Auburn, in Stock, 
at their discretion, and that it be held, and specially applied to the payment of the debt of 
the Society which becomes due and payable in May, 1849. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 23, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

President Wilder, for the Executive Committee, presented the following Resolution : — 

Whereas, the production of Native Trees and Plants is calculated to ensure those well 
adapted to our soils and climate, and in view of the success that has attended the hitherto 
limited efforts in this department of science, whether by hybridization, or otherwise, and 

Whereas, a large number of good American Fruits have already arisen spontaneously 
from seed, thereby affording great encouragement to the cultivator for the application of 
his skill in raising new varieties, Therefore, 

«-J 7 7 

Resolved, That it is the interest and duty of this Society to offer a list of Prospective 
Premiums, for the purpose of exciting a more wide spread emulation in this branch of 
Vegetable Physiology. 

Voted, That the foregoing Report of the Executive Committee be accepted, and that the 
same be placed in the hands of the Committee for Establishing Premiums, with directions 
to report a list in accordance with the Resolution. 

The Committee for Establishing Premiums subsequently reported the following list of 

PROSPECTIVE PREMIUMS, 
For objects to be originated subsequent to A. D. 1846, which shall, after a trial of five 
years, be deemed equal or superior in quality, and other characteristics, to any now extant. 

For the best Seedling Pear, the Society's Gold Medal, valued at 

Apple, the Society's Gold Medal, ... 

Hardy Grape, the Society's Gold Medal, 

Plum, the Appleton Gold Medal, ... 

Cherry, the Lowell Gold Medal, - 

Strawberry, the Lyman Plate, - - - • 

Raspberry, the Lyman Plate, - 

Hardy Rose, the Society's Gold Medal, 

Camellia, the Society's Gold Medal, 

Azalea Indica, the Lowell Gold Medal, 

Tree Paeonia, the Appleton Gold Medal, 

Herbaceous Paeonia, the Lowell Gold Medal, 

Potato, the Society's Gold Medal, - 

(Signed,) SAMUEL WALKER, 

C. M. HOVEY, 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, 



a 


a 


it 


it 


tt 


a 


tt 


tt 


u 


a 


it 


it 


u 


a 


tt 


it 


it 


tt 


it 


it 


a 


it 


a 


tt 


a 


11 


it 


tt 


it 


tt 


it 


tt 


a 


a 


tt 


it 


u 


it 


« 


tt 


it 


It 


a 


it 


(( 


t: 


a 


tt 



$60 00 


- 60 


00 


60 


00 


- 40 


00 


40 


00 


- 50 


00 


40 


00 


60 00 


60 


00 


40 


00 


40 


00 


- 40 


00 


60 


00 


Committee. 



PROCEEDINGS. 7 

The Committee appointed to nominate a Committee of Arrangements for the Annual 
Exhibition of the Society, for A. D. 1847, reported, that they had attended to their duty, 
and submitted the following list, viz. : — 

H. W. Dutton, Chairman ; E. M. Richards; Joseph Breck ; Otis Johnson; P. B. Hovey; 
Josiah Lovett, 2d ; C. M. Hovey ; F. W. Macondray ; Alexander McLennan ; Ebenezer 
Wight; William Quant; David Haggerston; A. D. Williams, Jr. 

(Signed,) DAVID HAGGERSTON, Chairman. 

The following Report of the Committee for Establishing Premiums, as amended and 
approved by the Executive Committee, together with the Rules and Regulations annexed, 
was accepted : — 

SPECIAL PRIZE LIST OF FRUITS, 
To be Awarded in the year 1847, viz: Twenty Prizes of Five Dollars each. 

2 prizes for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Apples. 

2 " " " " « Autumn Apples. 

2 « " " « « Winter Apples. 

2 i: " " " " Summer Pears. 

2 " " " " " Autumn Pears. 

2 " " " " « Winter Pears. 

2 " u best varieties of Cherries. 

2 " " « " Plums. 

4 " " " «■ Peaches. 

20 prizes, at $5 each=$100. 

The specimens presented for the above prizes, shall consist of not less than three speci- 
mens of each variety of Apples, Pears and Peaches ; not less than one dozen Plums, and 
two dozen Cherries; all of which shall be at the disposal of the Committee on Fruits. 

PREMIUMS FOR FRUITS. 

AMOUNT APPROPRIATED, FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS. 

For the best and most interesting Exhibition of Fruits, during the season, the Lowell 

Gold Medal, valued at - $40 00 

TO BE AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION IN SEPTEMBER. 

Apples. — For the best exhibition, a premium of the Society's Plate, valued at $25 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of the Appleton Silver Gilt Medal, - - 10 00 
For the 3d best do., a premium of --5 00 

Pears. — For the best exhibition, a premium of the Lyman Plate, valued at - 25 00 
For the 2d best do., a premium of the Lowell Silver Gilt Medal, - - - 10 00 
For the 3d best do., a premium of 5 00 

Grapes. — For the best exhibited, three varieties, two bunches each, the Lyman Plate. 25 00 

For the next best exhibited, 2d premium, 10 00 

For the next best exhibited, 3d premium, ------- 5 00 

Assorted Fruit. — For the best basket of Fruit, of various kinds, a premium of - 10 00 

For the next best do., 2d premium of 7 00 

For the next best do., 3d premium of 5 00 

For the best dish of Apples, not less than twelve specimens of one variety, a 

premium of- - 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of - - -3 00 

For the best dish of Pears, not less than twelve specimens of one variety, a 

premium of 5 00 

For the next best do., a premium of -3 00 

Assorted Fruits in baskets shall not be entitled to any other than the premium for such. 
\£^The above premiums to be awarded on the first day of the Exhibition. == £J\ 



8 PROCEEDINGS. 

PREMIUMS DURING THE SEASON. 

Apples. — For the best Summer Apples, on or before 1st September, a premium of $6 00 

For the next best do., a premium of 4 00 

For the best Fall Apples, on or before the 1st of December, a premium of - 6 00 

For the next best do., a premium of-' 4 00 

For the best Winter Apples, on or before the 1st March, a premium of - - 6 00 

For the next best do., a premium of 4 00 

Pears. — For the best collection of new Pears, not exhibited before this year, a 

premium of the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, 15 00 

For the next best, 10 00 

For the best Summer Pears, on or before the 1st September, a premium of 6 00 

For the next best do., a premium of 4 00 

For the best Fall Pears, on or before the 1st December, a premium of - 6 00 

For the next best do., a premium of 4 00 

For the best Winter Pears, on or before the 1st March, 1848, a premium of - 10 00 

For the next best do., a premium of 6 00 

Cherries. — For the best specimen, not less than two quarts, a premium of - 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 4 00 

Peaches. — For the best specimens grown under glass, a premium of - 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 4 00 

For the best specimens grown in open culture, a premium of - - - - 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of - 4 00 

Apricots. — For the best specimen of Apricots, a premium of - - - - 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Nectarines. — For the best specimen of Nectarines, a premium of - - 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 4 00 

Quinces. — For the best specimens of the best kind of Quinces, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Plums. — For the best Plums of the best flavor, not less than two quarts, a premium of 6 00 
For the next best do., a premium of - - - - - - - - -3 00 

Gooseberries. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two boxes, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Currants. — For the best flavored and finest specimens, two boxes, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of- - 3 00 

Raspberries. — For the best specimens of Raspberries, not less than two boxes, a 

premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of - - - 3 00 

Strawberries. — For the best specimens of Strawberries, not less than two boxes, 

a premium of 6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of - - -4 00 

For the 3d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Water Melon. — For the best specimen of Water Melon, a premium of - - 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Musk Melon. — For the best Musk Melon, a premium of - - - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Figs. — For the best specimen of Figs, a premium of- - - - - -5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 3 00 

Grapes. — For the best specimens and the best varieties of Grapes, grown under 

glass, previous of July 1st, a premium of 10 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 7 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 9 

For the best specimens and varieties of Grapes, grown under glass, sub- 
sequently to July 1st, $10 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of 7 00 

Grapes, (Native.) — For the best specimen and variety of Native Grapes, a premium 

of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of- 3 00 

$450 00 

Q3 ?= "The Committee on Fruit will hold a session to award the premiums on Summer 
Apples and Pears, on the 1st Saturday in September • on Fall Apples and Pears, on the 1st 
Saturday in December, and on Winter Apples and Pears, on the 1st Saturday in March. 

All gratuities for seedling will be equal to the highest prize awarded to that variety of 
fruit. 



PREMIUMS FOR PLANTS, FLOWERS, AND DESIGNS. 

AMOUNT APPROPRIATED SIX HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS. 
DISPLAY OF GREEN-HOUSE PLANTS, IN POTS, THROUGH THE SEASON. 

For the best display of Green-House Plants in pots, through the season, the Appleton 

Gold Medal, valued at $40 00 

For the 2d best display of do., the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, valued at - 15 00 

Provided, however, that whatever amount may be awarded during the season, for the exhibi- 
tion of Pot Plants, to the person who shall be entitled to said Medals, shall be deemed as consti- 
tuting a part of their value. 

DISPLAY OF GREEN-HOUSE PLANTS IN POTS, TO BE EXHIBITED ATTHE 
OPENING OF THE HALL, ON THE FIRST SATURDAY IN MAY. 

Pelargoniums. — Class I. — For the best six new and rare varieties, grown in six- 
inch pots, a premium of $6 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of- - - -- - - - ■- 4 00 

Pelargoniums. — Class II. — For the best six varieties of any sort, grown in large 

pots, a premium of 6 00 

For the 2d best do., 4 00 

Roses. — For the best six varieties of Tea, Bourbon, Noisette, or Bengal, a premium 

of 6 00 

For the 2d best do., - ' 4 00 

For the 3d best do., - 2 00 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display, a premium of - - - - - . -3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Fuchsias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of - - - -*- -6 00 

For the 2d best do., 4 00 

Cactus. — For the best six varieties, a premium of- - - - - - -3 00 

For the 2d best do., •- 2 00 

Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Cinerarias. — For the best six varieties, a premium of- - - - -3 00 

For the 2d best do., - - 2 00 

Heaths. — For the best varieties, a premium of - - - - - - - -3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 



10 PROCEEDINGS. 

Various Sorts. — For the best display of various sorts of Green-House Plants, not 

less than twelve pots, a premium of $8 00 

For the 2d best display, 5 00 

Hyacinths. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in May. 

For the best display, not less than twenty varieties, $5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

Tulips. — Premiums to be awarded the third Saturday in May. 

For the best thirty distinct varieties, a premium of 8 00 

For the 2d best do., 6 00 

For the 3d best do., - 3 00 

Pansies. — Premiums to be awarded the fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best twelve distinct varieties, a premium of 4 00 

For the 2d best do., - - 3 00 

For the 3d best do., 2 00 

Hawthorns. — Premiums to be awarded the fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best display, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Hardy Azaleas. — Premiums to be awarded fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best display, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Shrubby Pjeonies. — Premiums to be awarded fourth Saturday in May. 

For the best six varieties, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., - 4 00 

For the best display, - - -3 00 

Herbaceous Peonies. — Premiums to be awarded 2d Saturday in June. 

For the best 12 flowers, having regard to the number of varieties, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., 4 00 

For the best display, - - 3 00 

Pinks. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in June. 

For the best six distinct varieties, a premium of 4 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

For the best display, 2 00 

Ranunculus. — Premiums to be awarded in June. 

For the best display, a premium of -5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

Anemones. — Premiums to be awarded in June. 

For the best display, a premium of ........5 00 

For the 2d best do., ----- 3 00 

Hardy Roses. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in June. 

CLASS 1 . 

For the best thirty distinct varieties, a premium of 8 00 

For the 2d best do., 6 00 

For the 3d best do., - 4 00 

For the best display, 3 00 

CLASS II. 

For the best twelve distinct varieties, a premium of 5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

For the 3d best do., 2 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 11 

CLASS III . 

Hardy Perpetual Roses. — For the best ten varieties, a premium of - - $5 00 

For the 2d best do., 4 00 

For the best display, 3 00 

Prairie Roses. — For the best display, a premium of 4 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

Carnation and Picotee Pinks. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in July. 

For the best ten varieties, a premium of -.....-500 

For the 2d best do., - 4 00 

For the best display, 3 00 

Magnolias. — For the best display through the season, a premium of - 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — For the best display of the season, a premium of - 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Double Hollyhocks. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in July. 

For the best display, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do., - - - 2 00 

For the 3d best do., 1 00 

Double Balsams. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in August. 

For the best display, a premium of 300 

For the 2d best do., - - • - 2 00 

For the 3d best do., 1 00 

Phloxes. — Premiums to be awarded third Saturday in August. 

For the best ten distinct varieties, a premium of 6 00 

For the 2d best do., 4 00 

For the 3d best do., 3 00 

German Asters. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in September. 

For the best display, a premium of 400 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

For the 3d best do., , 2 00 



BOUQUETS, WREATHS, DESIGNS, &c. 
premiums to be awarded at the annual exhibition. 

Vase Bouquets. — For the best pair, suitable for the Bradlee Vases, a premium of $10 00 

For the 2d best do., - - - - 6 00 

For the best pair, for the Society's Marble Vases, 10 00 

For the 2d best do., 6 00 

Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair suitable for the parlor, - 5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

For the 3d best do., 2 00 

Hand Bouquets. — For the best pair, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

For the 3d best do., 100 

Grass Bouquets. — For the best composed of grass, 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Bouquets composed of Indigenous Flowers. — For the best, a premium of - 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 



12 PROCEEDINGS. 

Moss Vases, Baskets of Flowers, or any other neat, appropriate designs, suitable 
for the occasion. 

For the best, a premium of ft 12 00 

For the 2d best do., 8 00 

For the 3d best do., 6 00 

For the 4lh best do., - 5 00 

Wreaths! — For the best, not less than thirty feet in length, a premium of - 10 00 

For the 2d best do., 5 00 

For the 3d best do., 3 00 

Dahlias. — Premiums to be awarded fourth Saturday in September. 

DIVISION A. 

Premier Prize. — For the best 12 dissimilar blooms, the Society's Silver Medal, 5 00 

Specimen Bloom. — For the best flower, 3 00 

Various Colors. — For the best yellow, buff or orange ; purple or maroon ; crim- 
son or claret • very dark ; white ; edged or tipped ; scarlet ; pink or rose, 
a premium of $1 00 each, - -8 00 

DIVISION B. CLASS I. 

For the best twentyfour dissimilar blooms, 8 00 

For the 2d best do. do., 5 00 

CLASS II. 

For the best eighteen dissimilar blooms, 6 00 

For the 2d best do. do., 4 00 

CLASS III. 

For the best twelve dissimilar blooms, 5 00 

For the 2d best do. do., 3 00 

Chrysanthemums. — Premiums to be awarded November 13th. 

For the best twelve distinct varieties, in trusses, - - 3 00 

For the 2d best do. do., - - - 2 00 

Herbaceous Perennials. — For the best display through the season, the Society's 

Silver Medal, 5 00 

For the 2d best do., a premium of- - - - - - - - -4 00 

For the 3d best do., 3 00 

Annuals. — For the best display through the season, the Society's Silver Medal, - 5 00 

For the 2d best display, a premium of -.-.--- 4 00 

For the 3d best do., 3 00 

Indigenous Plants. — For the best display of the season, .... 3 00 

For the 2d best do., 2 00 

Camellias. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in February. 

For the best twelve varieties of cut flowers, with foliage, a premium of - 8 00 

For the 2d best do., 5 00 

Chinese Primrose. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in February. 

For the best six varieties in pots, a premium of 3 00 

For the 2d best do. do., 2 00 

Green House Azaleas. — Premiums to be awarded second Saturday in March. 

For the best six varieties in pots, -- 6 00 

For the 2d best do. do., 4 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 13 

PREMIUMS TO BE AWARDED AT WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 

AMOUNT APPROPRIATED, ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS, $100 00 

For the best six Pot Plants, of different varieties, a premium of - $2 00 

For the 2d best do., 1 00 

For the best large Bouquet, for vases or parlor, composed of flowers 

gracefully arranged, a premium of ------2 00 

For the 2d best do., 1 00 

For the best six hand Bouquets, - - - - - - -2 00 

For the 2d best do., i 00 

$650 00 



PREMIUMS FOR VEGETABLES. 

AMOUNT APPROPRIATED, ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS. 

Asparagus. — For the earliest and best, not less than three bunches, a premium of $5 00 

Beets. — For the best, (pure blood beet,) during the season, not less than twelve roots, 5 00 

Broccoli. — For the best three heads, - - - - - - 5 00 

Beans. — For the best and earliest peck of string beans, ----- 3 00 

For the best and earliest Lima beans, not less than two quarts, - - - 3 00 

For the best and earliest variety of shell beans, 4 00 

Cucumbers. — For the best pair under glass, previous to the first Saturday of June, 5 00 

For the 2d best do., - 3 00 

For the best and earliest, of open culture, ------- 300 

Cauliflowers. — For the best and largest, during the season, not less than three heads, 5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

Corn. — For the best and earliest sweet corn, not less than twelve ears, - 3 00 
Cabbage. — For the best drumhead cabbage, during the season, not less than three heads, 5 00 

For the 2d best do., 3 00 

For the best Savoy cabbage, during the season, not less than three heads, - 3 00 

For the 2d best do. 2 00 

Egg Plants. — For the best display, during the season, ----- 5 00 

Lettuce. — For the best six heads, before the first Saturday in July, - - 3 00 

Potatoes. — For the best new seedling, of superior quality for the table, - - 10 00 

For the best and earliest peck, previous to August 1, - - - - -3 00 

Peas. — For the best and earliest peck in June, 3 00 

Rhubarb. — For the largest and best, previous to the first Saturday in July, not less 

than twelve stalks, ............. s Q(j 

Squashes. — For the best pure Canada squashes, not less than six in number, - 5 00 

For the greatest variety exhibited during the season, - - - - 5 00 

Tomatoes. — For the best and earliest, not less than one dozen, - 5 00 
Vegetables. — For the best display and greatest variety at the weekly exhibitions 

during the season, - - - - - - - - - - -10 00 

For the 2d best do., - - 5 00 

For the best display and greatest variety at the annual exhibition, - - - 10 00 

For the 2d best do., - 7 00 

For any new variety of Vegetables, suitable for the table and worthy of culti- 
vation, other than seedling potatoes, ------- - 6 00 

Celery. — For the best and largest blanched, not less than six roots, - 5 00 

For the 2d best do., . ^ ........ . 3 00 

$150 00 
For the Committee to Establish Premiums, S. WALKER, Chairman. 

3 



14 PROCEEDINGS. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

1. If, at any meeting, the Committees for awarding Premiums shall be of opinion that 
the time assigned in the Premium List, for the exhibition of any Fruits, Flowers, or Vege- 
tables, will be too early or too late, they shall have power to alter the time of exhibition, 
giving seasonable notice thereof to the Society at the time of such change. 

2. All Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables, placed in competition for premiums, are to be the 
growth of the competitors. 

3. All articles exhibited for premium, must be placed in the stands by 11 o'clock, A. M., 
and no production in the Fruit, Flower, or Vegetable Department, will be admitted for 
premium after that time. This rule will be strictly adhered to. 

4. All articles exhibited shall remain in the Hall until 2 o'clock, P. M. ; when they will 
be delivered to the contributors, unless otherwise directed. 

5. No premiums on Fruit are to be awarded, unless specimens (if desired) of the same 
shall have been presented to the Committee, to enable them to judge of the quality. 

6. Committees shall have the discretionary power of withholding premiums, if. in their 
opinion, the articles exhibited do not merit them. 

7. In awarding premiums on Plants in Pots, special reference will be had to the beauty 
of the specimens, profusion of bloom, and evidence of superior cultivation. Inferior speci- 
mens will be excluded by the judges from competition. 

8. Gratuities will be awarded by the Committees for any new or rare Fruits, Flowers, 
Plants, or any other object of particular interest, and for which no special premium has 
been offered. Flowers attached to a plain surface by any method, will not be considered 
bouquets, but will be specified as designs. 

9. When specimens are presented for a name, the owner is requested to give all the 
information in his possession as to the origin, and the name by which they have usually 
been known. 

10. When the Committee have good reason to believe that any information has been 
withheld, as to the name of specimens, they will decline to give their opinion. They are 
ready at all times to aid and assist, to the utmost of their ability, in ascertaining the true 
name of any new production presented under these regulations, but not otherwise. 

11. The contributors of Fruits for exhibition or premium, are recommended to present 
the same in the dishes or baskets of the Society, or in new boxes of their own. 

12. The Committees are authorized, and requested, to remove all ordinary specimens 
from the table. 

13. No Flower, Fruit, or Vegetable, Avill be considered as deserving a premium, unless 
it possesses points of superior excellence ; and no object for which a premium has been 
awarded, will be entitled to another during the season — (the Special Prize List of Fruits 
excepted.) 

14. It is also required that the Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables exhibited, should be 
accompanied by brief observations on the mode of cultivation, if peculiar, together with 
any other remarks of utility. 

15. Any person to whom a premium or gratuity has been awarded, whether in money, 
medals, or plate, may receive either, of like valuation, at his option. 

16. The regulations of the Society, forbidding the handling of Fruits, Flowers, &c, will 
be strictly adhered to. 

17. No person allowed to be in the Hall while the Committee are awarding premiums. 

Voted, That the Report of the Committee for Establishing Premiums, be placed in the 
hands of the Committee of Publication, and that rive hundred copies be printed for the 
use of the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS. 15 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 6, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

John Washburn, Jr., of Plymouth, was proposed for membership by Ebenezer Wight. 

A report upon a package of Seeds, received from Professor Fischer, of St. Petersburg, by 
John Lewis Russell, M. D., Professor of Botany, &c, to the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, was read, and it was 

Voted, To place the Report in the hands of the Committee of Publication, and that the 
Seed be placed in the hands of Professor Asa Gray, of Cambridge, with the request to 
report upon anything new or valuable. 

An interesting letter from William D. Brinckle, M. D., of Philadelphia, a Corresponding 
member of the Society, in regard to the origin and history of the Tyson Pear, was received, 
and it was 

Voted, That the Communication of Dr. Brinckle, be referred to the Committee of Publi- 
cation. 

An order was received from the Hon. Theodore Lyman, upon the Publishers of Professor 
Gray's Chloris Boreali-Americana, for the delivery of a copy of that work, to the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, as fast as published, whereupon it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Hon. Theodore Lyman, for 
his very liberal present of a copy of Professor Gray's Chloris Boreali-Americana, a new 
and beautiful work to be published in several volumes, and that the Recording Secretary 
be requested to communicate this vote to Mr. Lyman. 

The Finance Committee submitted the following Report : — 

The Finance Committee, in conformity with a vote passed the 9th of January, 1847, 
directing them to invest at their discretion, twentyfive hundred dollars, from the fund 
received by the Society from the Treasurer of Mount Auburn, beg leave to Report, 

That they have bought twentytwo Shares of the Boston and Worcester Railroad Stock, 
at one hundred and eleven dollars seventyfive cents per Share, say $2,458 50, that number 
of Shares coming the nearest to the amount required to be invested. The Stock has been 
bought at the lowest point, and has every appearance of fully sustaining present prices for 
years to come, and of dividing four per cent dividends semi-annually. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

(Signed,) JOSIAH STICKNEY, Chairman. 

The Certificates of twentytwo Shares in the Stock of the Boston and Worcester Railroad 
were delivered by the Chairman of the Finance Committee to the Treasurer. 

George C. Crowninshield and Francis Thieler were elected Subscription members of 
the Society. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, February 13, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 
The President of the Society, Marshall P. Wilder, exhibited a magnificent group of 
Camellias, embracing the following twenty varieties, viz. : Albertii, Donkelaerii, Ochro 
leuca, Tricolor, Chandlerii, Palmer's Perfection, Fimbriata, Imbricata, Floyii, Gillesii, 
Conspicua, Eximia, Fordii, William IV., Eclipse, Duchesse d'Orleans, Alba plena, 
Elegans, Prattii, and Colvillii. Also, a superb specimen of Acacia spectabilis. For the 
green-house, this species is one of the most desirable of this very extensive family, and 
however beautiful many of them are, spectabilis stands unrivalled, not only for the graceful 



16 PROCEEDINGS. 

foliage and brilliancy of its innumerable yellow flowers, but also for its exquisite fragrance. 
Mr. Wilder also exhibited a fine specimen of Chorozema varium, a beautiful papilionace- 
ous, or pea-flowered plant, with orange and scarlet flowers, and leaves resembling the 
Holly. 

From William Quant, twelve beautiful varieties of Camellias, the names of which were 
not given. Also, six pots of Chinese Primulas, of extraordinary beauty and perfection of 
growth. 

From Messrs. Winship, six pots of Chinese Primroses. 

From Azel Bowditch, two fine Bouquets. 

From Hovey & Co., fourteen varieties of Camellias, many of them very splendid blooms, 
viz. : Floyii, Vauxii, Alba plena, (or Double White,) Donkelaerii, Goussonii, Myrtifolia, 
Tricolor, Elegans, Henry Favre, Carswelliana, Landrethii, Conspicua, Corallina, Chandlerii. 
Also, seven pots of Chinese Primroses, including the double variety, a new and rare 
specimen. For the Committee, 

JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS FOR CAMELLIAS AND PRIMULAS. 

Camellias. — The judges recommend a gratuity of eight dollars to the President of the 
Society, for his superior display of Camellias. As it is understood that Mr. Wilder does 
not wish to compete with the members for premiums, the undersigned felt it due to him 
that an amount equal to the first premium should be given. 

First premium of eight dollars, to Hovey & Co., for the best twelve cut flowers with 
foliage. 

Second premium of five dollars, to William Quant, for the second best twelve flowers. 

Primulas. — To William Quant, for the best six plants of Chinese Primroses, the first 
premium of three dollars. 

To Hovey & Co., for the second best six plants, the second premium of two dollars. 

JOSEPH BRECK, ) 

DAVID HAGGERSTON, f Judges. 
J. S. RUSSELL, ) 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 6, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

Eli M. Whitney was proposed for membership (subscription) by E. C. R. Walker. 

The Committee to whom was intrusted the Publishing of the Transactions of the Society 
for 1844, 1845 and 1846, reported, verbally, that their work had, after some delay, been 
accomplished. 

Voted, That the Report be accepted, and that copies of the Transactions be laid upon the 
table for distribution among the members of the Society. 

The Committee of Publication submitted a Report upon the publishing a new series of 
the Society's Transactions, and on motion of C. M. Hovey, it was 

Voted, That the subject be recommitted to the same Committee, with instructions to 
report a detailed plan of prosecution, with an estimate of the cost, the period of publication, 
the price at which it can be afforded to the members of the Society, and the public, and 
report to the Society as soon as practicable. 

On motion of Joseph Breck, it was 

Voted, That the President of the Society be requested to petition the Legislature, now in 
session, to extend the same patronage to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, that it 



PROCEEDINGS. 17 

does to the various Agricultural Societies of the State, to aid in carrying forward the 
general purposes of the Society, but especially to enable the Society to prosecute with 
vigor the publication of their new series of the Transactions of the Society, in which are 
to be described and figured the Fruits and Flowers of New England, and particularly of 
Massachusetts. 

A communication, accompanied with the Transactions of the Convention of Farmers, 
held in New York, was received from the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. 

A description, and colored plates of two new native Pears, called the Haddington and 
Moyamensing, were received from William D. Brinckle, M. D., of Philadelphia, a Corre- 
sponding member of the Society, and it was 

Voted, To place the same in the hands of the Committee of Publication. 

Voted, To appoint a committee to fix the days for the next Annual Exhibition of the 
Society. 

Samuel Walker, E. M. Richards, and C. M. Hovey, were appointed that Committee. 

George B. Emerson was elected a Corresponding member, and John Washburn, Jr., of 
Plymouth, a Subscription member. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
By the Hon. Asa Foot, of Williamstown, the following Apples: Twenty Ounce, (very 
fine) ; Red Streak, and Vanderspiegel, both good apples, but not equal to the Twenty 
Ounce. For the Committee, 

S. WALKER, Chairman. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 13, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Committee on the Library submitted the following Report : — 

The Committee on the Library having recently rearranged the Books, and published a 
new Catalogue, which has been bound up with the Transactions of the Society, respect- 
fully beg leave to Report. 

For the last two or three years but little money has been appropriated for the purchase of 
Books, and, in consequence, but few new works have been added to the Library. The 
Committee had intended, on presenting their Annual Report, to have asked for an appro- 
priation for the coming year, but in this they had been anticipated by a vote of the Society, 
and the amount of three hundred dollars placed at their disposal, for the purchase of such 
Books as may be selected from a list to be presented to the Society. Agreeably thereto, 
your Committee would recommend the following works : — 

To complete sets already in the Library, the "Transactions of the London Horticultural 
Society," up to the completion of their quarto publication, with a continuation of them in 
octavo form — the first volume of which, in quarterly numbers, has just been completed. 

Loudon's Gardener's Magazine, to complete the work up to its discontinuance, about 
fifteen vols. 

Noisette's Jardin Fruitier, in two volumes, with colored plates. 

Michaux Sylvia, to complete the work, three volumes. 

Paxton's Magazine of Botany, eleven volumes. 

Loudon's Rural Cemeteries, one volume. 

Loudon's Hortus Lignosus, one volume. 

Loudon's Encyclopedia of Trees, Shrubs, &c, one volume. 

4 



18 PROCEEDINGS. 

Lindley's Vegetable Kingdom, one volume. 

Torrey and Gray's Flora, one volume. 

A Manual of Practical Draining, one volume. 

Low's Breeds of Domestic Animals, with splendid colored plates, four volumes. 

Mrs. Loudon's Ladies' Companion, one volume. 

The Farmer's Dictionary, one volume. 

The American Poulterer's Companion, one volume. 

Should it be thought desirable to purchase all these works, or should members have 
any other Books which they would wish the Committee to add to the list, the amount 
required would exceed the appropriation. 

Your Committee believe, that the sum of three hundred dollars should be expended in 
the purchase of the most useful Books in the annexed list, and that the Committee be 
authorised, should they deem it advisable for the interest of the Society to purchase others, 
to have at their disposal one hundred dollars, for which they shall render a list at the next 
annual meeting of such Books as have been added to the Library. 

They would inform the Society, that they have made choice of R. M. Copeland, as 
Librarian, with the salary of fifty dollars per annum, and that they have set apart the hours 
from 1 1 till 1 o'clock, of every Saturday of the year, when the Library will be open. 

The regulations of the Library will be strictly enforced, and books kept out longer than 
the specified time, will be charged in a book for that purpose, to all members who do not 
comply with the rules established by the Society. 

Believing that in no way the interests of the Society can be so well sustained, as in the 

possession of a valuable Library, where the amateur or professional man may resort for 

information on all subjects connected with Horticulture, your Committee respectfully 

submit this report. 

(Signed,) C. M. HOVEY, ) 

JOSEPH BRECK, } Committee. 
R. M. COPELAND, ). 

Voted, That the Report of the Committee on the Library be accepted, to the full amount 
of the appropriation, viz. : three hundred dollars. 

Voted, That the Recording Secretary be requested to send, through the Collector, a copy 
of the Transactions of the Society to each of its members, and to such Horticultural, Agri- 
cultural and Literary Societies as may be deemed advisable. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 
From Hovey & Co., six varieties of Azaleas, in pots, viz. : Speciosa, Remingtonia, Copeii, 
Herbertii purpurea, Large Cherry, and Seedling White. Eight varieties of seedling Ver- 
benas, some of them fine. Roses — Noisette Rose Similor ; Bourbon Souchet, B. Gloire de 
Paris, B. Madam Angelina; Noisette Lamarque, N. Solfataire; Moss Celina. Pimelea 
hispida and spectabilis — new and rare. 



PREMIUMS. 
The Committee award the Society's premium of six dollars to Messrs. Hovey, for green- 
house Azaleas, and a gratuity of three dollars to the same gentlemen, for two specimens of 
Pimelea. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 19 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 20, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

William D. Ticknor was proposed for membership by Samuel Walker. 

The Committee of Publication submitted the following Report : — 

The Committee of Publication of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, respectfully 
represent, that they have accumulated sufficient matter to enable them to enter upon the 
publication of a regular series of the Transactions of the Society, and therefore recommend, 
unanimously, that the Transactions should be published with numerous colored engravings 
and outlines of Fruits and Flowers, executed in the best possible manner, by the most 
distinguished artists of the country, and more particularly of such Fruits and Flowers as 
are of native origin; and in accordance with a vote of the Society, submit the following, as 
an outline of their plan and mode of publication. 

1st. That the work be entitled " Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society," and that no pains or expense be spared to make it worthy both of the Society 
and of the advanced and still advancing progress of Horticulture. 

2d. That the form shall be royal octavo, which size the Committee believe will afford 
sufficient room for plates of any Fruits or Flowers that may be required. 

3d. That the work be stereotyped, and also the Proceedings of the Society, and bound 
together in the period of its publication. 

4th. The Committee contemplate to publish the work Quarterly, or oftener if necessary, 
and estimate the cost of one thousand copies of each number as follows : — 

For four thousand, more or less, splendid colored engravings, say - - $G00 00 

Stereotyping, - - 70 00 

Printing, Paper, Wrappers, &c, - - - -80 00 



8750 00 

5th. To charge the members of the Society, seventyfive cents, and the public one dollar, 
for each part, which, including the Publishers' commission, will be about the prime cost of 
the work. 

The Committee would suggest, that the Society, at some future time, offer Premiums for 
Essays on Horticultural Subjects, for the purpose of publishing with the Transactions of the 
Society, and thereby render the work valuable to its members, and extremely useful to the 
public. 

It will be seen by this plan and these estimates, that your Committee contemplate the 
execution of the work in the very best style of excellence, believing that the sale of the 
work executed in this manner, will pay all the expenses, yet if it be only just above 
mediocrity, it may entail loss on the funds of the Society. 

Your Committee would further state, that for the present, and until the demand for the 
work by the members of the Society and the public shall have been ascertained, that they 
intend to publish only five hundred copies of the first and second numbers. To enable 
them to do this, and prepare drawings, &c. for future numbers, it may require the sum of 
one thousand dollars. After the first two parts are published it is expected that the sales 
will furnish the means to publish the succeeding numbers — Therefore 

Voted, That the Committee of Publication be requested to draw up and publish a 
Prospectus of the Transactions of the Society, in accordance with the above plan, and 
proceed to print and publish said work at such periods as they may deem expedient, and 
that they be, and hereby are, authorised to draw on the Treasurer of the Society for any 
6um not exceeding one thousand dollars, to defray the expenses thereof. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, by order of the Committee. 

(Signed,) SAMUEL WALKER. 



20 PROCEEDINGS. 

Voted, That the Report of the Committee of publication be accepted. 
The President reported, verbally, that he had petitioned the Legislature for a grant of 
six hundred dollars, as requested by the Society. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Hovey and Co., a plant of Hybrid Moss Rose, var. Princess Adelaide. Also, the 
following fine cut Roses : — Tea — Yellow, Nisida, Caroline, Bougere : Hybiid Perpetual — 
Madame Laffay, Mrs. Elliot, Indigo, Lilacee, Prudence Rcoser: Bourbon — Gloire de Paris, 
and Crimson Globe. 

From Parker Barnes, a fine seedling plant of Cineraria. Also, a fine plant of Cytisus 
racemosus ; Rose Caroline Mignonne, and seedling Verbena, fine. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
By Samuel Downer, Esq., of Dorchester, a beautiful Apple, name unknown. The 
Committee would like to see other specimens, another season. Also, a specimen of De 
Neige, (Snow Apple.) 

By S. W. Cole, Apples : — Marston's Red Winter, Jewett's fine Red, and iEsopus Spit- 
zenberg. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION. 

Saturday, March 27, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 
From the President of the Society, Marshall P. Wilder, Roses : — Tea — Princess Adelaide, 
new : Bourbon — Souvenir de Malmaison, Edward Defosses, Madame Souchet, &c. Also, 
a new Paeonia arborea, var. phcenicea, fi. pleno; a very desirable addition to this family of 
plants, because of its peculiar roseate tint, resembling the best of the herbaceous kinds. 
From Parker Barnes, a plant of Cineraria ; fine Roses, and Petunias. 

For the Committee, WILLIAM B. RICHARDS. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 3. 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Life membership : Jonathan Chapman, 
Charles H. Mills, A. W. Thaxter, Jr., Thomas Lamb, J. Eliot Thayer, and J. W. Blodget, 
all of Boston, by the President ; Isaac Babbitt, of Boston, by Joseph Breck. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Subscription membership : Hezekiah S. 
Chase, and Samuel May, of Boston, and Ralph Crooker, of Roxbury, by the President ; 
Ezra W. Sampson, of Dedham, by E. M. Richards ; Otis Arthur Gay, of Hingham, Louis 
Decher, Adolphus Davis, and Edward Denny, of Boston, and Joseph Manning, of Medford, 
by Ebenezer Wight ; Henry P. Fairbanks, of Charlestown, by Joseph Breck; John Quant, 
and John Thomas, of Brighton, by William Quant. 

A communication was received from Josiah Bradlee, Esq., of Boston, accompanied with 
his check for five hundred dollars, for the purpose of being added to the Permanent Fund 
for Premiums on Fruits and Flowers, and it was 



PROCEEDINGS. 21 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to their highly esteemed Honorary 
member, Josiah Bradlee, Esq., for his liberal donation of five hundred dollars. 

Voted, That the above vote be transmitted to Mr. Bradlee, with a complimentary letter, 
by the Corresponding Secretary. 

The President stated, that some months since he had placed in the hands of Mr. De 
Wael, a Corresponding member of the Society, residing at Antwerp, a private order for 
Scions or Trees of any new varieties of Pears, that he might be able to furnish, but that it 
appeared from an extract from this gentleman's letter, that he considered the order official, 
and should send a package to the Society ; since which no advices from him had been 
received. 

The President further stated, that he had responded, in part, to the intimated wishes of 
Mr. De Wael, by forwarding seven volumes of valuable Books, and should attend to his 
remaining requests as early as practicable, at his own expense; that should such a package 
arrive at this late season, it would require immediate attention, and he desired the direc- 
tion of the Society, remarking, that if it was disposed of in accordance with the original 
order, he should be happy to dispense Scions to the Fruit Committee, of any new varieties 
which may prove desirable — thereupon the following vote was passed. 

Whereas, the President having given a private order for Trees and Scions, to Mr. De 
Wael, and having also responded to that gentleman's orders, at his own expense, therefore, 

Voted, That should such a package arrive from Mr. De Wael, the President be author- 
ised to take it to his own account, dispensing, as he has liberally offered, Scions to the 
Committee on Fruits, of such as may prove desirable. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to George B. Emerson, Esq., for a 
copy of his " Report upon the Trees and Shrubs, Growing Naturally in the Forests of 
Massachusetts." 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to J. B. Russell, Esq., of Cincinnati, 
for a package of Seeds of new Plants, from the Rocky Mountains. 

Voted, That the Seeds be placed in the hands of the Committee on Flowers, for distribu- 
tion. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Robert Buist, Esq., of Philadel- 
phia, for a copy of the 2d edition of the Manual upon the Cultivation of the Rose. 

A communication was received from William R. Smith, Esq., of Macedon, N. York, 
accompanied with Scions of the Red Canada and Early Joe Apples, and the Onondaga 
and Osband's Summer Pears. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to William R. Smith, Esq. 

Voted, That the Scions received from William R. Smith, Esq., be placed in the hands of 
the Committee on Fruits, for distribution, and that the Recording Secretary register the 
names of such members as receive the same. 

Voted, That the twentieth section of the By-laws of the Society be amended, by striking 
out all after the word " them," in the twentysecond line, to the end of the section. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 
From William B. Richards, two varieties of Crown Imperial; Narcissus; Polyanthus 
Narcissus, &c. 
From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, five fine varieties of Geraniums. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

5 



22 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 10, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Life membership : Thomas P. Cushing, of 
Boston, by the President : Otis Everett, Jr., of Boston, by Charles Amory. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Subscription membership : Ebenezer Short- 
land Fisher, by Ebenezer Wight ; Thomas T. Bouve, of Boston, by S. Davis Leavens ; 
Thomas Sinclair, of Brighton, by James L. L. F. Warren ; Charles E. Grant, of Roxbury, 
by Samuel Walker. 

Voted, That in consequence of the intention of this Society to publish its Transactions, 
die materials of the Society will in future be wanted for its own work, and will not be 
allowed to be used for any other publication. 

The Scions received from William R. Smith, Esq., of Macedon, N. Y., were distributed 
by the Committee on Fruits, to the following members : — Marshall P. Wilder, E. M. Rich- 
aids, Otis Johnson, Josiah Lovett, 2d, Eben. Wight, A. D. Williams, B. V. French, Samuel 
Walker, AVilliam E. Carter, and Henry Vandine. 

A communication was received from A. H. Ernst, Esq., of Cincinnati, accompanied with 
Scions of the following varieties of Apples : — Detroit Juneating, Milam, Brodwell, Belpre 
Keeper. Cooper, Cannahan's Favorite, Gates or Belmont, Newport Russet, Pryor's Red, 
Bowles's Juneating, Neverfail, Rome Beauty, Putnam Russet, and the Osteum Pear. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to A. H. Ernst, Esq. 

Voted, That the Scions be placed in the hands of the Committee on Fruits, for distribu- 
tion. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 17, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A box of Seed, of new and valuable plants, was presented to the Society by Mrs. Perci- 
val, and it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Mrs. Percival, and that the Seed 
be placed in the hands of the Society's Professor of Botany, for examination. 

Voted, That the Recording Secretary be requested to give notice, through the public 
press, of the opening of the Society's Hall for weekly exhibitions, agreeable to instructions 
he may receive from the Committee on Flowers. 

The Scions received from A. H. Ernst, Esq., of Cincinnati, were distributed to the 
following members of the Society : — 

B. V. French, Cheever Newhall, Isaac P. Davis, B. Davis, J. L. L. F. Warren, C. W. 
Cole, Henry Vandine, John Huston, John Quant. 

William D. Ticknor was elected a Subscription member. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 24. 1847. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 
There being no business before the Society, the meeting was adjourned for one week. 



PROCEEDINGS. 23 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 1, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. ' 

In the absence of the Chairman, E. M. Richards for the Committee appointed to fix the 
days of the Annual Exhibition of the Society, reported, that the Committee had decided 
upon the 22d, 23d and 24th of September next, and it was 

Voted, That the Report be accepted. 

The following gentlemen were elected Life members of the Society : — Jonathan Chap- 
man, Charles H. Mills, A. W. Thaxter, Thomas Lamb, J. Eliot Thayer, J. W. Blodget, 
Isaac Babbitt, Thomas P. Cushing, and Otis Everett, Jr., of Boston ; and Joseph Manning, 
of Medford. 

The following gentlemen were elected Subscription members : — Adolphus Davis, 
Edward Denny, Thomas T. Bouve, Hezekiah S. Chase, Samuel May, and Louis Decher, 
of Boston • H. P. Fairbanks, of Charlestown ; John Quant, and John Thomas, of Brookline • 
E. S. Fisher, and Ezra W. Sampson, of Dedham ; Thomas Sinclair, of Brighton ; Charles 
E. Grant, and Ralph Crooker, of Roxbury ; and Otis Arthur Gay, of Hingham. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 8, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Subscription membership : — Albert Bullard, 
and Thomas R. Foster, of Boston, by Lewis Bullard ; John F. Adams, of Boston, by Eben. 
Wight ; and George Tyler Bigelow, of Boston, by J. L. L. F. Warren. 

A communication was received from Professor Asa Gray, of Cambridge, accompanied 
with a copy of his Chloris Boreali-Americana, and also a copy of Mr. Ward's Treatise on 
the Growth of Plants, in Closely Glazed Cases, and it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Professor Gray, for his liberal 
donation, and that the Corresponding Secretary be requested to forward him a complimen- 
tary letter. 

A communication was received from the Antiquarian Society of Worcester, expressing 
their thanks for a copy of the Transactions of the Society. 

A copy of the Transactions of the Worcester County Horticultural Society was received 
from George Jaques, Esq. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to George Jaques, Esq. 

A letter was received from Mr. James W. Clarkey, demanding the sum of one hundred 
dollars for damage done to his wife, by falling through the scuttle of the cellar of the 
Society's Hall. 

Voted, That the President and R. T. Paine, Esq., be appointed a Committee, with full 
power, to settle the matter, by paying such sum as they may deem expedient. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 15, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Subscription membership : — Anson Dexter, 
of Boston, by the President ; Henry P. Crapo, of New Bedford, by Joseph Breck ; Charles 
A. Hewins, of Roxbury, by Samuel Walker ; Charles Spring, of Brighton, by E. A. 



24 PROCEEDINGS. 

Story ; Thomas Willott, of Roxbury, and Edward Sayers, of Boston, by William Quant; 
Robert Douglass, of Cambridge, by Emery Bemis; and Benjamin W. Balch, of Dedham, 
by Ebenezer Wight. 
Adjourned to the first Saturday in June. 



EXHIBITION OF GREEN-HOUSE PLANTS. 

The opening of the Hall to the public for the season, was postponed from the first of the 
month to this day, on account of the unusual backwardness of the season. In the bloom 
of Apricots, Cherries, and other trees, we noticed three weeks difference between this and 
last year, and in Hyacinths nearly the same. A season so cold and unpropitious, gave but 
little promise to the public of a great display of flowers, but in this, no doubt, all who wit- 
nessed the exhibition were happily disappointed. It was one of the best displays of choice 
plants ever witnessed in the Hall, perhaps the best. The Society is greatly indebted to the 
amateurs and other cultivators, who so liberally contributed their plants for the occasion. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, a grand display of Green-House 
Plants, in pots, viz : — one very large Azalea indica variegata; two smaller do. ; Azalea 
nudiflora ornata, recently imported from Germany, a hardy variety and very fine ; twenty 
plants of seedling Azaleas, all different, some of them very fine striped varieties ; thirty 
seedling Calceolarias, all distinct, very beautiful, of every color and tint; twelve very fine 
seedling Cinerarias ; six seedling Petunias ; one Persian Yellow Rose ; two Moss Roses ; 
White Unique Moss, (new) ; Bourbon Madame Angelina, new, singular color and high 
scent; Erica ventricosa superba; two Erica odorata, white, fragrant; two Epiphyllum 
Jenkinsonii ; one Cactus flagelliformis ; one Camellia Coquettii, and. one Clematis azurea 
grandiflora, fine. Also, the following Cut Flowers: — Camellias — Duchesse d'Orleans, 
Prattii, Fimbriata, candidissima, cruciata, alba plena, and two new seedlings ; Roses : — 
Noisette — Lamarque, and Solfatare ; Bourbon — Paul Joseph, Gouvain St. Cyr, Edward 
Desfosses, Madame Desprez; China — Beauharnais ; Tea — Julie Mansais, Devoniensis, 
Eugene Jourvain; Hybrid Perpetual — Due d'Alencon, (new), Melanie Cornu, and Noisette 
Solfatare, in great quantity. Also, two new varieties of Perpetual Carnations. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., a great variety of Hyacinths, Narcissus, Crown Imperials, 
and other hardy flowers. 

From William Mellar, twelve plants of splendid seedling Calceolarias ; eight do. Pelar- 
goniums ; one Fuchsia Venus victrix. Also, a great variety of Cut Flowers, including 
Pelargoniums, Verbenas. Calceolarias, Roses, &c. 

From T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, six plants of beautiful seedling Cinerarias; 
eight large do., of double Crimson Stocks, very fine ; twelve do. of Pelargoniums, viz : — 
Ophelia, Matilda, Sylph, Speculum Mundi, Alarm, Lady Duro, Lilac Perfection, Rienzi, 
&c. ; a magnificent specimen of Stephanotus fioribundus, very fragrant, and the first plant 
ever exhibited in the rooms ; six Fuchsias, viz. : — Defiance, Chauverii, Smith's Victoria, 
Williamsonii, Epsii, and Paragon ; Cactus Mayfly ; and a fine plant of Gloxinia. Also, 
fine Cut Flowers, including Stephanotus, Roses, Pelargoniums, Gloxinias, Calceolarias, &c. 

From John A. Lowell, Esq., by Thomas Willott, a variety of curious and rare plants ; 
among them that singular production of nature, the Nepenthes distillatoria, or Pitcher 
plant; Cattleya intermedia, very beautiful ; Maxillaria aromatica ; Jatropha pandursefolia ; 
Russellia juncea, a splendid plant; and Tabernasmontana coronaria. 

From Azell Bowditch, an Orange tree, with fruit and flowers ; twelve plants of Calceola- 
rias ; one Moss Tree Rose ; two white Ivy leafed Geraniums ; two pyramidal Bouquets, 
and five flat do. Also, Cut Flowers in variety. 



PROCEEDINGS. 25 

From Nahum Stetson, South Bridge-water, a fine plant of Cytisus racemosus, and fine 
specimens of Madame Desprez Rose. 

From John Hovey, one plant of Euphorbia splendens. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, nine varieties of seedling Verbenas ; Sweet Peas ; 
one ornamental Moss Vase and Pedestal, with five Bouquets of Flowers; two Parlor 
Bouquets in Moss Vases, and one large flat Bouquet, composed of choice flowers, very 
beautiful. 

From James Nugent, Cut Flowers, Calceolarias, Cinerarias, Roses, Verbenas, &c, in 
great variety. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, two Parlor and eight Hand Bouquets ; twentysix species of 
Cactus, some of them very curious. 

From J. N. Mandel, one Bouquet. 

From A. C. Fernall, Revere place, one fine plant of Ivy leafed Geranium, beautifully 
trained. 

From 0. H. Mathers, a great variety of Cut Flowers, including Lupinus Hartwegii, 
Roses, Calceolarias, Cinerarias, and Abutilon, with many fine specimens of beautiful 
plants. 

From William B. Richards, Cut Flowers. 

From Hovey & Co., six plants of Pelargoniums, new varieties, and one Hydrangea 
japonica, new and beautiful. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

The Judges of Calceolarias, Hyacinths, &c. award the following : — 

Calceolarias. — First prize, of three dollars, to William Mellar; second do., of two 
dollars, to Mr. Bowditch. 

Hyacinths. — First prize, of five dollars, to Mr. Breck. 

Large Bouquets. — A prize, of two dollars, to John Thomas. 

Six Hand Bouquets. — First prize, of two dollars, to Mr. Bowditch; second do., of one 
dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 

The Judges recommend a gratuity of five dollars to John Thomas, for his beautiful 
Design, and two Moss Vases of Flowers. 

W. QUANT, ) 

E. AUGUSTUS STORY, \ Judges. 

THOMAS WILLOTT, ' \ 



The Judges on Pelargoniums, Fuchsias, Cinerarias, and Various Sorts, award the follow- 
ing premiums : — 

Pelargoniums.— First premium, of six dollars, on Class II., to William Quant; second 
do., of four dollars, to William Mellar. 

Cinerarias. — First premium, of three dollars, to William Quant. 

Fuchsias. — First premium, of six dollars, to William Quant. 

Various Sorts.— Best display, not less than twelve plants, first premium, of eight dol- 
lars, to William Quant ; second do., of five dollars, to A. Bowditch. 

Cut Flowers.— First premium, of three dollars, to William Quant; second do., of two 
dollars, to James Nugent. 

JOSEPH BRECK, ) 
FRANCIS THIELER, } Judges. 
JOHN THOMAS, 



26 PROCEEDINGS. 

GRATUITIES. 
The Committee on Flowers award the following gratuities : — 

To Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, for his splendid display of Green- 
House Plants, eight dollars ; to Thomas Willolt, for plants from John A. Lowell, five dol- 
lars ; to Henry Heed, gardener to Nahum Stetson, for Cylisus racemosus, three dollars. 

JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
John Fisk Allen, of Salem, presented twelve varieties of ripe Grapes, viz. : — Early 
Black July, Miller's Burgundy, Early White of the French, and Pitmaston White Cluster, 
(these four are the earliest Grapes, and the Pitmaston the earliest and best of these,) Zin- 
findal Ferral, Black Hamburg, White Hamburg, White Chasselas, Chasselas de Bar-Sur- 
Aube, Aleppo, White and Grizzly Frontignan. Also, Black Figs of St. Michael. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a variety of Cucumbers, among which were 
the Manchester and Weeden's Prize. 

From Orr N. Town, a brace of Cucumbers. 
From J. Fisk Allen, Tomatoes. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Chairman. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, May 22, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society > twelve plants of his fine new seed- 
ling Calceolarias, spotted and variegated, very beautiful ; three varieties of Ericas, in full 
bloom* Cut Flowers, including fine specimens of Camellias, among which we noticed a 
fine new seedling of regular formation, color light pink, slightly striped with white, which 
promises well ; also, Henry Favre, Sarah Frost, Double White and other varieties; Roses: — 
Tea — Princess Adelaide, new, very large pale yellow, high scented : Noisette Solfatare, 
in quantity ; this variety proves to be an abundant bloomer under proper treatment, as we 
have witnessed. We are informed that the gardener cut one hundred rose buds from one 
plant on May morning. Also, Bourbon and Hybrid Perpetual Roses, and specimens of 
forced Ghent Azaleas. 

From Lucinda Spaulding, South Reading, a fine plant of Cactus extensus, in full bloom. 

From A. Bowditch, two round Pyramids, six Hand, and one large flat Vase, or Mantel 
Bouquet; ten pot plants, viz. : — one seedling Picotee Pink, Prairie Rose, Leschenaultia 
formosa, Petunia, Erica Ventricosa superba, Sedum var. Fuchsias, and two Cactus. Also, 
Cut Flowers, principally Roses. 

From S. R. Johnson, fine specimens of Pyrus japonica. 

From R. M. Copeland, very fine Hyacinths and Cactus. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., Hyacinths in great variety ; five varieties of Phlox subulata; 
Phlox decumbens and stolonifera ; Pulmonaria Virginica ~ 7 Iris pumila and cristata ; Pan- 
sies in variety; Paeonia tenuifolia and hybrida; Primula polyanthus and vera; White 
Swan and other early double Tulips ; Crown Imperial, double and single red, yellow, &c. ; 
Cynoglossum omphaloides ; Fumaria formosa, and other hardy herbaceous and bulbous 
flowering plants. Also, double and single Peach blossoms, Crab Apple, Pear, and other 
Fruit Flowers. These were introduced not only for their beauty, but also to show the 
extreme lateness of the season in comparison with the last. On the 5th of May, 1846, the 
Apple trees were in full bloom, now the buds are only beginning to show their color. The 



PROCEEDINGS. 27 

blossoms of the Pear are not yet fully developed, while the Peach, Cherry, and Plum are 
in perfection. 

From J. W. Mandel, two Bouquets. Also, Cut Flowers, comprising Pelargoniums, Heli- 
otrope, Verbenas, Roses, &c. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, fine Cut Flowers, including Verbenas, Pelar- 
goniums, Cinerarias, Lupins, Phlox Drummondii, Abutilon, Acacia, Cytisus, Kennedia 
racemosa, Primulas, &c. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, two Fuchsias, and one plant of Burchellia speciosa, rare and 
beautiful ; and one Callistemon splendens. Also, one Table and six Hand Bouquets. 

From T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, a magnificent plant of Stephanotus floribundus; 
one of Cineraria; two Fuchsias, and three Geraniums. Also, one large Mantel Bouquet. 

From Hovey & Co., fine Pansies. 

From J. L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, six fine plants of Verbena, entered too late for pre- 
mium. Also, a fine display of Cut Flowers, including Sweet Peas, in great variety ; fine 
seedling Pelargoniums, Nemophylla insignis grandiflora, Calceolarias, NasturtiuniSj &c. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 
For the best large Mantel Bouquet, first premium, of two dollars, to Azell Bowditch ; 
second do., of one dollar, to William Quant. 

For the best six Pot Plants, first premium, of two dollars, to William Quant; second do., 
of one dollar, to Azell Bowditch. 

The Committee award a gratuity of five dollars to William Quant, for a splendid plant 
of Stephanotus floribundus. Also, to R. M. Copeland, a gratuity of three dollars, for a 
fine display of beautiful Hyacinths. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

Mr. Allen of Salem, made a fine display of splendid Grapes, viz. : — Ferral, Black 
Hamburg, Zinfindal, Early Black July, Grizzly Frontignan, Pitmaston White Cluster, and 
White Chasselas. Also, Black and White Figs of St. Michael, Azores. The Pitmaston 
White Cluster, is a small round berry, and when fully ripe of a fine yellow color ; it is the 
earliest Grape, and will ripen in from ten to twenty days less time than the Chasselas or 
Sweetwater. It is a very desirable variety. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, some fine Asparagus. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, May 29, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Messrs. Winship, Flowering Shrubs, including fine specimens of rare Spiraeas, 
Purple Beech, Azaleas, Pyrus Japonica, Wistaria, double-flowering Peach, with a great 
variety of other Cut Flowers. 

From William Mellar, Tulips, in variety, Pelargoniums, Verbenas, Pansies, Iberis, &c. 
Also, fine seedling Polyanthus. 

From E. M. Richards, Tulips, in variety, Trillium pictum, Dodecatheon, and other Cut 
Flowers. 

From Miss Russell, a basket of Flowers, tastefully arranged ; Wistarias, &c. 

From J. L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, three plants of Verbenas ; one Tropaeolum minor ; 



28 PROCEEDINGS. 

Beedling Calceolarias, and Pelargonium Matilda; one beautiful Moss Vase and Flowers, 
ami t'oilv varieties of Tulips. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, eight Pot Plants, viz. : — Rhododendron, var. Euphorbia splen- 
dens, Justicia carnea, Justicia calytricha, two double Chinese Primroses, and two do. rose 
colored. Also, six llat Bouquets, and five round do. A fine display of Rhododendrons and 
other Cut Flowers. 

From Peter Ivory, Tulips. 

From Edward Winslow, fine Tulips. ■ 

From Parker Barnes, line Pansies, in variety ; seedling Verbena ; Ever-blooming Pinks, 
and Azalea Gledstanesii, a fine variety, white, striped with scarlet. 

From Lucinda Spaulding, South Reading, a plant of Cactus. 

From Azell Bowditch, seven Hand Bouquets ; six Pot Plants, and Cut Flowers in variety. 

From Augustus Aspinwall, a splendid display of Roses. 

From Samuel Walker, fine Tulips. 

From W. B. Richards, fine Tulips ; Polemonium Mexicanum, and other Cut Flowers ; 
one fine Bouquet, and a quantity of the Lily of the Valley. 

From Ebenezer Wight, Tulips, in great variety. 

From Joseph Breck &. Co., two hundred fine Tulips • four varieties of Paeonies ; Dode- 
catheon Meadia, two varieties; a beautiful new Aquilegia, (A. jucunda) ; Iberis Tenor- 
eana, a fine perennial; Wistaria sinensis; Pulmonaria Virginica; Lychnis floscuculi; 
Phlox stolonifera, and divaricata; variegated Mountain Ash, and Shrubs and Cut Flowers, 
in variety. 

From James Nugent, fine Tulips ; Pelargoniums ; Roses ; Verbenas, and a variety of 
Cut Flowers. 

From Hovey & Co., fine Pansies, and two Bouquets. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

The Judges on Tulips, Pansies, Pot Plants, and Bouquets, Messrs. Quant, Richards and 
Dutton, awarded as follows : — 

Tulips. — For the best thirty distinct varieties, a premium of eight dollars, to Joseph 
Breck & Co. ; for the second best thirty varieties, the second premium of six dollars, to 
Samuel Walker. 

Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, a premium of four dollars, to Messrs. 
Hovey & Co., by J. H. Burns; for the second best twelve varieties, a premium of three 
dollars, to Joseph Breck & Co. ; and a gratuity, of two dollars, to Parker Barnes, for a pan 
of fine varieties. 

Pot Plants. — For the best six Pot Plants, a premium of two dollars, to J. L. Gardner ; 
for the second best do., one dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. The Judges award to J. L. 
Gardner, by John Thomas, a gratuity, of two dollars, for a Moss Vase with Flowers. 

Bouquets — For the best six Hand Bouquets, a premium of two dollars, to Azell Bow- 
ditch ; for the second best do., one dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
By John Fisk Allen, Salem, Grapes, viz : — Chasselas Bar-Sur-Aube, Black Hamburg, 
White Frontignan, Sweetwater, Zinfindal, Aleppo, Grizzly Frontignan. Also, White Figs. 
For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, fine Cucumbers, var. Black Spine. 
From T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, Asparagus, and Black Spine Cucumbers. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 29 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 5 ; 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Life membership : Nathaniel Dana, Charles 
Blanchard Dana, and John Morton Turner, all of Brookline, by Joseph Breck. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Subscription membership ; R. A. Richards, 
of Dedham, by William B. Richards; E. C. Emerson, of Brookline, and James P. Oliver, 
of Lynn, by Otis Johnson. 

A communication was received from Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, together with an ear of 
Indian Corn, of a new variety, recently received by him from Virginia, and it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, and that 
Messrs. Cheever Newhall and Ebenezer Wight, be a Committee to distribute the Corn 
among the Members of the Society. 

The President, in behalf of the Committee appointed to settle the claim of Mr. Clarkey, 
against the Society, for damges sustained by his wife in falling through the scuttle of the 
cellar of the Society's Hall, reported, that they had settled the matter, by allowing Mr. 
Clarky forty dollars. 

Voted, That the Treasurer be authorised to pay Mr. Clarkey the sum of forty dollars. 

Voted, That the Chairman of the Committee of Publication be authorised and requested 
to have the Seal of the Society altered, by causing the words " Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society," and the date of its incorporation added thereto. 

Voted, That the several Committees be instructed to have placards prepared, requesting 
contributors to furnish to the Chairman a list of their several contributions. 

The following gentlemen were elected Subscription members of the Society : Thomas 
R. Foster, Albert Bullard, John J. Adams, and George Tyler Bigelow, all of Boston. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, a rich collection of rare Cut Flowers, 
viz. : — fine Cacti, in variety; two new spotted seedling Calceolarias, and a variety of others 
from his collection ; Camellias, var. Alba plena and Prattii ; Fuchsias — Salterii major, 
Paragon, Boudin, Brookmanii. Chauverii, and robusta ; six or eight varieties of elegant 
Cinerarias ; — Petunias — Eliza, Contributor, Timandra. and a fine plant of Hebe, well grown 
and in perfection ; six varieties of Lilacs — Duchess d'Orleans, De Nemours, Charles X., 
Prince Notger, double Purple, and a Dark Red. 

From Messrs. Winship, a fine, round Pyramidal Bouquet, and a great variety of Cu 
Flowers, viz.: Ranunculus repens; Veronica gentianoides ; Arundo striata; Syringa 
laciniata; Bay-leaf Willow ; Pyrus spuria; Azalea nudiflora, Pontica, and others ; Kerria 
Japonica ; Podalyria Australis ; Calycanthus floridus ; JEsculus flava and pallida ; Ulmus 
crispa ; Spartium scoparium ; Spiraea — hypericifolia, oblongifolia, laevigata, chamaedrifolia, 
ulmifolia, flexuosa, daurica, Siberica, Reevesii, trilobata, and fol. variegata ; Crataegus 
flore pi. and rubra ; Mespilus grandiflora ; Paeonies, in variety ; Lonicera — Caucasica, 
Tartarica albiflora, Xylosteum ; Viburnum lantago ; Amsonia latifolia ; Balsamita odorata ; 
Ribes alpina ; Iris — Germanica, purpurea, lurida vel sordida, pallida, Virginica, Florentina, 
albida ; Ilex crispa ; Sedum ; Trollius Europeus ; Vinca major ; Hemerocallis flava ; 
Asclepias vincetoxicum ; Corydalis formosa, &c. This collection occupied the whole of 
one of the large round stands, and attracted much attention from the good taste displayed 
in the arrangement. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., fine specimens of Castilleja coccinea, a beautiful indigenous 
flower ; a branch of Wistaria sinensis, with more than fifty racemes of its elegant flowers 

7 



30 PROCEEDINGS. 

drooping in the most graceful manner. The plant from which this was taken, was grown 
in the open air, without ihe least protection, and made a growth, last season, of twentytwo 
feet in one direction. Tulips, in great variety and perfection, including some very superb 
double varieties; Pseonia arborea Banksii, and a variety of herbaceous sorts; Pansies; Iris, 
in variety ; Lychnis lioscuculi ; Dodecatheon Meadia ; Hesperis matronalis ; Fritillaria 
Persica; Phloxes; Iberis, and a variety of other Herbaceous Plants. Also, Persian Lilac; 
Red and White Tartarian Honeysuckle ; variegated Mountain Ash, &c. This was one of 
the largest collections in the Hall, and attracted universal attention from the many rare and 
perfect specimens it contained. 

From Augustus Aspinwall, of Brookline, a fine display of Perpetual, and other Roses. 

From Parker Barnes, of Dorchester, ever-flowering Pinks, and fine Pansies. 

From Ebenezer Wight, Tulips, in variety. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, six Pot Plants, viz. : — Fuchsias — paragon, 
Victoria, Epsii, Williamsonii, a seedling, and Pelargonium Victor)'. Also, a splendid 
Pyramidal Bouquet. The Pot Plants were fine, and remarkably well grown specimens. 

From Azell Bowditch, eight Hand Bouquets. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, six Hand and one Pyramidal Bouquets ; Narcissus ; Daisies ; 
Pasonia arborea Banksii, and papaveracea ; Tartarian Honeysuckles; Dodecatheon, two 
varieties, &c. 

From 0. H. Mather, Cut Flowers, in variety, including fine Pelargoniums, Abutilon, 
Roses, Phlox Drummondii, Cinerarias, Collinsias, Verbenas, &c. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large oval Bouquet, composed of a great 
variety of flowers. Also, Cut Flowers, including Wistarias, Pseonia arborea Banksii, 
Kerria Japonica, variegated Horse Chestnut, Purple Beech, &c. 

From William B. Richards, one large Bouquet; Polemonium Mexicanum ; Lily of the 
Valley, &c. 

From John Hovey, two Bouquets ; Pasonia arborea Banksii, &c. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, eight Pot Plants, viz. : — six Pelargoniums, one 
seedling Cineraria, and seedling Verbenas. Also, one superb Moss Vase and Bouquet, 
and large Bouquet for vase. 

From James Nugent, Cut Flowers, in variety, including fine Pelargoniums, Verbenas, 
Roses, fine Gladiolus, &c. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, Cut Flowers, viz. : — Iris. Tulips, Dodecatheon. 
Lychnis floscuculi, and others. 

From J. W. Mandel, one large flat Bouquet. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 
For the best large Bouquet, a premium of two dollars, to William Quant. 
For the second best large Bouquet, a premium of one dollar, to the Messrs. Winship. 
For the best six Hand Bouquets, a premium of two dollars, to Azell Bowditch. 
For the second best six Hand Bouquets, a premium of one dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 
For a Design, a Moss Vase with Flowers, a premium of two dollars, to John Thomas. 
For the second best do., a premium of one dollar, to Miss Russell. 
For the best six Pot Plants, a premium of two dollars, to William Quant. 
For the second best six do., a premium of one dollar, to John Thomas. 

For the Committee, HENRY W. DUTTON. 



PROCEEDINGS. 31 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
The Grapes presented this day by John Fisk Allen, of Salem, were very fine. We 
noticed among them extra fine specimens of the Zinfindal, as also fine bunches of the 
Black Hamburg, White Chasselas, Aleppo, and Grizzly Frontignan. Mr. Allen also 
exhibited a box of fine ripe May Duke Cherries, Black Figs, and Bergamot Limes. 
By A. Moore, a dish of Sweet Apples. 
By Wiliam E. Carter, Hubbardston Nonesuch Apples. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a brace of Cucumbers, and some very fine 
Lettuce. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr., Chairman. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, June 12, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, fine new, hardy Ghent Azaleas, 
including Buckinghamii, dianthifiora, regina, &c.; white Camellias; Petunias; Spiraeas ; 
Brugsmansia Knightii, formerly Datura ; Calceolarias ; Tree Paeonies ; Lilacs ; Cinerarias ; 
Roses and Cut Flowers, in variety, embracing many beautiful specimens. 

From Captain Sweetlin, of the ship Augustine Heard, from Valparaiso, by Captain 
Frederick W. Macondry, a Cactus from the Araucaria mountains in Chili. This was a 
noble specimen of this tribe of plants, measuring nearly five feet in circumference, and 
very formidable from the immense number of its thorns. From its form, and for want of 
the proper name, the Committee named it the Ottoman. 

From J. E. Teschemacher, Corresponding Secretary, a plant of Ismene calathina, or 
white Peruvian Wedding Flower, very fragrant ; plants of Echinocactus Ottonis and E. 
mammillarioides, a seedling from Vera Cruz, (curious.) Also, a fine plant of E. Eyriesii, 
with three blooms of its elegant, long tubular Avhite flowers, and nine buds. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., twelve species of Iris — amcena, variegata, Florentina, pallida, 
Germanica, Siberica, fiavescens. squalens, &c, including Susiana, one of the most beautiful 
and admired of this tribe ; Paeonia arborea Banksii, Siberica, paradoxa, officinalis, varieties 
of rosea and albicans ; Lupinus polyphyllus, blue and white ; Hyacinthus plumosus ; 
Aquilegias, in variety ; Pansies ; Lychnis ; Hesperis ; Sophoras, &c. 

From Augustus Aspinwall, Roses, in great variety. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, five plants of Pelargoniums, and two vinca 
herbacea, var. purpurea and alba. 

From James Nugent, Asclepias cinerea ; three Calceolarias ; Erica ventricosa superba, 
and a fine Campanula. Also, Cut Flowers. 

From Wm. Mellar, three Bouquets; Pelargoniums, in variety; Pseonies; Roses; Iris; 
Amaryllis, and other Cut Flowers. 

From 0. H. Mather, a great variety of Cut Flowers, including Roses, Pelargoniums, 
Phlox Drummondii, Cacti, Cinerarias, Abutilon, Stocks, Verbenas, &c. 

From Mr. Bradford, a Bouquet, composed of indigenous flowers. 

From Samuel Walker, fine Ranunculus, in great variety, but past their perfection; 
Pseonies and Iris, in variety; Hawthorn — double white, scarlet, and other varieties ; Lychnis ; 
Aquilegias; Hemerocallis ; Hyacinthus plumosus; Pansies; fine specimens of Dictamn us 
fraxinella, var. alba, and other Cut Flowers. 



32 PROCEEDINGS. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, six varieties of Iris ; Lupinus polyphyllus ; 
Sophora. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Paconia arborea Banksii. P. globosa Cassoretii, papaveracea, 
Kechlinii, rubra plena and other varieties ; a fine display of Rhododendrons ; Lupinus 
polyphyllus; Phlox Drummondii, var. alba; five flat Hand, and four round Bouquets. 

From J. L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, one large Pyramidal Bouquet, and one large Design. 

From Parker Barnes, one fine plant of Petunia Hebe ; Boronia viminea, and Alstrcemaria 
pelegrina. 

From Wm. Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large Bouquet; Pa;onies, in variety; Purple 
Beech ; Laburnum ; Snow-balls, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Messrs. Winship, a fine collection of plants, occupying one circular stand, including 
a fine show of Azaleas; Hawthorns; Spiraas; Iris; Chionanthus Virginicus ; Mespilus 
prostratus: Calcycanthus floridus ; Loniceras ; Pa?onies, &c. Also, two flat Bouquets. 

From John Hovey, two flat Bouquets, and a variety of Cut Flowers. 

From Hovey & Co., six Hand and two Circular Table Bouquets. Also, nine varieties of 
beautiful Azaleas. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

On Pot Plants. — Alexander McLennan, E. Augustus Story and Joseph Breck, Judges. 

First premium for best six plants, to Wm. Quant, two dollars ; second do., to A. Bowditch, 
one dollar. 

Hardy Azaleas, Hawthorns, &c. — H. W. Dutton, Wm. Quant and R. M. Copeland, 
Judges. 

For the best display of Hardy Azaleas, first premium, of three dollars, to Messrs. Winship. 
For the second best do., the second premium, of two dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. 

For the best display of Hawthorns, first premium, of three dollars, to Messrs. Winship. 
For the second best do., to Samuel Walker, two dollars. 

For the best Design, a Moss Vase, (dissimilar to former ones shown,) with Flowers, to 
John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, a premium of two dollars. For the second best Design 
to Miss Russell, one dollar. 

For a Vase Bouquet, a premium, of two dollars, to John Thomas. 

For the best Table and Mantel Bouquet, two dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. For the 
second best do., do., one dollar, to Messrs. Winship. 

For the best six Hand Bouquets, two dollars, to Azell Bowditch. For the second best six 
do., one dollar, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. 



GRATUITIES. 

The Flower Committee award the following gratuities, viz. : — 

To Samuel Walker, for a display of Ranunculus, three dollars. To J. L. L. F. Warren, 
for six Hand Bouquets, one dollar : for this and a previous display of Rhododendrons, three 
dollars. To J. E. Teschemacher, for a plant of Ismene calathina, and plants of Echinocactus, 
spec. Ottonis, mammillarioides (a seedling,) and Eyriesii, three dollars. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

John Fisk Allen, of Salem, presented six varieties of Grapes, fully ripe. Also, Figs, 
and May Duke Cherries. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 33 

EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, String Beans, and a brace of Cucumbers. 

From Aaron D. Williams, Lettuce, Rhubarb, and a brace of Cucumbers. 

From A. Roberson, New Bedford, by Wm. Brimms, Rhubarb. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, by John Cadness, Giant and Victoria Rhubarb. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Chairman. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 19, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for membership: — for Life membership, William 
J. Hubbard, of Boston, by the President: Subscription membership, William H. Parker, of 
Boston, by Azell Bowditch. 

The Committee appointed to purchase a set of Scales for the use of the Society, reported 
that they had attended to their duty. 

The following Report was then submitted : — 

REPORT OF THE FRUIT COMMITTEE OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HOR- 
TICULTURAL SOCIETY, ON THE SPECIAL PRIZE LIST OF FRUIT. 

Early in the year 1846, a gentleman in the vicinity of Boston, desirous of promoting 
and advancing the science of Horticulture, placed at the disposal of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, three hundred dollars, to be expended at the rate of one hundred 
dollars per annum, for three consecutive years, in Special Premiums for Fruit, viz. : — 
Twenty premiums, of five dollars each, to be awarded by the Committee on Fruits, under 
the direction of the Society, with the understanding that the Committee should publish a 
Special Report, stating the kinds and varieties of Fruit for which the premiums were 
awarded, together with the names and residences of the cultivators. 

In accordance with the desire of the donor, the Committee have awarded the following 
prizes, for the finest specimens and best varieties of Fruit which have been exhibited 
at the Hall of the Society during the past season, 1846, viz. : — 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Apples, to Otis 

Johnson, of Lynn, for Red Astrachan and Early Bough, ■ - - - $10 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Autumn Apples ; one to 

George Hyde, of Newton, for Gravenstein, ....... 5 00 

One to Otis Johnson, of Lynn, for Porter, 5 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Apples : one to 

George Walsh, of Charlestown, for Baldwin, 5 00 

One to Samuel Walker, of Roxbury, for Rhode Island Greening, - - - 5 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Pears ; one to Otis 

Johnson, of Lynn, for Jargonelle, 5 00 

One to Samuel Pond, of Cambridgeport, for Williams's Bon Chretien, - - - 5 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Autumn Pears ; one to Samuel 

Walker, of Roxbury, for Fondante d'Automne, 5 00 

One to Samuel Downer, Jr., of Dorchester, for Louise Bonne de Jersey, - - 5 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties and specimens of Winter Pears ; one to J. S. 

Cabot, of Salem, for Beurre d'Aremberg, 5 00 

One to Josiah Lorett, of Beverly, for Winter Nelis, 5 00 

8 



34 PROCEEDINGS. 

Three prizes, for the three best varieties of Cherries ; one to Otis Johnson, of Lynn, 

for Black Tartarian, 5 00 

One to George Walsh, of Charlestown, for New Large Black Bigarreau, - - 5 00 

One to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, for Sweet Montmorency, - - - - 5 00 

Three prizes, for the three best varieties of Plum ; one to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, 

for Green Gage, ...500 

One to Samuel R. Johnson, of Charlestown, for Washington (Bolmar's,) - - 5 00 
One to Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, for Reine Claude Violette, - - - - 5 00 

Two prizes, for the two best varieties of Peaches ; one to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, 

for Bellegarde, 5 00 

One to Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, Mignonne Grosse, 5 00 

Twenty prizes, of five dollars, $100 00 

The specimens presented for the above prizes, consisted of not less than three of each 
variety of Apples, Pears, and Peaches ; not less than one dozen Plums, and two dozen 
Cherries ; all of which were at the disposal of the Committee on Fruits. 

To such other varieties of Fruit as may be presented at the Hall of the Society, during 
the years 1847 and 1848, and which shall prove equal, or superior, in all respects, to the 
varieties Avhich now constitute the prize list, will be awarded the prizes under this donation, 
and they will be added to this list ; but as long as the above varieties shall continue to 
prove superior to all other kinds exhibited at the Hall, they will be considered as entitled 
to the special prizes, and will be designated in future reports, as having received the prize 
for one, two or three years; the object of the donor being to ascertain and make known, 
through the Society, the best varieties of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, and Cherries, 
which may have been exhibited before for three consecutive years. 

Respectfully submitted by order of the Committee. 

(Signed,) SAMUEL WALKER, Chairman. 

Voted. That the Report of the Committee on Fruits be accepted, and placed in the hands 
of the Committee of Publication. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — Anson Dexter and 
Edward Sayers, of Boston ; Henry H. Crapo, of New Bedford ; Charles A. Hewins and 
Thomas Willott, of Roxbury; Benjamin W. Balch, of Dedham; Royal Douglass, of 
Cambridge, and Charles Spring, of Brighton. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, Presidentof the Society, fine plants of Fuchsia, viz. : — Empress, 
a fine new variety, with blush-white sepals and purplish pink corolla, large flower, one of 
the best varieties ; Lady of the Lake, blush sepals, crimson corolla, fine ; Vesta, flesh- 
colored sepals, crimson and scarlet corolla. Also, Venus Victrix and Frostii; two new 
seedling Calceolarias, spotted ; Gladiolus Colvillii ; Paeonies — Whileji, Richardsonii, and 
Humei. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Rhododendrons, in variety ; Paeonia officinalis ; Philadelphus 
grandifiorus ; Phlox suaveolens and maculata ; Plumbago Zeylanica; Bouvardia triphylla ; 
Myosotis arvensis; Harrison and Scotch Roses ; Papaver orientalis ; Polemonium ; Clematis 
integrifolia ; Passiflora fragrans; Caprifolium Douglassii; Daisies; Pinks, &c. Also, 
eight fiat and five Hand Bouquets. 

From Samuel Walker, a seedling Phlox, from maculata, with larger corolla and more 
compact head or panicle — an improvement upon the old variety. A fine specimen of 
Lychnis viscaria, a very rare double variety ; new crimson Boursault Rose ; Spiraea 
filipendula plena, &c. 



PROCEEDINGS. 35 

From Augustus Aspinwall, Hardy Perpetual, and other Roses, in great variety. 

From Azell Bowditch, Roses ; Paeonia Whitleji ; Polemonium coaruleum, var. album ; 
Hemerocallis flava ; Valeriana Phu, and other Cut Flowers ; several Pot Plants, viz : — five 
Fuchsias ; one Russelia juncea, and one Pelargonium. Also, seven Hand Bouquets. 

From E. M. Richards. Lupinus polyphyllus ; Papaver orientalis ; Hemerocallis flava ; 
Iris, in variety ; Dictamnus, two varieties ; Pseonies ; Sarracenia purpurea, a curious 
indigenous plant: Loniceras, in variety ; Arethusa bulbosa, a beautiful Orchideous native 
flower, with other Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., numerous Cut Flowers, filling seven stands, including a great 
variety of hardy Roses ; Loniceras, in variety ; Papaver orientalis ; Hemerocallis flava 
Iris, in variety ; Dictamnus, two varieties ; Tradescantia Virginica, var. alba and plena 
Pasonia Whitleji and Pottsii ; Delphinium Barlowii and sinensis ; Campanula pulchella 
Spiraea filipendula plena; Lupinus polyphyllus ; Baptisia, two varieties; Phlox maculata 
Pansies; Aquilegias; Veronica spicata; Valerian; Lychnis, &c. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large flat and one Pyramidal Bouquet, and 
Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From James Nugent, a fine show of Cut Flowers, including Pelargoniums ; Roses ; fine 
specimens of Gladiolus blandus; Cactus; Verbenas, and other Green-House Plants, in 
variety. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, Paeonia Whitleji, (fine specimens,) and Acacia rosea. 

From W. B. Richards, one large Bouquet, and a fine specimen of Rocket Candytuft. 

From William Mellar, one large circular and two small flat Bouquets. Also, Cut 
Flowers, in variety, including seedling Pelargoniums; Iris; Pansies, and seedling Scarlet 
Trumpet Honeysuckle, &c. 

From Hovey & Co., one Pyramidal and six Hand Bouquets. Also, a plant of Hydrangea 
japonica, a flower of great magnificence and beauty. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, eight Pot Plants, viz. : — four Pelargoniums and four 
Calceolarias. Also, a fine Design, or two sided semi-circular Bouquet, upon a moss covered 
stand, one side composed of Dahlias, Roses, &c, the other of choice Green-House Plants. 
Also, a Moss Vase, with a Bouquet of indigenous and other flowers. 

From Mr. Crowninshield, by John Quant, eighteen plants of fine Pelargoniums. 

From 0. H. Mather, a great variety of Cut Flowers from the Green-House, embracing 
many fine specimens of Cactus, Calceolarias, Cinerarias and Pelargoniums ; among the 
the latter was a fine seedling, Clematis grandiflora; Roses; Phlox Drummondii, var. alba, 
very fine. 

From Messrs. Winship, a great variety of Shrubby and Herbaceous Flowers, filling the 
two circular and three side stands, among which was a fine display of Hardy Azaleas ; 
Scotch, Harrison, and other Roses ; Pseonies; Spiraeas; Iris; Rose Acacia; Loniceras, &c. 
Also, two large flat Bouquets. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

The Flower Committee, Messrs. Quant, Richards and Dutton, Judges, award as follows : 

For the best six Pot Plants, first premium, of two dollars, to J. L. Gardner, by J. Thomas. 
For the second best six do., second premium, of one dollar, to Mr. Crowninshield, by John 
Quant. 

A gratuity of three dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., for a rare specimen of Hydrangea 
japonica, in bloom. 

For the best six Hand Bouquets, two dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. For the second 
best do. do., one dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 



30 PROCEEDINGS. 

A gratuity of one dollar, to Azell Bowditch, for Hand Bouquets. 

For a Design, a stand with an oval Bouquet with two faces, ov fronts; one composed of 
Green-House Flowers, the other of flowers of open culture, a premium of two dollars, to 
John Thomas. 

For a Moss Vase, tilled with forty varieties of beautiful indigenous and other flowers, a 
gratuity of two dollars, to John Thomas. 

For the best large Bouquet, a premium of two dollars, to William Mellar. For the 
second best do. do., one dollar, to William B. Richards. 

For a pair of Mantel Bouquets, a premium of two dollars, to Messrs. Winship. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
By Otis Johnson, of Lynn, Coolidge's Favorite Peaches, fully ripe. 

By John Fisk Allen, of Salem, Peaches; six varieties of Grapes; May Duke, Elton, 
(fine.) and Black Tartarian Cherries; Hunt's Early Tawny Nectarine, and Black Figs. 
By Mrs. L. Spalding, of South Reading, Lemons. 
By John Hill, four boxes of Early Virginia Strawberries. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From Messrs. Winship, Victoria Rhubarb, twelve stalks, w r eight twelve and a half pounds ; 
Water Cresses. 

From Vice President Benj. V. French, Giant Rhubarb, six stalks, weight seven pounds; 
Victoria Rhubarb, twelve stalks, weight fifteen pounds. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, Victoria Rhubarb. 

From Hazen Hazeltine, Somerville, by John Martin, new Potatoes, first of the season. 
For the Committee. A. D. WILLIAMS, Chairman. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, June 26, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, a great variety of Hardy and Green- 
House Roses, and Cut Flowers, not in competition for premium with other amateurs. We 
noticed among the PEeonies some varieties which were quite novel; the central part of one 
variety (Duchesse de Nemours) is composed of numerous fine pale yellow petals, with a 
row of broad blush-white exterior ones. We have heard of a yellow variety of Paeonia in 
Europe and doubted its existence, but from the appearance of this variety we can no longer 
doubt. The variety Sulphurea, has some resemblance to Whitleji, but instead of being a 
pure white has a sulphur tint ; the other new varieties exhibited were P. prolifera tricolor, 
P. triumphans, P. grandiflora carnea, P. plenissima variegata, and P. Hericartiana ; the old 
varieties, Whitleji, Reevesii, Pottsii, Richardsonii, Humei, and fragrans. Mr. Wilder also 
exhibited plants of Gladiolus Wilhelmus, bright scarlet with white stripe, and Gladiolus 
Lisette, a large orange flower, with pink-white stripe, both of them very beautiful. Also, 
fine specimens of Spiraea Aruncus and Japonica. 

From William Mellar, fine double Pinks ; Roses; Pelargoniums, &c. Also, two Bou- 
quets. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, eight Pot Plants, viz. :— Miltonia spectabalis, a 
beautiful, rare epiphyte plant, a native of Bengal; Epidendrum spectabalis, a curious 



PROCEEDINGS. 37 

orchideous plant from Mexico ; three Pelargoniums ; two Fuchsias, and one seedling 
Calceolaria. Also, a Globe Bouquet, or Design. 

From William B. Richards, three Bouquets, and specimens of Iberis coronaria. 

From 0. H. Mather, a great variety of beautiful Green-House and Hardy Plants, 
including Roses, Verbenas, Pelargoniums, Cytisus racemosus, Pinks, Lupins, Alstrcemeria, 
Stocks, Salvia patens, Phlox Van Houttii and Drummondii, var. alba, Petunia, in variety, &c. 

From Messrs. Winship, one pair of Mantel Bouquets; fine specimens of Virgilea lutea; 
a great variety of Hardy and other Roses, and other Cut Flowers, in variety, including a 
fine display of Hardy Azaleas, of which these gentlemen have made a beautiful show for 
four weeks in succession. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large Design, or Bouquet, composed of a 
great variety of flowers. Also, a large number of Vases filled with fine specimens of 
Paeonies, and other Flowers. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., a great variety of Roses, Paeonies, and Herbaceous Plants. 

From E. Wight, Roses. 

From E. M. Richards, Roses, and other Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From Augustus Aspinwall, a beautiful collection of fine Roses. 

From Frederick W. Macondry, fine Roses. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., large branches of Boursault and Hybrid perpetual Roses. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, one Pyramidal and eight Hand Bouquets. Also, Roses in 
great variety ; Paeonies, and other Cut Flowers; six Pot Plants, viz. : — one Anigozanthus 
coccineus, two Fuchsias paragon, one Lilium Thunbergianum, one Sollya heterophylla, 
and one Mahernia odorata. 

From Azell Bowditch, Roses, Paeonies, Sweet Williams, and other Cut Flowers. Also, 
six Hand Bouquets. 

From S. Walker, Paeonies and Herbaceous Plants, in great variety. 

From Hovey & Co., one large flat Bouquet, or Design; two Pyramidal do., and six 
Hand do. Also, Roses, in great variety. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 
Judges on Roses, William Quant, John Thomas, and Samuel Walker. 

CLASS NO. I. 

Hardy Roses. — For the best thirty varieties, the first premium, of eight dollars, to Joseph 
Breck & Co. ; the second premium, of six dollars, to Hovey & Co., and the third premium, 
of four dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren. For the best display, a premium of three dollars, 
to Joseph Breck & Co. 

/ CLASS NO. II. 

For the best twelve varieties, the first premium, of five dollars, to Messrs. Winship, and 
the second premium, of three dollars, to Azell Bowditch. 

CLASS NO. III. 

Hardy Perpetuals. — For the best ten flowers, the first premium, of five dollars, to 
Joseph Breck & Co., and the second premium, of four dollars, to A. Aspinwall. For the 
best display, a premium of three dollars to Joseph Breck & Co. 

Judges on Paeonies, Pinks, Pot Plants and Bouquets, H. W. Dutton, E. A. Story, and 
Thomas Needham. 

Peonies. — For the best twelve flowers, having regard to the number of varieties, a 
premium of five dollars, to Messrs. Breck & Co., and for the second best do. do., a 
premium of three dollars, to S. Walker. For the best display, a premium of three dollars, 
to Messrs. Breck & Co. 

9 



38 PROCEEDINGS. 

Pinks. First and second premiums were not awarded, as there were no competitors 

within the rule. For the best display, a premium of two dollars, to William Mellar, and 
for line specimens, a gratuity of two dollars, to Messrs. Breck & Co. 

Pot Plants. — For the best six Pot Plants, a premium of two dollars, to J. L. L. F. 
Warren, and for the second best do. do., a premium of one dollar, to John Thomas. 

Designs. — For the best, a premium, of two dollars, to Hovey & Co. ; for the second best, 
a premium of one dollar, to Miss Russell, and a gratuity of one dollar, to John Thomas. 

Bouquets. — For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, a premium of two dollars, to the 
Messrs. Winship. For the best Pyramidal Bouquet, a premium of two dollars, to the 
Messrs. Hovey ; for the second best, a premium of one dollar, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 
For the best six Hand Bouquets, a premium of two dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren ; for 
the second best do. do., a premium of one dollar, to Azell Bowditch. 

The Committee award a gratuity, of five dollars, to Marshall P. Wilder, for a fine display 
of new Pseonies. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

On no former occasion did our weekly exhibition present more to admire. If we turn 
aside for a moment to pay our court and respect to our lovely Flora, seated upon her rose- 
scented couch, our excuse must be, that we found her t6te-a-tete with our beloved Pomona. 
They were both so gaily dressed, in the newest summer fashion, for the occasion, that to 
have passed by without a renewal of our allegiance, would have subjected us to the charge 
of lacking in courtesy ; that our gallantry was on the wane, and that we were guilty of 
treason in not giving " aid and comfort" to her " unrivalled charms." 

Flora, surrounded by her thousand handmaids, introduced us to the generous Pomona. 
It is our humble duty to describe what we saw at her court ; and although it is almost as 
difficult to perform, as it is pleasant to contemplate, where so many things were rich 
"beyond compare," we shall proceed to our task by stating, that the tables were strewed 
with Grapes, Peaches, Nectarines, Figs, Plums, and Strawberries, viz. : — 

By Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, Strawberries, var. Princess Alice Maude, 
and Hovey's Boston Pine. 

From the Grapery of Col. T. H. Perkins, by Wm. Quant, Grapes, var. Black Hamburg, 
Grizzly Frontignan, Golden Chasselas, and Muscat of Alexandria. 

By John Fisk Allen, of Salem, twentytwo varieties of Grapes — among them we noticed 
Tottenham Park Muscat, Wilmot's new Black Hamburg, (fine.) Austrian Muscat, (new,) 
Purple Muscat, (new,) Zinfindal, (fine,) Muscat of Alexandria, (fine.) The Grapes by Mr. 
Allen, were tasted by the Committee : they were ripe and in great perfection. 

The Society's first premium, of ten dollars, was awarded to Mr. Allen, and the second 
premium, of seven dollars, to Mr. Quant. 

By Augustus Aspinwall, of Brookline, a basket of extra fine Strawberries, var. Hovey's 
Seedling. 

By Nahum Stetson, of Bridgewater, very fine specimens of Boston Pine and Jenny's 
Seedling Strawberries. 

By Otis Johnson, of Lynn, two boxes of Early Virginia Strawberries. 

By Samuel Downer, jr., of Dorchester, Hovey's Seedling, Ross's Phcenix, Wiley, 
Early Virginia, and Wood Strawberries. 

By John Duncklee, Hovey's Seedling Strawberries. 

By Isaac Fay, Fay's Seedling Strawberries. 

By Josiah Richardson, of Cambridge, Richardson's Seedling, Hovey's Seedling and 
Boston Pine Strawberries. 

By Charles F. Putnam, of Salem, a Seedling Strawberry; branches and fruit large; 
appearance good ; represented to be a great bearer ; pistillate. 



PROCEEDINGS. 39 

By James M. Richardson, from the garden of Capt. Lee, a Seedling Strawberry — large, 
but the specimens were not highly flavored ; probably not fully ripe. 

By Azell Bowditch, " Stoddard's Seedling" Strawberries. They were poor specimens 
of the " Wood." 

By J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, seven varieties of Strawberries, viz. : British Queen, 
Prince Albert, Hovey's Seedling, Wiley, Mottier, Early Virginia and Alpine. 

By Messrs. Hovey, Boston Pine Strawberries. 

By John Owen, of Cambridge, Strawberries ; Wood, (red and white,) and a Seedling. 

By S. W. Cole, an Apple, for a name. 

By John F. Allen, of Salem, Figs, Plums and Nectarines. 

By Azell Bowditch, of Roxbury. Peaches. 

By Otis Johnson, of Lynn, Peaches. 

Several of the Seedling Strawberries presented were large, and of fine appearance ; but 
to enable the Committee to judge of their respective merits, the specimens should have 
been fully ripe. And in addition to this, it is highly important to learn whether the plants 
will bear a full crop of large sized fruit. Of the merits of such new varieties as may be 
presented, the Committee will form and give an opinion when they have tasted the fruit 
fully ripe, and have examined and found the variety to be truly " a fruitful vine." 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, thirteen stalks of Giant and Victoria Rhubarb, weighing 
twentyone pounds ; some of the stalks measuring fortythree inches. 
From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, some fine Cucumbers. 
From Col. T. H. Perkins, by Wm. Quant, some fine Palestine Lettuce. 
From Mrs. Pratt, by A. McLennan, Royal Cape Lettuce. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr., Chairman. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 3, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for membership : — For Life membership, James 
Lloyd, of Boston, by Samuel Walker : Subscription, John Albree, of Newton, by Samuel 
Walker ; Joseph N. Howe, Thomas Leighton, Jr., of East Cambridge, and Wm. Leighton, 
of Concord, Mass., by Thomas Leighton. 

Josiah Stickney, as Chairman of the Committee of Finance, submitted the following 
Report : 

The Committee of Finance respectfully report : That they caused to be sold at auction 
on the twelfth of May last, by Brown & Sons, ten shares of the Shoe and Leather Dealers' , 
Bank. Their sale of the same is hereby presented, producing the net sum of $1067 18. 

One thousand dollars of the sum was deposited in the Hospital Life Insurance Office, on 
the 15th of May last, being the Lyman Fund. A certificate of deposite of the same has 
been passed over to the Treasurer : the balance of said sale, being sixtyseven dollars and 
eighteen cents, was also paid over to him on the 15th of May. 

Say Lyman Fund, at the Hospital Life Insurance Office, ... - $1000 00 

In the hands of Samuel Walker, Treasurer, - - - - - - - 67 18 

$1067 18 
For the Committee, (Signed,) JOSIAH STICKNEY. 



40 PROCEEDINGS. 

Voted, That the Report of the Committee of Finance be accepted, recorded, and placed 
vn lile. 

Voted, That a Committee of three, to be chosen by the Chair, be appointed to furnish the 
westerly end of the Society's Hall with such additional Flower Stands and Fixtures as may 
be deemed advisable. 

Messrs. Samuel Walker, Joseph Breck, and Henry W. Dutton, were appointed that 
Committee. 

Voted, That the Executive Committee be requested to see whether anything, and what, 
can be done to improve the ventilation of the Society's Hall. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society : — Life, Nathaniel Dana, 
Charles Blanchard Dana, John Morton Turner : Subscription, E. C. Emerson, James P. 
Oliver, R. A. Richards. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, ten pots of new Gladioli, viz. : Due 
d'Orleans, Lehmanii, Christianus No. 1, insignis, Wilhelmus, Spoorshill, pyramidalis, 
Dobreii, Paulownia, and Queen Victoria. These varieties are all fine, some of them 
exquisitely beautiful. Cut Flowers, in great variety, including fine Roses — among which 
were noticed Princess Clementine, (a new white,) Alba Felicite, La Vestale, Madame 
Hardy, Kean, Blanche Fleur, La Reine, Mrs. Elliot, Louis Bonaparte, Earl Talbot, Marquise 
Boccella, &c. Also, new scarlet Geraniums, viz. : Prince Albert, Cyrus's Queen, Brighton 
Hero, Shrubland Superb, Gen. Tom Thumb, and Goliah. Also, Cacti, Deutzia, and other 
Cut Flowers. 

From J. E. Teschemacher, Corresponding Secretary, a plant of Hsemanthus tenuifolius, 
a rare and very beautiful flower, introduced to Rio Janeiro from Africa. 

From Hovey & Co., one large circular Bouquet, two very fine large flat do., and six 
Hand Bouquets. Also, a great variety of fine Roses, and other Cut Flowers. 

From John Kenrick, a fine flower of Magnolia macrophylla. Why is not this beautiful 
tree more generally cultivated'? 

From Joseph Breck & Co., one large circular Bouquet; Prairie and other Roses; Pinks; 
Lilium martagon alba purpurea and punctata ; Lilium umbellatum ; Campanula media, 
four varieties; Campanula persicifolia, three varieties; C. longata; Phlox Van Houttii, 
macrantha speciosa, and suaveolens ; Persian Iris, in variety ; Digitalis, in variety ; Pseonies ; 
Delphiniums ; Dianthus barbatus, in variety ; Deutzia scabra ; Clematis alpina, &c. 

From Augustus Aspinwall, a great variety of Roses. 

From Vice President Benj. V. French, Roses, in great variety. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large Bouquet and a basket of Flowers. 
Also, a great variety of Cut Flowers, including Pasonies, &c. 

From 0. H. Mather, Cut Flowers, in great variety, including fine specimens of Phlox 
Van Houttii, and other varieties ; Verbenas, Roses, Pelargoniums, and other Green-House 
Flowers. 

From Samuel Walker, a great display of Prairie Roses, of different varieties ; Deutzia 
scabra, Spirea aruncus and japonica, Delphinium, Clematis alpina, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Parker Barnes, fine specimens of Double Dwarf Rocket Larkspur ; Digitalis ; 
Campanula media, in variety ; Pentstemon digitalis ; Deutzia scabra ; Dianthus barbatus, 
fine sorts, including a double variety ; Cactus Speciosissimus ; Verbenas ; Roses ; Petunia 
Hebe and other fine sorts ; Ipomopsis picta ; Perpetual Pinks; Scabiosa atropurpurea, &c. 
Also, one Hand Bouquet. 

From Azell Bowditch, six fine Hand Bouquets. 

From William Meller, six varieties of Dahlias; Pinks, Pelargoniums, and other Cut 
Flowers. Also, two Bouquets. 



PROCEEDINGS. 41 

From James L. L. F. Warren, ten Pot Plants, viz. : Crassida spec, Rondeletia speciosa, 
Erica ventricosa superba, Calceolaria, Gardenia radicans, Mammillaria scopa alba and 
Wildiana, Echinocactus spec, Euphorbia maliformis and Ixora rosea; one round Vase 
Bouquet, one flat do., six flat Hand and two round Hand do. Also, a fine display of 
Prairie Roses, and Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From Messrs. Winship, a fine show of Prairie Roses; White Azalea; Shrubs and 
Herbaceous Plants, in great variety. Also, two Mantel Bouquets. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

Bouquets and Pot Plants. — For the best six Hand Bouquets, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., 
two dollars; for the second best do. do., to Azell Bowditch, one dollar. 

For the best pair flat Mantel Bouquets, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., two dollars; for the 
second best do., to Messrs. Winship, one dollar. 

For the best round Bouquet, to Messrs. Hovey & Co., two dollars; for the second best 
do., to J. L. L. F. Warren, one dollar. 

For the best Pot Plants, to J. L. L. F. Warren, two dollars. 

Prairie Roses. — James Nugent, R. M. Copeland, and J. Breck, Judges. 

For the best display, a premium to Samuel Walker, of four dollars ; for the second best 
do., to Messrs. Winship, of three dollars. 

The Committee recommend a gratuity of five dollars, to the President, Marshall P. 
Wilder, for his ten new varieties of Gladioli. 

Also, a gratuity of three dollars, to J. E. Teschemacher, Corresponding Secretary, for a 
fine plant of Hsemanthus tenuifolius. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

The beautiful specimens of Strawberries presented to-day, were placed upon the tables 
with great skill and good taste. As a whole, it was the best display of this fruit that we 
ever saw. 

Of an exhibition where all was so admirably done, we trust we may be permitted to 
state that this is as it should be, and as it always ought to be. The arrangement of the fruit 
in the dishes, presented on this and on former occasions by Otis Johnson, of Lynn, has 
appeared to us as worthy of imitation. Fruits, like flowers, may be much improved in 
appearance by a judicious arrangement, so as to show the " sunny side." The " British 
Queen" and " Princess Alice Maude" were made more " illustrioiis" in the respective 
dishes of the President of the Society, and J. L. L. F. Warren, by the graceful manner in 
which the berries were displayed. 

Hovey's Seedling, by Otis Johnson ; Hovey's Seedling and Boston Pine, by Messrs. 
Hovey; Richardson's Seedlings, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, Hovey's Seedling, Swainstone 
Seedling, and Boston Pine, by Josiah Richardson ; five baskets of Fay's Seedling, and one 
basket of Hovey's Seedling, by Isaac Fay — may be classed among the specimens as having 
been arranged and exhibited to great advantage. They were truly beautiful. 

After a trial of two seasons, the Committee again place Jenney's Seedling among the 
best. It is a very high flavored Strawberry when fully ripe. 

Josiah Richardson's Seedlings, numbers two and five, possess considerable merit. 

Isaac Fay's Seedling. The berries were large and handsome, but they lack the essential 
quality of a good Strawberry, viz. : delicious flavor. 

The basket of Swainstone's Seedling Strawberry, presented to the Committee by Josiah 
Richardson, (used by them as a test,) were very rich. Mr. Richardson will please accept 
♦he thanks of the Committee for his generous supply. 

10 



42 PROCEEDINGS. 

The Cherries, Black Tartarian and Elton, by John Fisk Allen, of Salem, nicely arranged 
in a small dish, (one almost white and the other black,) produced a charming effect. As 
specimens they were truly beautiful. 

In die collection of the President of the Society, Marshall P. Wilder, we noticed a few 
berries of die Seedling Strawberry, " Lizzia Randolph," raised by our corresponding 
member, W. D. Brinckle, M. D., of Philadelphia. We were pleased with its appearance. 
Another season we hope to test its essential qualities. The President also presented 
beautiful specimens of Jenney's Seedling and Princess Alice Maude. 

By Otis Johnson, of Lynn, Hovey's Seedling Strawberries, and beautiful specimens of 
Coolidge's Favorite Peaches. 

By W. T. C. Morton, M. D., Hovey's Seedling Strawberries. 

By Cyrus Curtis, of Roxbury, Strawberries ? 

By E. Bowen, Lynn, Early White Heart Cherries 1 

By J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, Early White Heart Cherries (?) and Swainstone 
Seedling, Jenney's Seedling, Prince Albert, Stoddard, White Wood, (beautiful specimens,) 
British Queen, and Hovey's Seedling Strawberries. 

By John Fisk Allen, of Salem, five varieties of Grapes ; Figs ; and three varieties of 
Peaches, viz. : Royal George, (fine,) Grosse Mignonne, of New Jersey 1 (small,) and 
Hoffman's Favorite. 

By Samuel Downer, Jr., of Dorchester, Coolidge's Favorite Peaches, and fine specimens 
of Hovey's Seedling Strawberries. 

By Samuel Walker, of Roxbury, Seedling Wood Strawberries. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, July 10, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, new Phloxes, viz. : Anais Chauverii, 
white, with rosy purple eye, after the style of Oeil de Lynx, very fine ; Auguste, and 
delecta; Roses — Prairie, Queen, Baltimore Belle and Perpetual Pink; Blush Moss, cristata, 
Noisette Solfatare, in quantity, and other varieties. 

From Messrs. Winship, a pair of fine Mantel Bouquets ; Prairie Roses, Perpetual Pink 
and Baltimore Belle ; hardy Roses, in variety. Also, a great variety of Herbaceous and 
Shrubby Flowering Plants, occupying one circular and a number of side stands. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a fine plant of Buddlea Lindleyana. Also, 
a great variety of Cut Flowers, including Pelargoniums; Roses; numerous and fine 
specimens of Phlox Van Houttii and bicolor; P. Drummondii, var. alba, &c. ; Verbenas, 
Stocks, Delphiniums, &c. 

From Azell Bowditch, seven Hand Bouquets. 

From James Nugent, Pelargoniums, Iberis, Roses, Verbenas, Campanula media plena, 
and other Cut Flowers. 

From Parker Barnes, Seedling Pinks. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large and four small Bouquets, and Cut 
Flowers, in variety. 

From Joseph Breek & Co., Lilium candidum, umbellatum and Martagon, var. alba, 
purpurea and punctata; Digitalis, in variety; English Iris, in variety; Campanula, in 
variety; Delphinium grandiflorum, double and single, many varieties; D. Barlowii, 
sinensis, and elarum, in variety ; Picotee Pinks; Pentstemon purpurea; Spirea palmata, 
lobata and ulmaria; Dianthus barbatus, and chinensis. in variety, &c. 



PROCEEDINGS. 43 

from Augustus Aspinwall, Roses, in great variety. 

From William Meller, a great variety of Dahlias, viz. : Marchioness of Ormond, Madame 
Chauviere, Eveque de Bayeux, Thompson's Vivid, Caleb Cope, Primrose, Countess of 
Liverpool, Columbine, Judy, Madame Vdlabois, Fairy Queen, Dowager Lady Cooper, &c. 
Also, two large Bouquets ; Moss and other Roses ; Verbenas ; Delphiniums ; Perpetual 
Pinks, and other Cut Flowers. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, seven pots of Thunbergia, three varieties, orange, 
buff and white — well grown and beautiful ; one large Design and Bouquet, and one round 
Bouquet. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, six Pot Plants, viz. : Tamus Elephantipes, (elephant's 
foot,) a curious plant; Gardenia radicans ; Anigozanthus coccineus ; Solly a heterophylla ; 
Mammillaria sp., and Echinocactus sp. ; the last with a beautiful, tubular, blush-pink 
flower. Also, six flat Hand Bouquets, and one round do. ; Prairie Roses ; white Water 
Lilies, and Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., very fine Picotee and Carnation Pinks, among which were 
the following, viz. : Duke of Newcastle, Princess Victoria, Lady Peel, Lady Campbell, 
Chillwall Beauty, Meteor, Victoria, and some new Seedlings. Also, ten kinds of Prairie 
Roses, viz. : Queen of the Prairie, Perpetual Pink, Superba, Eva Corinne, Anne Maria, 
Miss Gunnell, Pride of Washington, Pallida, Jane, and Triumphant. Also, two large flat 
Bouquets, two beautiful double-faced flat Hand do., and two round Hand do. One plant of 
Achimenes patens, a new variety. 

AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

For the best six Hand Bouquets, a premium to Azell Bowditch, of two dollars ; for the 
second best do., to J. L. L. F. Warren, one dollar. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, two dollars. 

To John Thomas, for a Design, two dollars. 

For the best round Pyramidal Bouquet, a premium to Messrs. Hovey, of two dollars ; for 
the second best do. do., to John Thomas, of one dollar. 



GRATUITIES. • 
To John Thomas, for seven plants of Thunbergia, two dollars. 

To O. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, for a plant of Buddlea Lindleyana, one dollar. 
To J. L. L. F. Warren, for a Cactus in bloom, one dollar. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

By the President, Marshall P. Wilder, Black Eagle, (juicy and rich,) and White Bigar- 
reau Cherries. 

By Otis Johnson, Bigarreau Couleur de Chair, White Bigarreau, Sparhawk's Honey, 
(sweet and delicate flavor,) and Black Tartarian Cherries. Coolidge's Favorite Peaches, 
beautifully colored. British Queen, Princess Alice Maude and Prince Albert Strawberries. 

By Josiah Richardson, Black Tartarian Cherries ; Strawberries— Hovey's Seedling, 
Deptford Pine, Prince Albert, Richardson's Seedling, numbers two and five — which fully 
sustained the opinion expressed of them in the report made last week. 

By Parker Barnes, White Bigarreau Cherries. 

By John Fisk Allen, Figs, and seven varieties of Grapes. 

By Frederick W. Macondry, Coolidge's Favorite Peaches, richly colored. 

By Josiah Lovett, Prolific Hautbois, (peculiarly agreeable flavor,) and Hovey's Seedling 
Strawberries. 



44 PROCEEDINGS. 

By James L. L. F. Warren, Red and White Alpine Strawberries. 

By Isaac Fay, four baskets of Fay's Seedling Strawberries, large and well colored. The 
Committee made a further trial of Mr. Fay's Seedling, and cannot pass any higher 
commendation than that expressed in a previous report. 

By Hovey & Co., Buist's Prize, (pleasant acidulous flavor,) Deptford Pine, Myatt's new 
Hautbois, (of a peculiarly rich flavor,) Princess Alice Maude, and Hovey's Seedling 
Strawberries. 

By John Owen, Wood Strawberries, red and white. 

The Committee have again to express their obligations to the President, Messrs. Josiah 
Richardson, Otis Johnson, Josiah Lovett, Isaac Fay, and Hovey and Co., for a liberal supply 
of Cherries and Strawberries, to test their qualities; Hovey's Seedling was used as a test. 
For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 17, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for membership : — James Ingersoll, of Boston, 
by Samuel Downer, Jr. : Hiram Brooks, of Cambridgeport, and Jesse Hall, of Cambridge, 
by Samuel Walker. 

A communication was received from Edward E. Salisbury, Esq., together with a package 
of the seed of the Morina Orientalis, a new plant, forwarded by John P. Brown, Esq., of 
the American Embassy at Constantinople. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to John P. Brown, Esq., the donor, 
and also to the gentleman who forwarded the seed. 

Voted, That the seed be placed in the hands of the Committee on Flowers, for distribu- 
tion. 

On motion of Samuel Walker, it was 

Voted, That an invitation be extended to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, to attend 
the coming annual exhibition of the Society, and that a delegation of three members, to be 
chosen by the Chair, be appointed to attend the convention of the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society. 

Whereupon, the President, B. V. French, and Samuel Walker, were appointed that 
Committee. 

William H. Parker, of Boston, was elected a Subscription member of the Society. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, four pots of Seedling Japan 
Lilies, from L. speciosum crossed with L. lancifolium album. These, like all the seedlings 
which Mr. W. has bloomed, are almost identical with the first named species. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., fine Pinks, Delphiniums, Spireas, and other Cut Flowers, in 
great variety. 

From Messrs. Winship, two fine specimens of Yucca filamentosa and gloriosa ; a variety 
of Double Hollyhocks, Carnations, Picotee Pinks and other Herbaceous Flowers, including 
a fine display of variegated Shrubs, among which were Ulmus variegata, crispa, viminalis, 
cornubiensis, Betula laciniata pendula, and a pair of Mantel Bouquets. 

From Nahum Stetson, Dahlias. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, Pinks, with other Cut Flowers, and ten Bouquets, of 
different shapes. 



PROCEEDINGS. 45 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, three Bouquets. 

From James Nugent, Dahlias and Bouquets. 

From Hovey & Co., nine Bouquets, of various forms, including one flat double-faced 
Hand Bouquet ; Pot Plants ; Lilium lancifolium album, speciosum and punctatum. These 
Lilies are of surpassing beauty • Messrs. H. have been very successful in blooming them. 
The first was a very large and thrifty plant, having no less than six stalks and twentyfour 
flowers and buds, while the single bloom on the last named, was pre-eminently deserving 
the epithet, perfect. The Pot Plants exhibited by these gentlemen were, indeed, all very 
fine, and many of them entirely new. Among them were three species of Achimenes — 
picta, grandiflora and patens • Nuttallia grandiflora ; Fuchsia Nymph, and Platycodon 
grandiflorum. Also, ten varieties of Carnations and Picotees, about eighty blooms. 

From William Mellar, two Bouquets and a great variety of Cut Flowers, Dahlias, &c. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, eight Pot Plants — Achimenes, Thunbergia, and 
Gardenia florida. Also, a singular orchidaceous plant, Dendrobium spec, with flowers of 
a pale straw color. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, fine Pinks. 

From Parker Barnes, Seedling Pinks, Gladiolus Gandavensis, &c. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Bouquets, and Pot Plants. 

From D. C. Chapman, Cambridgeport, fine China Pinks, well arranged. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, one fine Double Bouquet, for large vase. 

From William B. Richards, Dahlias, vars. Caleb Cope, Vivid, &c. 

From Hugh Fraser, of Charleston, S. C, by J. Tucker, a sheaf of Rice, of the present 
year's crop, in fine condition, the heads large, the kernels well matured, which attracted 
, much attention. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

On Bouquets and Pot Plants. — For the best six Hand Bouquets, two dollars, to Hovey 
& Co. For the second best do., one dollar, to Azell Bowditch. For six do., a gratuity of 
one dollar to James Nugent. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, two dollars, to Messrs. Winship. For the second 
best do., one dollar, to Hovey & Co. 

For the best large oval Bouquet, two dollars, to William Quant. For the second best do., 
one dollar, to Hovey & Co. 

For the best six Pot Plants, two dollars, to John Thomas, and a gratuity of five dollars to 
Hovey & Co. 

Carnations and Picotees. — For the best ten, first premium, of five dollars, to Hovey & 
Co. For the second best do., four dollars, to Samuel R. Johnson. 

For the best display, three dollars, to Hovey & Co., and for fine Seedlings, a gratuity of 
two dollars to Parker Barnes. 

Double Hollyhocks. — For the best display, a premium of two dollars, to the Messrs. 
Winship. 

For the Committee, W. B. RICHARDS. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
The Cherries exhibited to-day — Cherries ! the very name calls us back half a century- 
to boyhood — to the charming poetry of Shenstone : 

" See ! Cherries here, ere Cherries yet abound, 
******** 
Scattering like blooming maid, their glances round," — 

11 



46 PROCEEDINGS. 

to the " ciies of Loudon" and our own (( cries for Cherries" — lo our anxiety to get a glance 
of the London barrow-woman, with 

" Her hair loose curl'd, the rest tuck'd up between 
Her neatly frill'd mob-cap, was scarcely seen ; 
A black chip hat, peculiarly her own, 
And ribbon pufl''d around the small ilal crown 
Pinned to her head-dress, gave her blooming face 
A jaunty openness and winning grace." 

Such was her dress as she passed through the streets and cried — 

" Round and sound, 
Two-pence a pound, 
Cherries ! rare, ripe cherries. 
Cherries, a h'apenny a stick ! 
Come and pick, come and pick 
Cherries big as plums ! 
Who comes? who comes?" 

In those days, there were tl white hearts" and "real black hearts" — 

But no " Black Tartarians" from Lynn, 

By Otis Johnson ; in truth, " as big as plums," 

Nor "Downer's Red," nor "Downing's Red Cheek," 

To please the taste or charm the fancy, 

Nor Salem's witch — " Sweet Montmorency." 

This exhibition of Cherries will be the last of the present season, with the exception, 
probably, of the Sweet Montmorency, and a few very late varieties. 

The specimens of the " Black Eagle," furnished by Vice President B. V. French, of 
Braintree, were made the standard to test the relative merits of the Cherries presented on 
this occasion, to the Committee. Although many of the other varieties rank deservedly 
high in the estimation of the horticulturist, yet no Cherry, in the opinion of the Committee, 
is of higher or better flavor than the Black Eaole. 

" Downer's Late," is also a Cherry of great excellence. Its sweet and luscious flavor 
should obtain for it, as it richly deserves, " a place in every garden." 

A seedling Cherry, (probably from the Black Eagle,) by the Messrs. Hyde, of Newton, 
fully sustains the opinion expressed by the Committee last season. 

John S. Sleeper, of Roxbury, presented a seedling Cherry, of good size, but not fully 
ripe ; it has somewhat the flavor of Downer's Late, from which it probably originated. 
Another season, when the fruit is quite matured, we should like to try other specimens. 

William Quant presented a seedling Cherry, raised by Mr. Harback, of Brookline. The 
fruit is large, flesh firm, coarse and deficient in flavor. 

Fine specimens of the Black Tartarian, (extra large,) Florence, Napoleon Bigarreau, 
and Black Heart, by Otis Johnson, of Lynn. 

A large box of Downer's Late, by Samuel Walker, of Roxbury. 

Several boxes of fine specimens of Cherries, by Josiah Richardson, of Cambridge. 

Three boxes of Cherries by George Walsh. 

Dr. John C. Warren, of Boston, presented specimens of a red Apple, (past eating.) Also, 
two fine Pears of last year's growth. The pears were in fine order, and of pleasant flavor. 
The mode of keeping, as also the name of the variety, were unknown to the Committee ; 
they would like to receive further information on this subject. 

Currants — Fine specimens of White and Red Dutch, by Samuel A. Walker, of Brookline ; 
Anson Dexter, of Roxbury ■ Josiah Richardson, of Cambridge, and W. & R. Williams. 

Figs, large and fine, but not ripe, by N. Stetson, of Bridgewater. 



PROCEEDINGS. 47 

By John Fisk Allen, Salem, very fine specimens of ten varieties of Grapes, some extra 
fine berries of Wilmot's Black Hamburg, and a splendid bunch of White Nice crowned 
his display. 

Melon — A high flavored specimen by William Quant, from the garden of Col. T. H. 
Perkins. 

Mulberries — By the Messrs. Winship, of Brighton, variety Canton or Alpine, (very large.) 

Peaches — Four dishes (fine) by Frederick W. Macondry, of Dorchester, and one dish by 
John F. Allen, of Salem. 

Raspberries — Franconia, Fastolff, Victoria, (new,) and White Thimbleberries, from the 
garden of J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton. Extra fine specimens of the Fastolff, by the 
Messrs. Hovey, of Cambridge. By Vice President Cheever Newhall, fine specimens of 
Knevett's Giant. 

Strawberries — Fine White Alpine, by J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 



From A. D. Williams, new Potatoes. 



From James Nugent, String Beans. 

For the Committee. A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



EXHIBITIONS 



Saturday, July 24, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, fifty pots of Japan Lilies, vars. 
lancifolium album, speciosum, punctatum, and numerous seedlings, making the finest 
display of Japan Lilies ever witnessed in the Hall. In relation to the seedlings we did not 
perceive any that varied essentially from the parents. Also, a large plant of Veronica 
speciosa and one of V. Lindleyana, a new species, not before exhibited in the rooms, and 
plants of Gladiolus Gandavensis, and G. Leibnitzii. 

From William Mellar, ten varieties of Dahlias, one large Bouquet, and Cut Flowers, in 
variety. Also, a plant of Clivia noblis, rare and curious. 

From Parker Barnes, twentyfive varieties of fine Double Hollyhocks, Rochea coccinnea, 
Carnation Pinks, and other Cut Flowers. Also, two Mantel Bouquets. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., a great variety of fine Double Hollyhocks, lilium longiflorum 
and Chalcedonicum ; new Phloxes, in variety, and their usual display of Cut Flowers. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, specimens of Double FloAvering Bramble, with 
pink lilac flowers, very beautiful. Also, one Pyramidal and two small Bouquets. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, a fine display of Carnation and Picotee Pinks. 

From Hovey & Co., six Pot Plants, viz. : — Gloxinia Cartoni and five seedling vars. ; 
Fuchsias — Enchantress, Majestica, Salter's 41 ; Vinca alba. Also, fine Carnation and Picotee 
Pinks ; two large Flat, six Hand, and one Pyramidal Bouquet. 

From Vice President E. M. Richards, Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Bouquets. 

From C. F. Chaplain, Chinese Imperial Pinks, in great variety. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, eight Pot Plants, viz. :— two Achimenes 
gTandiflora; two do. longiflora; one seedling Gloxinia; Lilium punctatum; Fuchsia, 
Salter's 1, and Thunbergia aurantia. Also, one large Bouquet, or Design. 



48 PROCEEDINGS. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, eight Pot Plants, viz. : — Vinca alba and 
purpurea ; HcEmanthus umbellatus ; Lilium speciosum and punctatum, and three Achime- 
nes longiflora. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, a plant of Anectochilus setaceous, a curious Orchideous 
plant. Eight Hand and two Mantel Bouquets, and Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From the Messrs. Winship, a fine display of Cut Flowers, including Clematis fiammula ; 
do. vioma; do. crispa; do. campanulifiora ; Boursault Rose, elegans, (flowers in clusters,) 
perfectly hardy; Hollyhocks; Carnation and Picotee Pinks; Spirea ulmifiora, (very showy,) 
hardy ; two fine species of Yucca gloriosa ; Asclepias decumbens, and a variety of 
Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, filling two side stands. Also, two Mantel Bouquets. 

From John Hovey, Pot Plants. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

For Pot Plants. — William Mellar, E. Augustus Story, and Francis Thieler, Judges. 

For the best six Plants, the first premium, of two dollars, to William Quant. 

For the second best six plants, second premium, of one dollar, to Hovey & Co. 

On Bouquets and Designs. — H. W. Dutton, Wm. Quant, and R. M. Copeland, Judges. 

For the best six Hand Bouquets, two dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. For the second 
best do. one dollar, to Azell Bowditch. 

For the best Pyramidal Bouquet, two dollars, to Hovey & Co. For the second best do., 
one dollar, to Miss Russell. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, two dollars, to Messrs. Winship. For the second 
best do., one dollar, to Hovey & Co. 

For the best Design, a premium, of two dollars, to John Thomas. 



GRATUITIES. 

The Committee recommend the following Gratuities : — 

To Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, for his fine display of Japan Lilies, 
five dollars. Also, three dollars for a fine plant of Veronica Lindleyana. 
To William Mellar, three dollars, for a plant of Clivia noblis. 
To Joseph Breck & Co., three dollars, for a fine display of Hollyhocks. 
To Parker Barnes, two dollars, for fine Hollyhocks. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From John F. Allen, the following varieties of Grapes — Black Portugal, Tottenham Park 
Muscat, White Frontignan, Black Hamburg, White Nice, Wilmot's Black Hamburg, and 
Zinfindal. Also, Violet Hative Nectarines; Yellow Rareripe, Noblesse, and Crawford's 
Late Peaches ; Sweet Montmorency Cherries ; two varieties of Figs, and specimens of the 
Bergamot Lime. 

From Hovey & Co., the following Grapes : — Chasselas, Fontainbleau, Pitmaston White 
Cluster, Macready, and Early White. Also, Fastolff Raspberries. 

From Frederick W. Macondry, fine specimens of Peaches. 

From Frederick Tudor, from his garden at Nahant, a branch of the Amire Joannet Pear, 
containing two hundred and thirtytwo pears; the pears, however, were not ripe. The 
branch measured but twentyseven inches in length, and was literally covered with fruit. 

From Vice President Cheever Newhall, Knevett's Giant Raspberries. 

From Otis Johnson, Franconia Raspberries. 

From H. Bailey, Franconia Raspberries. 



PROCEEDINGS. 49 

From James L. L. F. Warren, Franconia and Fastolff Raspberries. 

From Anson Dexter, Franconia Raspberries. 

From the Messrs. Winship, White Antwerp and Franconia Raspberries, and White 
Thimbleberries. 

From Josiah Lovett, Knevett's Giant Raspberries. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, John Hovey, and John G. Thurston, fine specimens of English 
Gooseberries. 

From S. W. Cole, three varieties of Apples, of last year's growth. 

For the Committee, P. B. HOVEY, Jr. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From Samuel Walker, Water Cress, raised from seed from the banks of the Isis. 
From Aaron D. Williams, new Potatoes. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, July 31, 1847. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

In consequence of the morning being a very stormy one, the exhibition of Flowers was 
unusually small ; there were, however, many fine specimens, and a good display of 
Bouquets. 

From John Parker, fine Dahlias. 

From James Nugent, six Hand Bouquets, and a plant of Oncidium flexuosum. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large Pyramidal and two small Bouquets. 
Also, a basket of Flowers. 

From Messrs. Winship, one pair of Mantel Bouquets. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., twelve varieties of fine Double Balsams, and twelve do. of 
fine Double Hollyhocks; Lilium superbum; Iberis, in var. ; Phlox Charles, white, with 
blush eye ; P. Kermesina, white, with lilac eye ; P. Fleur de Marie, white, with dark red 
purple eye : P. Anais Chauvierii, pure white, with a very distinct light purple eye, corolla 
large, round and perfect, a very beautiful variety ; P. (Eil de Lynx, white, with a purplish 
red eye, fine; P. Grato, rose white, mottled with pink. Also, Cut Flowers, in great 
variety. 

From Edward Winslow, fine double branching Larkspur, and Dahlias. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, a fine display of Gladiolus Gandavensis and floribundus; 
double Ten Weeks' Stock; Verbenas; Iberis, &c. Also, two Mantel and nine Hand 
Bouquets. 

From Azell Bowditch, nine Hand Bouquets. 

From Messrs. Hovey, two large Flat, one Pyramidal and six Hand Bouquets. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS ON BOUQUETS. 

The Committee award the first premium to Hovey & Co., for the best six Hand Bouquets, 
two dollars. 

To Azell Bowditch, second premium, one dollar. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, first premium to Hovey & Co., two dollars. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, second premium, one dollar. 

For a large Pyramidal Bouquet, to Miss Russell, a premium of two dollars. 

A gratuity to Miss Russell, for a basket of Flowers, one dollar. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

12 



50 PROCEEDINGS. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From Otis Johnson, Grapes — Black Hamburg, well colored; Zinfindal; White Muscat of 
Alexandria, and White Frontignan. Also, fine White Currants. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, Grapes — Reine de Nice, Purple Muscat, 
Black Frontignan, Muscat Muscadine, fine, Black Hamburg, extra large berries, Muscat 
of Alexandria, and White Frontignan. 

From John Washburn, Red Astrachan Apples. 

From John Owen, Early Harvest Apples. 

From Hovey & Co., Grapes — Muscat Blanc Hatif, Chasselas de Fontainbleau, and 
Pitmaston White Cluster. Cherries — Lemercier, and Late Duke. 

From John Fisk Allen, Grapes — Wilmot's Black Hamburg, Victoria Hamburg, Purple 
Muscat, and Black Hamburg. Peaches — Noblesse, and Grosse Mignonne. Also, Sweet 
Montmorency Cherries, and Figs. 

From Aaron D. Weld, fine Red and White Currants. 

From Aaron D. Williams & Son, fine Red and White Currants. 

From John Hovey, Seedling Gooseberries. 

From Mrs. Spaulding, extra large Figs. 

The Committee tested the quality of the various Grapes, from Col. Perkins, by William 
Quant : — the Purple Muscat proved to be of high flavor, though not a Muscat flavor ; the 
White Muscat of Alexandria, fine. Of those under trial from John Fisk Allen, was the 
Victoria Hamburg, having the flavor of the Black Hamburg. 

The Seedling Gooseberries from John Hovey, were not fully ripe. Neither was the 
Lemercier Cherry, from Hovey & Co. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From John Galvin, Newport, R. I., by Eben. Wight, Roman Emperor Cucumber. 
From S. H. Hunneman, Roxbury, by J. C. Hunneman, two large Winter Squashes, of 



last year's growth, perfectly sound. 
. Williams, new Potat 
For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS. Jr. 



From A. D. Williams, new Potatoes. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 7. 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

George Wilson, of Marblehead, was proposed for Subscription membership, by Eben. 
Wight. 

John Fisk Allen, Esq., presented the Society a copy of his Treatise on the Cultivation of 
the Grape. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. Allen. 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested to prepare and forward a Letter of 
Condolence, to the family of the late Jonathan Winship, Esq., a Vice President of the 
Society. 

A. J. Downing, Esq., of Newburgh, N. Y., presented the Society with a bound copy of 
the first volume of " The Horticulturist." 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to A. J. Downing, Esq. 

A communication was received from Edmund Beck, Esq., of Worton College, Isle worth, 
near London, England, accompanied with a donation of seven pounds sterling, to be applied 
as will appear from the following extract from his letter : — 



PROCEEDINGS, 51 

"I do not like being merely a nominal Corresponding Member of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, and I beg you will do me the favor to state, that I wish to place at 
the disposal of the Committee, seven pounds sterling, to form two prizes for Pelargoniums, 
for the season of 1848. Five pounds and two pounds, for the best and second best varieties 
cultivated with superior skill, in eight inch pots, open to all." 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Edmund Beck, Esq., and that the 
Corresponding Secretary be requested to express the same in a Complimentary Letter. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — Life member — James 
Lloyd, of Boston. Subscription members — Thomas Breeis, of Brookline ; John Albree, of 
Newton ; William Leighton, of Concord, Mass. ; Joseph N. Howe, and Thomas Leighton, 
of East Cambridge. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

Another stormy exhibition morning, similar to the one of last week, somewhat damped 
the ardor of amateurs, and the display was not so profuse as it would have been under 
different circumstances ; we are, however, happy to state that among the members of the 
Society, there are those, whom, even a deluge of rain or any other outbreak of the 
elements, would hardly prevent from attending any of the appointed Exhibitions with their 
varied contributions. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, four large plants of Lilium 
lancifolium album, and one seedling : seven plants of Fuchsia, viz. : Mrs. Frederick 
Milbank, flesh colored sepals, and rosy lilac corolla, new and extra fine ; Cleopatra, flesh 
colored sepals, crimson and scarlet corolla, new, large and noble flower ; Sir Henry 
Pottinger, flesh colored sepals tipped with green, purple crimson corolla ; Exoniensis, and 
Lady of the Lake. Also, Gloxinia superba (new,) Cartonii, rubra, grandiflora, a seedling, 
and three pots of Achimenes ; Dahlias — Isis, Constantia, La Polka, Admiral Stopford, La 
Belle Blonde, Captivation, &c. ; Phloxes — OZil de Lynx, Fleur de Marie, candidissima 
nova. Lawrencii, Nymphea alba, Standard of Perfection, Speciosa, Eclipse, Egyptienne, &c. 

From Hovey & Co., six Hand and two Mantel Bouquets. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., a large collection of fine Double Hollyhocks and Balsams; 
fine specimens of Phlox picta, (Eil de lynx, Charles, Kermesina alba, Wilderii, paniculata 
alba, and decussata alba ; also, a seedling raised by Mr. Richardson, the corolla nearly 
blue, flowers in dense corymbs ; and another seedling by Mr. R., color of the flower 
approaching crimson — much darker than P. Richardsonii ; this variety is desirable, it being 
the darkest shade of red in the present collection of Phloxes. Also, Cut Flowers, in great 
variety — including Verbenas, Iberis, Rudbeckias, Perennial Pea, red and white varieties, 
and a great variety of other Cut Perennial and Annual Flowers. 

From G. Gilbert, Plymouth, a fine display of native plants, including a profusion of 
Orchis blephariglottis, and fimbriata. Sabbatia chlorioides (two var.) Asclepias tuberosa, 
Lobelia cardinalis, Solidago odora, &c. 

From John Parker, fine Dahlias. 

From John L. Gardner, by J. Thomas, one large Vase Bouquet. Also, a large collection 
of Indigenous Flowers in a two colored Moss Vase. 

From William Quant, six fine plants of crimson Cockscomb. 

From Samuel Walker, a fine seedling Phlox, pinkish purple, with head arranged in 
panicles. 

From Rev. Mr. Baury, Newton Lower Falls, fine specimens of double flowering Pome- 
granate. 

From Hazen Hazeltine, Somerville, German Asters. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Hand Bouquets. 



52 PROCEEDINGS. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, Pot Plants, viz. :— Stephanotus floribimdus ; Achimenes 
longitlora and picta; Ardisia crenulata; Fuchsia, Smith's Vesta; Crowea caniculata, new. 
Also, a fine show of Gladiolus fioribundus, Gandavensis, and Belvideros ; a fine specimen 
of Yucca gloriosaj Ten Weeks' Stock; Phloxes, in variety; a great variety of other Cut 
Flowers, and two large and eight Hand Bouquets. 

From James Nugent, six round Hand Bouquets; Dahlias, Phloxes, Balsams, and other 
Cut Flowers. 

From William Mellar, Dahlias ; Nerium splendens, and Cut Flowers, in variety. Also, 
four Bouquets. 

AWARD OF PREMIUMS ON BOUQUETS AND DESIGNS. 
William Quant, William B. Richards, and R. M. Copeland, Judges. For the best six 
Hand Bouquets, first premium, to Hovey & Co., two dollars. 
For the second best do., to J. L. L. F. Warren, one dollar. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, first premium, to J. L. L. F. Warren, two dollars. 
For the second best do., to Hovey & Co., one dollar. 

For the best large Vase Bouquet, first premium, to John Thomas, two dollars. 
For the second best do., to J. L. L. F. Warren, one dollar. 
For the best six Pot Plants, to J. L. L. F. Warren, two dollars. 



GRATUITIES. 
The Committee recommend the following Gratuities : — To William Quant, for six fine 
plants of Crimson Cockscomb, three dollars. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, for a fine display of Gladiolus, two weeks in succession, three 
dollars. 
To John Thomas, for a Vase of Indigenous Flowers, two dollars. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

The unfavorable weather did not prevent the attendance of some of our most zealous 
contributors, and the tables were graced with a fine display of Fruits. 

From Messrs. Hovey, Grapes, of the following varieties : Black Hamburg, Boudelais (!) 
Muscat Blanc Hatif, Grizzly Frontignan, White Frontignan, Chasselas of Fontainbleau. 
The white Grapes were fine. Also, Pears, Doyenne d'Ete and Mabille. 

From John F. Allen, Black Hamburg and Wortley Hall Grapes, (well colored;) Gross 
Mignonne and Noblesse Peaches ; Franconia Raspberries ; Madeleine Pears ; Early Harvest 
Apples ; Black Fig of St. Michaels, and Sweet Montmorency Cherries. The Cherries were 
of fine flavor. 

From Aaron D. Williams, Early Bough and Williams's Favorite Apples. Also, Red and 
White Currants, (fine.) 

From John Hovey, Apples, Early Harvest (fine,) and Williams's Favorite. Also, fine 
Red and White Currants. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, Apples, viz. : Early Bough, Early Harvest, 
Early Nonesuch, and Early White Sweeting. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, Fastolff Raspberries, (fine.) 

From Charles C. Grant, Moorpark Apricots ; White Dutch Currants, and Raspberries. 

From George Wilson, White Dutch and Victoria Currants. Both varieties were fine, and 
some clusters of the latter nearly six inches long. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, Red Astrachan Apples. 

From Anson Dexter, Red Currants. 



PROCEEDINGS. 53 

From Josiah Lovett, Knevett's Giant Raspberries, and line Red Warrington ( 1 ) and 
Houghton's Seedling Gooseberries ; the latter variety was produced in this vicinity some 
years ago, yet its merits do not seem to be fully appreciated. It is rather below medium 
size, but of good flavor, an extraordinary bearer, and in all seasons remarkably free from 
mildew. 

From Otis Johnson, Madeline Pears, of fine flavor. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

The Fruit Committee awarded the following premiums on Cherries : — ■ 

First premium, to Otis Johnson, for Black Tartarian • second premium, to Samuel Walker, 

for Downer's Late. Special premiums, to the President, Marshall P. Wilder, for Black 

Eagle, and Samuel Walker, for Downer's Late. A gratuity to Messrs. Hyde, for a Seedling 

Cherry. 
On Raspberries, first premium, to Josiah Lovett, for Knevett's Giant ; second premium, to 

Messrs. Hovey, for FastolfF. 

For the Committee, OTIS JOHNSON. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From R. Williams, three splendid varieties of Wheat, with a specimen of Chess, from 
St. Joseph County, Michigan. 

From A. D. Williams, some fine Drumhead Cabbages. 
From John Munroe, fine Marrow Squash. 
From James Nugent, Tomatoes. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, August 14, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Hovey & Co., six Hand and one Pyramidal Bouquet; fine Double Balsams, and six 
plants, viz. : Trachelium cceruleum, Gloxinia Cartoni, Cestrum roseum, (new,) Maid of 
Orleans Jasmine, (new,) and Erica Versicolor, and Vagans. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., fine Double Balsams, and a great variety of other Cut Flowers. 

From James Nugent, six Hand Bouquets, and fine Double Balsams. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Hand Bouquets. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, two Mantel and six Hand Bouquets ; fine Double Balsams ; 
Gladiolus, and other Cut Flowers. 

From T. R. Bigelow, three flowers of Cactus triangularis, on one stem. 

From Anson Dexter, Phloxes. 

From John Parker, fine Dahlias, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Messrs. Winship, Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, splendid Double Balsams. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, fine Double Balsams, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Cheever Newhall, a plant of Lagerstroemia indica, ten feet high, and six feet in 
diameter, full of bloom ; this is a beautiful shrub. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, very fine Double Balsams. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large and four small Bouquets. 

From George C. Crowninshield, by John Quant, very fine Double Balsams. 

13 



54 PROCEEDINGS. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, Pot Plants, and a Moss Vase, with a Bouquet 
of flowers. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

On Double Balsams. — Wm. B. Richards, John Thomas, and Samuel Walker, Judges. 

For the best display, the first premium, three dollars, to William Quant ; for the second 
best do., a premium of two dollars, to Thomas Needham ; for third best do., a premium of 
one dollar, to John Quant. 

On Bouquets and Pot Plants. — William Quant, Henry W. Dutton, and , 

Judges. 

For the best Hand Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to Hovey & Co. ; second best do., 
one dollar, to James Nugent. 

For the best Mantel Bouquet, a premium, of two dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 

For the best Pyramidal Bouquet, a premium, of two dollars, to Hovey & Co. 

For Pot Plants, first premium, two dollars, to John Thomas ) second do., one dollar, 
to Hovey & Co. 

GRATUITIES. 
The Committee recommend a gratuity of three dollars, to Vice President Cheever 
Newhall, for a fine plant of Lagerstrcemia indica. 

To John Thomas, two dollars, for a Moss Vase and Bouquet. 
To Miss Russell, one dollar, for a Pyramid of Flowers. 

The Committee give notice, that no premiums will hereafter be given for Designs, nor 
any other than Hand or Mantel Bouquets, until the Annual Exhibition. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUIT. 

From James Eustis, Early Harvest Apples. 

From John Hovey, Williams and fine Early Harvest Apples. 

From Josiah Lovett, Red Astrachan Apples ; Gooseberries, and Blackberries. 

From Samuel Walker, Early Harvest Apples. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Sops of Wine Apples, and Franconia Raspberries. 

From Robert Manning, Pomological Garden, Charbonoski and Tetofsky Apples, and 
River's Seedling Plums. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, Summer, (of England,) Summer Rose, Early 
Bough, fine Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Mellows, and Christina Apples. 

From John Owen, very fine Early Harvest Apples, and fine Jargonelle Pears. 

From Henry Vandine, Sops of Wine Apples, and three varieties of Plums. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, Red Astrachan Apples, and Plums for a name. 

From Vice President Benj. V. French, large and fine Blackberries. 

From Otis Johnson, White Dutch Currants. 

From John F. Allen, Black Hamburg Grapes, finely colored ; Gross Mignonne and 
Coolidge's Favorite Peaches ; Franconia Raspberries ; Black Figs, and Sweet Montmorency 
Cherries. The Montmorency Cherries, which had been picked two weeks previous and 
laid aside, fully exposed to light and air, unlike other varieties shew no disposition to decay ; 
on testing them, the quality proved very fine. 

From C. F. Putnam, Jolimont Pears. 

From Thos. H. Perkins, by W. Quant, Green Persian Melons. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Grapes, viz. : Black Hamburg, Wilmot's Black Hamburg, 



PROCEEDINGS. 55 

Bourdelais, White Frontignan, Muscat Blanc Hatif, Pitmaston, White Cluster, Chasselas 
Red, Chasselas of Fontainebleau, Macready's Early White, Grizzly Frontignan, Chaptal, 
(new) ; Doyenne d'Ete Pears, and Lemercier Cherries. 

A package of Apples, with a letter accompanying the same, was received from A. W. 
Thayer, Northampton. The variety, so far as the Committee were enabled to judge, from 
the decayed condition when received, is probably Red Astrachan. It is not unusual with 
this variety, in this section of the country, to ripen its fruit on some limbs, while there 
remain side by side, others green and apparently unripe. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 21, 1847. 
Vice President E. M. Richards, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Subscription members of the Society : — Jesse 
Hall, James Ingersoll, Hiram Brooks, and William H. Milton. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Hovey & Co., fine Phloxes, viz. : Princess Marianne, CEil de Lynx, Kermesina, 
Nymphea alba, Blanc de Neuilly, new striped variety, and other sorts ; plants of Gesnera 
tubiflora ; Achimenes patens, pi eta, grandiflora, and six Hand Bonquets. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, six Hand and two Mantel Bouquets ; Gladiolus floribundus, 
Gandavensis, psittacinus, hybridus ; Balsams; Phloxes, and Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From Parker Barnes, Phloxes and Dahlias, in variety ; Fox Gloves ; Double Hollyhocks ; 
Didiscus ; Sweet Peas, and Cut Flowers, in variety. Also, two superb specimens of Ipomop- 
sis picta. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a variety of fine Phloxes, viz. : Princess 
Marianne, Van Houttii, Cromwell, Fleur de Marie, bicolor, &c. ; Dahlias, Marigolds, 
Balsams, and other Cut Flowers. 

From James Nugent, two fiat and two Hand Bouquets, and Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, one large Bouquet, and Basket of Flowers. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., a great variety of fine Phloxes, including Eclipse, picta, 
Charles, Nymphea alba, paniculata alba, grandiflora nova, Richardsonii, Wilderii, decussata 
alba, acuminata, Frelinghuysen, cordata speciosa, rosea superba, CEil de Lynx, Fleur de 
Marie, &c. ; Double Balsams; Verbenas; Didiscus cceruleus, and a great variety of other 
Annuals and Perennials. 

From Messrs. Winship, a fine display of Cut Flowers, including many fine specimens. 

From Samuel Walker, a great variety of fine Phloxes. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, fine Double Balsams, and a variety of other Cut Flowers. 

From Anson Dexter, Phloxes, in variety. 

From John Hovey, one flat and six Hand Bouquets ; Dahlias, &c. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 
On Phloxes, &c. — William B. Richards, James Nugent, and R. M. Copeland, Judges. 
For the best ten varieties, first premium, six dollars, to Joseph Breck & Co. 
For the second best ten varieties, second premium, four dollars, to Samuel Walker. 
For the third best ten varieties, third premium, three dollars, to Parker Barnes. 
For the best six Pot Plants, the Committee award the first premium, two dollars, to 
Hovey & Co. 



56 PROCEEDINGS. 

For the best six Hand Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to Hovey & Co. 

For the second best six Hand Bouquets, second premium, one dollar, to James L. L. F. 
Warren. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 

For the second best pair of Mantel Bouquets, second premium, one dollar, to James 
Nugent. 

GRATUITIES. 

The Committee recommend the following gratuities : — To Hovey & Co., for two plants 
of Gesnera tubiflora, three dollars. 

To Parker Barnes, for two fine specimens of Ipomopsis picta, two dollars. 
To Miss Russell, for a Basket of Flowers, one dollar. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, Black Hamburg, Chasselas Musque, White 
Frontignan, Frankendale, ( ? ) and Chasselas de Fontainbleau Grapes. 

From John S. Sleeper, Apricot Plums. 

From Robert Manning, (Pomological Garden, Salem,) Chester, or Matchless Plums, 
and Sparhawk's Apples. 

From John F. Allen, Crawford's Early, Noblesse, variety unknown, Grosse Mignonne, 
Lafayette, Coolidge's Favorite, and Bellegarde Peaches ; Hunt's Tawny Nectarine ; Sugar 
Top, Summer Francreal, and Jargonelle Pears; Black Hamburg, Grizzly Frontignan, 
Gascoine, and Wortley Hall Seedling Grapes, and Black Figs. 

From Hovey & Co., Bourdelais, Chaptal, Chasselas de Fontainbleau, Black Prince, 
Grizzly Frontignan, Pitmaston, White Cluster, Esperione, Black Hamburg, Muscat Blanc 
Hatif, Wilmot's Black Hamburg, and White Frontignan Grapes. 

From Azell Bowditch, Black Hamburg and Royal Muscadine Grapes. 

From Henry Vandine, Early Black, Royal de Tours, ( ? ) and Wilmot's Early Orleans 
Plums ; Early Yellow Gage, and a Seedling Peach, and Sops of Wine Apples. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, Summer Apple, ( 1 ) Red Astrachan, Early 
Bough, Benoni, Red Juneating, and fine River Apples, and a Christiana Melon. 

From Otis Johnson, Jargonelle and Bloodgood Pears, and fine Early Bough Apples. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, English Jargonelle, and French Jargonelle Pears, and Sops of 
Wine, and River Apples. 

From A. D. Williams & Son, Williams's Favorite, and other Apples, and Jargonelle, 
and other Pears. 

From Josiah Lovett, Jargonelle Pears ; Grapes ; Early Plums ; extra fine cultivated 
Blackberries, and fine Red Astrachan Apples. 

From John Hovey, Plums, and fine Williams's Favorite Apples. 

From James Nugent, Sweetwater Grapes. 

From James W. Sever, Pears. 

From Samuel Tufts, Moorpark Apricots. 

From Anson Dexter, Summer Francreal Pears. 

For the Committee, J. FISK ALLEN. 



PROCEEDINGS. 57 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 28, 1847. 

Vice President E. M. Richards, in the Chair. 

A communication was read from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, extending an 
invitation to the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, to be present at their 
Annual Exhibition, to be held in Philadelphia. 

Voted, That the communication from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society be placed 
in the hands of the Corresponding Secretary, with instructions to reply, that a Delegation 
had already been appointed. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, fine double Ten Weeks' Stocks, in great 
variety ; Double Balsams ; German Asters, and a profusion of Sweet Peas, of various sorts. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., Double Balsams; Phloxes; Verbenas; Petunias; Dahlias; 
Argemone Mexicana ; Delphiniums ; Lavateras ; Malope ; Didiscus ; Centaureas ; Zinnias, 
with many Cut Flowers. 

From William B. Richards, a great variety of fine Dahlias. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, fine Double Balsams, and Dahlias. 

From Parker Barnes, twentyfour fine Dahlias ; large Double Annual Sunflower ; Sweet 
Peas ; Gladiolus ; Brugsmansia Knightii ; Roses, in variety ; Hollyhocks ; Marigolds, and 
one round Bouquet, composed of Sweet Peas. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, a Basket of Flowers, and Pyramidal Bouquet. 

From John Quant, six fine plants of Dwarf Cockscomb. 

From Hovey & Co., fine Roses, and six Hand Bouquets. 

From Samuel Walker, Phlox Breckii, and a fine seedling from it — the corolla not quite 
so distinctly marked in the eye, but larger flower. 

From William Mellar, two Bouquets, Verbenas, &c. Also, the following thirtyone 
varieties of Dahlias : — Oddity, Purity, Primrose, Unique, Marchioness of Comwalls, Punch, 
Virgin Queen, Great Mogul, Cleopatra, Essex Triumph, Queen Mary, Arethusa, Madam 
Ardert Walner, Cheltenham Queen, Hero of Tippecanoe, Indispensable White, Caleb Cope. 
Mrs. Rushton, La Polka, Pickwick, Madam Dresser, Monsieur Walner, Kean's Duke of 
York, Eugene Sue, Captain Walner, Princess Radziville, Erzherzog Stephen, Tomson's 
Vivid, Judy, Lady St. Maur, and Dowager Lady Cooper, 

From Azell Bowditch, six Hand Bouquets. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, two Mantel and six Hand Bouquets. Also, white Water Lilies; 
Ten Weeks' Stocks, in variety ; Gladiolus ; Phloxes ; Dahlias ; Zinnias ; Double Annual 
Sunflowers, &c. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, fine Roses ; Double Balsams ; Bignonias ; 
Dahlias ; Ten Weeks' Stock ; Phloxes, and a variety of other Cut Flowers. 

From James Nugent, two flat and four Hand Bouquets. 

From Henry S. Wales, a fine specimen of Eiythrina crista galli. 

From Edward M. Richards,, fine Dahlias. 

From the Messrs. Winship, Cut Flowers, in great variety. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS ON BOUQUETS. 
For the best six Hand Bouquets, the Committee award the first premium, two dollars, to 
Hovey & Co. 

For the second best do., second premium, one dollar, to Azell Bowditch. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 

14 



58 PROCEEDINGS. 

For the second best do., second premium, one dollar, to James Nugent. 
The Committee recommend a gratuity of three dollars, to John Quant, for six fine Dwarf 
Cockscombs. 
To Miss Russell, for a Basket of Flowers, one dollar. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

By Isaac Fay, fine Apricots, and Washington, Royal de Tours, and Duane's Purple 
Plums. 

By John F. Allen, five varieties of Grapes ; Hardwich Seedling, and Newington ( ? ) 
Nectarines ; very fine Crawford's Early, a variety unknown, and seedling Peaches ; Sugar 
Top, and Francreal Pears, and Washington Figs. 

From Robert Manning, (Pomological Garden, Salem,) No. 1454 of Van Mons, Manning's 
Elizabeth, and Rostiezer Pears. 

By 0. H. Mather, good bunches, well colored, of six varieties of Grapes. 

By Edward M. Richards, Benoni, Early Spice, fine Summer Pearmain, Summer Queen, 
fine Spice Sweet, Mellows, and Christina Apples. 

By Samuel Walker, Summer Francreal, and Williams's Bon Chretien Pears, and Summer 
Queen Apple, from Mr. Clapp. 

By J. L. L. F. Warren, Dearborn's Seedling Pears. 

By Otis Johnson, Dearborn's Seedling Pears, and Early Bough Apples. 

By E. Brown, Lady Haley Apples ; Dearborn's Seedling Pears, and a dish of Pears for 
a name. 

By Eben. Wight, Red Astrachan, Benoni, and High Top Sweeting Apples. 

By Josiah Lovett, Bloodgood Pears ; Early Bough Apples, and Blackberries. 

By Aaron D. Williams, three dishes of Pears, and Williams's Apples. 

By Messrs. Winship, Winship's Seedling Pear, and Pears for a name. 

By S. W. Weld, Benoni Apples, and St. Ghislain Pears. Also, a dish of Pears for a 
name. 

By Azell Bowditch, Black Hamburg, (well colored,) and Royal Muscadine Grapes. 

By J. Washburn, of Plymouth, Lawrence Plums. 

By Samuel R. Johnson, finely colored Washington, and extra fine Green Gage Plums. 

By James Nugent, Apples, for a name. 

By Hovey & Co., ten dishes of Grapes. 

By L. P. Grosvenor, Williams's, a Seedling, River, fine Garden Sweet, Sugar Sweet, 
Mexico, Quince, Benoni, Hill Top, and Red Astrachan Apples. 

The Committee tested the following Fruits : from Pomological Garden, Pears No. 1454 
of Van Mons, Rostiezer, of delicious flavor, with a rich perfume, will be likely to prove 
a valuable variety. From Hovey & Co., Grapes, Blanc Hatif, fine. From S. C. Wheeler, 
Apples, River ( f ) not in condition ; Pears, too far gone for trial, being entirely rotten at 
the core. From Messrs. Winship, Pears, Winship's Seedling, more spicy than usual. 
The one for a name, worthless. From Stephen W. Weld, Pears for a name — same as 
the previous mentioned, and worthless. The Seedling Peach, from Mr. Allen, was large 
and very handsome, juicy, with a rich flavor. The Committee, at the suggestion of Mr. 
Allen, assigned the name of Manning, to this Seedling. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From George C. Crowninshield, by John Quant, some fine Egg Plants. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



PROCEEDINGS. 59 

EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, September 4, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, a great variety of fine Phloxes, 
viz. : — Pottsii, Blanc de Neuilly, Marianne, Bourboniensis, Speciosa, Nymphea alba, 
Vincaflora, Rosea alba, Cromwell, Standard of Perfection, Richardson's dark Red, Rosa 
superba, Auguste, Candidissima nova, Speciosissima, &c. ; Dahlias — Captivation, La Polka, 
Marchioness of Cornwallis, Princess Radziville, Arethusa, La tour d'Auvergne, Mimosa, 
Mrs. Anderson, Cheltenham Queen, and others ; Japan Lilies, grown in open ground ; 
Roses, and other Cut Flowers. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a variety of Green-House Roses ; Verbenas ; 
Dahlias ; Double Balsams ; French and African Marigolds ; variety of Phloxes ; Double 
Helianthus ; Lantana, and other Cut Flowers, in great variety. 

From John Robinson, Roxbury, Dahlias ; Verbenas ; Asters ; Nemophila grandiflora ; 
Petunias, &c. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, six Hand and two large Mantel Bouquets ; Dahlias, and Cut 
Flowers, in great variety. 

From Hovey & Co., six round Hand Bouquets; one round Table Bouquet; a quantity of 
Dahlias ; nine Pot Plants, viz. : — one Achimenes grandiflora, one A. pendunculata, three 
A. rosea, one A. longiflora, one Jasmine, (Maid of Orleans,) one Schubertia graveolens, 
and one Veronica speciosa. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., Dahlias; Phloxes; Verbenas; Roses; Petunias; Argemone 
Mexicana; Delphiniums; Antirrhinum, in great variety ; Lavateras, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Hand Bouquets, and a Bouquet composed of Amaranths. 

From James Nugent, six Hand and two Mantel Bouquets. 

From John Parker, fine Dahlias. 

From John Hovey, six Bouquets ; Dahlias, &c. 

From Lewis Davenport, Milton, fine Roses. 

From William B. Richards, fine Dahlias. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, Dahlias; Phloxes; Balsams, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Messrs. Winship, a great variety of Cut Flowers, filling one of the circular 
stands. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, a Basket of Flowers, Bouquets, &c. 

From John Richardson, Roxbury, Cut Flowers, in variety. 

From Parker Barnes, Dahlias ; Roses ; Phloxes ; Achimenes ; Verbenas ; Lilies ; Sweet 
Peas ; Chrysanthemums ; Centaureas, &c. Also, forty Dahlias, among them Marquis of 
Aylesbury, La Polka, and Marchioness of Cornwallis, (good.) 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS ON BOUQUETS. 

John Thomas, John Quant, and Francis Thieler, Judges. For the best six Hand 
Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to Azell Bowditch. 

For the second best do., second premium, one dollar, to James Nugent. 

For the best pair of Mantel Bouquets, first premium, two dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren. 

For the second best do., second premium, one dollar, to James Nugent. 

The Committee award the first premium, two dollars, on Pot Plants, to Hovey & Co., 
and recommend a gratuity of one dollar to Miss Russell, for a Basket of Flowers. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



CO PROCEEDINGS. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From John Hovey, Yellow Crab Apples; White Gage Plums, and Pears, without a name. 

From Otis Johnson, Washington, Beurre Romain, Julienne, Dearborn's Seedling, and 
Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 

From Isaac Fay, line Bingham, Duane's Purple, Washington, and Breevort's Purple 
Gage Plums. 

From John H. Welch, Dorchester, fine Tyson Pears, and a basket of Pears, in variety. 

From E. Brown, Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 

From D. Locke, Figs. 

From Josiah Lovett, Yellow Gage Plums, and fine Benoni Apples. 

From James Patten, Egg and White Gage Plums. 

From S. H. Lynde, Apricots. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, fine Muzzy and Elruge Nectarines. 

From Samuel Walker, Belle de Bruxelles, Hampden's Bergamot, Chenille, Andrews, 
fine St. Ghislain, Fondante d'Automne, Williams's Bon Chretien, Summer Francreal, and 
Beurre d' Amalis Pears ; Washington, very large Diamond, and fine Green Gage Plums ; 
Seedling Peaches, and Morello Cherries. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Maiden's Blush, Porter, and Grand Sachem Apples ; Marquis, 
Julienne, Dearborn's Seedling, and Yellow Siberian Crab Pears, and fine Duane's Purple 
and Bingham Plums. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., Early Ann Peaches. 

From Azell Bowditch, Black Hamburg and Royal Muscadine Grapes. 

From Robert Manning, (Pomological Garden, Salem,) fine Rostiezer, No. 1454 of Van 
Mons, and a Pear without a name ; Lyscom, Yellow Summer, Salinas, Longville's Kernel, 
Walpole, Garden Royal, and Corse's Sweeting Apples, and English Wheat Plums. 

From Vice President Cheever Newhall, Julienne and Beurre d' Amalis Pears, and St. 
Peter's. Royal Muscadine, and White Frontignan Grapes. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, White Gage and fine Washington Plums. 

From Josiah Richardson, native Grapes. 

From Henry Vandine, Huling's Superb, Pond's Seedling, ( % ) Italian Damask, Sweet's 
Seedling, Early Black, Wilmot's Early Orleans, Smith's Orleans, and Imperial Gage Plums, 
and Green Sugar and Haggerston Pears. 

From Hovey & Co., Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From John F. Allen, Aleppo, White and Grizzly Frontignan, Esperione, Wilmot's No. 
16, Zinfindal, Black Hamburg, August Muscat, and White and Rose Chasselas Grapes; 
Crawford's Early, Bellegarde, Royal, ( 1 ) Snow, La Fayette, and Gross Mignonne Peaches ; 
Peterboro'. Romain, and Newington ( ? ) Nectarines ; Valle Franche, Dearborn's Seedling, 
Passans du Portugal, Summer Franc Real, and fine Tyson Pears, and Figs. 

From Galen Merriam, Coolidge's Favorite, West Newton, and Crawford's Early Peaches, 
and Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 

From John S. Sleeper, Prince's Yellow Gage, Smith's Orleans, and fine Duane's Purple 
Plums. 

From E. E. Bradshaw, Washington and fine large Bradshaw Plums. 

From Mrs. George Hallett, two Watermelons, one weighing thirty, the other thirty two 
pounds. 

From Parker Barnes, three dishes of Beurre d'Amalis Pears, and fine Green Gage Plums. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, Chasselas Fontainbleau, Frankendale, fine 
Black Hamburg, and White Frontignan Grapes. 

From J. W. Sever, Green Gage and White Gage Plums, and Dearborn's Seedling and 
Summer Rose Pears. 



PROCEEDINGS. 61 

From Anson Dexter, Williams's Bon Chretien, Summer Francreal, and Pears without a 
name. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, fine Benoni, Spice Sweeting, and fine 
Summer Pearmain Apples, and Dearborn's Seedling Pears. 

From Frederick W. Macondry, Peaches, for a name ; Summer Francreal ( 1 ) Pears, and 
White Gage and Duane's Purple ( % ) Plums. 

From A. D. Williams, Harrison's Fall Baking, Orange, Beurre d'Amalis, and three dishes 
of Pears for a name • Superb Sweet, and Williams Apple, and Field Marshal, Yellow 
Gage, and Orleans Plums. 

From Aaron D. Williams, Black Hamburg and Royal Muscadine Grapes. 

From Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y., fine Early Joe Apples. 

From Peter Fay, Southboro', fine seedling Granny Fay Apples. 

The following Fruits were tested by the Committee : — Early Joe Apple, from Ellwanger 
& Barry, handsome and fine flavored, and worthy of cultivation. Apple, Granny Fay, 
from Peter Fay, a large and handsome fruit, with considerable flavor and juiciness. 
Apple, Summer Pearmain, from Otis Johnson, a superior fruit. Apple, Summer Queen, 
from William Clapp, extra fine, and worthy of being found in every collection. Washing- 
ton Pear, from Otis Johnson, remarkably juicy ; Rostiezer, delicious ; Julienne, lacking 
in flavor. Tyson Pear, from J. H. Welch, a superior fruit. Hampden's Bergamot, from 
Samuel Walker, second quality ; Belle de Bruxelles, worthless; St. Ghislain, one of the 
best of the season. No. 1454 of Van Moiis, from Pomological Garden, small, but of a 
pleasant flavor and quite juicy. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

For the best Summer Apple, to Vice President Edward M. Richards, for his Benoni, the 
first premium, six dollars. 

For the next best, to John Hovey, for his Early Harvest, the second premium, four dollars. 

Special Premiums — Being for the two best varieties and specimens of Summer Apples, 
exhibited previous to September 1. 
To Vice President Edward M. Richards, for his Benoni, five dollars. 
To John Hovey, for his Early Harvest, five dollars. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 11. 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Membership : — Solon Dike, of Stoneham, 
J. H. Welch, of Dorchester, and John H. Bacon, of Medford, by E. C. R. Walker, and 
Amherst A. Frazar, of Boston, by Eben. Wight. 

Letters were received and read from the American Agricultural Association, New York ; 
the Long Island Horticultural Society, and the Cincinnati Horticultural Society, inviting 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to be present at their respective Exhibitions. 

Voted, That the foregoing communications be placed in the hands of the Corresponding 
Secretary, with instructions to report, that on account of the time set for their respective 
Exhibitions being so near that fixed upon by this Society, it would be inconvenient for its 
members to be present. 

A Communication was received from the New Haven County Horticultural Society, 

15 



62 PROCEEDINGS. 

inviting this Society to be present at their Exhibition, to be held on the 28th, 29th, and 
30th instant. 

Voted, That a delegation, consisting of two, to be chosen by the Chair, be appointed to 
attend the New Haven Horticultural Society's Exhibition, and Messrs. F. W. Macondray 
and Samuel Downer, Jr., were appointed Delegates, with power to fill vacancies. 

Voted, That the Weekly Exhibitions of Saturday the 18th, and Saturday the 25th inst. 
be dispensed with, on account of the preparation for the Annual Exhibition, and that the 
Exhibition of Dahlias, for Premium, be deferred until Saturday, October 2. 

Voted, That the Vice Presidents of the Society be appointed a Committee to wait upon 
the Delegates who may be present at the Annual Exhibition of this Society. 

Voted, That a Committee of three, to be appointed by the Chair, be chosen to nominate 
a list of Officers for the Society for the coming year, and Messrs. Eben. Wight, Frederick 
W. Macondray and Otis Johnson were appointed that Committee. 

Voted, That the Committee of Nomination present their Report one week previous to the 
Annual Meeting. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, one hundred and fifty Dahlias : 
among them were Madame Dresser, Sir Edward Antrobus, Dawn of Day, Marchioness of 
Cornwallis, Mimosa, Golden Rule, Arethusa, Princess Radziville, Cleopatra, Beauty of 
England, La belle Blonde, Fulwood Scarlet, Captivation, &c. 

From Parker Barnes, fifty Dahlias : among the new varieties are Princess Radziville, 
Essex Goldfinch, La Polka, Marquis of Aylesbury, and other fine varieties; Iris — Smith's 
Lady Sale, Essex Primrose, Great Western, King of the West, Cheltenham Queen, &c. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, Dahlias ; fine Clusters of Madame Desprez Rose ; Balsams, &c. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a great variety of beautiful Cut Flowers, 
including Dahlias, Roses, Verbenas, Phlox Van Houttii, &c. 

From James Nugent, six Hand and two Mantel Bouquets; Asters; Dahlias; Ferrarias, &c. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, seven Pot Plants, viz. : — two Justicia carnea, 
one Justicia coccinnea, Manettia glabra, Erica multiflora, Erica densiflora, Fuchsia. Also, 
a collection of German Asters, and two Mantel Bouquets. 

From George C. Crowninshield, by John Quant, fine German Asters. 

From Col. Thomas H. Perkins, by William Quant, two Mantel Bouquets. 

From Hovey & Co., a fine collection of German Asters, and six Hand and two Flat 
Bouquets. 

From John Robinson, Dahlias : Viscount Ressequier, Beeswing, Queen Mary. Harlequin, 
Madame Chauvierre, and Cinderella. Cut Flowers : Phlox, Verbenas, Balsams, German 
Asters, Salvia splendens, Fuchsia, &c. 

From William B. Richards, fine Dahlias. 

From Azell Bowditch, six Hand Bouquets. 

From Andrew Reed, a Bouquet of Dahlias. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, seven Hand and two Mantel Bouquets; a plant of Anemone 
japonica, a new hardy variety, not before exhibited at the Society's rooms; German Asters ; 
Dahlias ; Gladiolus, and other Cut Flowers. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., fifty Dahlias; Pentstemon coccinnea and purpurea; German 
Asters ; Euphorbia variegata, and a great variety of other Cut Flowers. 



PROCEEDINGS. 63 

AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

On German Asters — Messrs. Quant, Bowditch. and Donald Judges. 
For the best display, first premium, four dollars, to Hovey & Co. 
For second best do., second premium, three dollars, to John Quant. 
For third best do., third premium, two dollars, to John Thomas. 

Bouquets and Pot Plants — The Committee award to James Nugent, the first premium, 
two dollars, for the best six Hand Bouquets. 

To Hovey & Co. second premium, one dollar, for second best do. 

To William Quant, the first premium, two dollars, for the best pair of Mantel Bouquets. 

To Hovey & Co., second premium, one dollar, for second best do. 

To John Thomas, the first premium, two dollars, for the best six Pot Plants. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From Aaron D. Williams, Andrews, Williams's Bon Chretien, Dearborn's Seedling, 
Julienne, and Beurre d'Amalis Pears, and Golden Pippin and Ram's Horn Apples. 

From Josiah Lovett, Beverly, very fine Plums. 
„ From James H. Watts, Rochester, N. Y., Kensington Rareripe Peaches. 

From Moses B. Seaward, Rochester, N. Y., Hawley Apples. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, Frankendale, ( 1 ) White Frontignan, Black 
Hamburg, and fine Chasselas Musque Grapes. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Belle et Bonne, Napoleon, Dearborn's Seedling, and Julienne 
Pears ; Green and White Gage, Duane's Purple, Diamond and other kinds of Plums, and 
Grand Sachem and fine Porter Apples. 

From Robert Manning, (Pomological Garden, Salem,) Krzenetzen, No. 1434 of Van Mons, 
Hampden's Bergamot, and a variety of Pears unknown. 

From John Fisk Allen, Green Gage Plums; Black Hamburg, Aleppo, Rose and White 
Chasselas Grapes; Elizabeth, of Van Mons, Passans du Portugal, Cabot, Julienne, and 
Hannas Pears; Crawford and Bellegarde Peaches; Elruge Nectarines, and Brunswick 
Figs. 

From James Nugent, Williams's Bon Chretien Pears, and Black Hamburg and Chasselas 
Grapes. 

From William R. Austin, Dorchester, Summer Francreal and Williams's Bon Chretien 
Pears, and Coolidge's Favorite and Bellegarde Peaches. 

From Samuel R. Johnson, Washington Plums. 

From Hovey & Co., Wilmot's Black Hamburg, old Black Hamburg, and Chasselas Grapes. 

From Azell Bowditch, Black Hamburg and Chasselas Grapes. 

From J. J. Stimpson, Providence, Julienne Pears. 

From E. Edes Bradshaw, Charlestown, Washington, Imperial Gage, Bradshaw, and other 
Plums, and handsome seedling Peaches. 

From Frederick W. Macondray, Duane's Purple, Prune, and Gage Plums, and Black 
Hamburg Grapes. 

From Josiah Stickney, Watertown, Early Crawford Peaches. 

From W. W. Wheildon, from the garden of H. Lincoln, Jr., Charlestown, native Grapes. 

From Messrs. Winship, Pears and Apples, for names. 

From Otis Johnson, Belle et Bonne, Aston Town, and fine Dearborn's Seedling Pears, and 
Summer Pearmain Apples. 

From Geo. Wilson, Marblehead, Green Gage, Goliah, Smith's Orleans, and other Plums. 

From Col. Thomas H. Perkins, by William Quant, fine Persian green fleshed Melons ; 
Elruge and fine Golden Nectarines, and Vanguard, Noblesse, and fine Late Heath Peaches. 



64 PROCEEDINGS. 

From Elisha Park, Morello Cherries. 

From Andrew Wellington, Lexington, fine Apples. 

From Eben. Wight, Julienne, Vallee Franche, and Williams's Bon Chretien Pears, and 
Orange Sweeting and Pumpkin Sweeting ( 1 ) Apples. 

From Lewis Slack, Westboro', Garden Royal Apples. 

From Amherst A. Frazer, Dorchester, Apples, unknown. 

From Aaron Dexter, Roxbury, Williams's Bon Chretien and other Pears. 

From J. Dike, Stoneham, Seedling Peach. 

From P. & H. A. Dyer, Brooklyn, Connecticut, Mexico, Sugar Sweeting, and Golden 
Orange Apples. 

From Galen Merriam, West Newton, Jacques, Coolidge's Favorite, and Hasting's 
Peaches. 

From Henry Rice, the Bruce Apple. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., Gros Roi Louis Pears. 

The Committee tested the following Fruits : — Pears, Gros Roi Louis, from Samuel 
Downer, Jr., were past eating. Apple, the Bruce, from Henry Rice, was also too ripe. 
Apple, Garden Royal, very good. Hawley Apple, from Rochester, N. Y., large and fine 
flavored. From P. & H. A. Dyer, Golden Orange, a pleasant sweet flavor; Mexico 
Apple, fine flavor. Kensington Rareripe Peach, from Rochester, N. Y., very good. 
Dearborn's Seedling Pears from Otis Johnson, good. Aston Town, from Otis Johnson, 
No. 2 quality. Knight"s Seedling, from President Wilder, very fine; Watson, from 
Plymouth. Wescott, from J. W. Chapin, Providence, too far gone to test its quality. 
Washington, 0. Johnson, very fine. Seedling Peach from Mr. Dike, yellow fleshed and 
third quality. Seedling Peach from E. E. Bradshaw, yellow fleshed and pleasant, but not 
high flavored. From Col. Thomas H. Perkins, Peaches — Vanguard, Heath, and Noblesse, 
large and handsome. From Robert Manning, Pomological Garden, Pears, Van Mons No. 
1434, sweet but dry ; Krzenetzer, poor ; Hampden's Bergamot, 2d quality. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From Azell Bowditch, Dwarf Russian and Lima Beans. 

From Aaron D. Williams, Canada and Marrow Squash, and Sweet Corn. 

From Parker Barnes, Couve Tronchuda. 

From Samuel Walker, a Snake Cucumber. 

For the Committee. A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 18, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Membership : — Robert Bacon, of Medford, 
by A. Dexter, and John Donald, of Brighton, by A. Bowditch. 

A Communication was received from the Middlesex Horticultural Society, inviting the 
Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to be present at their Annual Exhibition, 
to be held in Lowell, the 22d, 23d, and 24th inst. 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested to reply to the Middlesex Horti- 
cultural Society, that on account of the time set for their Exhibition being the same as that 
fixed upon by this Society, it would be inconvenient for its members to be present. 

George Wilson, of Marblehead, was elected a Subscription member. 



PROCEEDINGS. 65 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

The Nineteenth Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
took place at the Society's Hall, School street, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 
September 22d, 23d, and 24th, 1847. The Committee of Arrangements entrusted with its 
management, respectfully submit their Report. The Exhibition, as a whole, was a very 
good one, but different in its general features from all former ones. There was a deficiency 
of Plants in Pots, from the Green-House and Conservatory, which always diminishes the 
general beauty and characteristic effect of these displays. Whether this is owing to 
a want of encouragement in the way of premiums, or other causes, is not known. The 
Committee hope for an improvement in this department on future anniversaries. The 
Dahlias and Asters were excellent, the former quite numerous in new varieties and in 
the perfection of their blooms. The other Cut Flowers and small Bouquets were not as 
abundant as at many of the Weekly Exhibitions. The large Bouquets for the Marble and 
Bradlee Vases, by Messrs. Hovey & Co., Nugent, and Warren, were very showy and well 
made with fine Flowers and fresh Evergreens. The large Moss and Flower Designs by 
Mr. Quant, Mr. Thomas, Mr. Walker, and a Floral Bower, by Mr. McNeil, with a fountain 
and gold fish, were chaste and pretty. The Wreaths by Messrs. Quant, Walker and 
Bowditch were beautiful and well made. The Flower Baskets by Miss Russell and the ' 
Designs composed of our beautiful native grasses by Miss Bowker and Mrs. Sparrell, and 
a Moss Vase ornamented with the acorn and snowdrop, by £! Fanny Forrester," were 
chaste and attracted much attention. The variety of Vegetables was not numerous, but 
nearly all the specimens were good. Mr. Cole presented thirty distinct varieties of 
Potatoes, fifteen of which were seedlings, which entitle that gentleman to a particular 
notice in the Vegetable Report. The display of Fruits was decidedly the best and most 
abundant in specimens ever made by the Society. The Apples were fair, of good size, 
well colored, and fine in flavor. The variety of Peaches and Quinces was small, and 
all but one or two of the samples quite ordinary. There were some excellent specimens 
of Plums. In Grapes the varieties were more numerous, and the quality more delicious 
and better matured than on any former occasion. 

Mr. Needham was the successful competitor, his Canon Hall Muscats were larger in 
bunch and berry, than any ever before shown. Mr. Allen had the largest number of 
specimens, all of which were fine. The Wilmot's Black Hamburg, by Messrs. Hovey, 
were extra fine and well ripened, and the collections of Messrs. Young, Donald and 
Towne were very good. 

The great feature of the exhibition was the array of Pears, which was undoubtedly the 
most valuable ever made in this country. The majority of the specimens were rather 
above their average in size, fair, highly colored, well marked in feature, and in good 
quality. About fifty new varieties of Pears have been fruited for the first time in this 
country, and it is believed that many of them will prove to be valuable acquisitions, and 
will hereafter take rank in classes numbers one and two. The new varieties were mostly 
in the large collections of Col. Wilder, Mr. Manning, and Hovey & Co. The contributions 
of fruits particularly worthy of special reference were those from the Pomological Gardens 
of Mr. Manning, of Salem, who had two hundred and fiftyfive varieties of Pears ; Col. 
Wilder, one hundred and sixty; Hovey & Co., seventy, more than half of which were 
new ; Josiah Lovett, about eighty ; Samuel Walker, sixty ; Otis Johnson, Lynn, sixty ; 
Winships, Brighton, forty; Mr. Allen, Salem, Grapes, Pears, Peaches and Figs; Mr. 
Warren, Brighton, Grapes, Apples, and Pears ; J. Stickney, Peaches, Pears and Apples ; 
B. V. French, Braintree, sixtysix varieties of Apples ; Cheever Newhall, Pears; E. M. 
Richards, Dedham, Apples; F. W. Macondray, Pears; S. Pond, extra fine Williams's Bon 

16 



QQ PROCEEDINGS. 

Chretien Pears; E. Wight, Dedham, Apples; J. M. Ives, Salem, Pears; R. Crooker, 
Roxbury, in particular, extra fine Van Moris Leon le Clerc Pears; Horace Gray, by J. 
Donald, a collection of well grown Grapes; H. Vandine, Pears, and extra fine Coe's Golden 
Drop Plum ; J. Owen, Cambridge, Peaches and Apples ; J. French, Pears ; Nahum 
Stetson, Bridgewater, fine seedling Peaches, and extra fine Crawford's late ; Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, Pears and Apples ; W. Stearns, Salem, Pears ; A. D. Williams & Son, 
Pears and Apples. A remark was made that our nurserymen and amateurs were bestowing 
too much time and money on the cultivation of the Pear to the neglect of the Apple. 
Whether this be true or otherwise, the Committee must leave for the future to decide. 

There were four large baskets of rich assorted fruits worthy of particular attention : — one 
from Otis Johnson, containing Grapes, Peaches, Pears, Nectarines, Plums, Apples, &c. ; 
one from Col. T. H. Perkins, by Wm. Quant, with Grapes, Peaches, and Pears ; one from 
Azell Bowditch, with Grapes, in variety; and another from Capt. Macondray, with Grapes, 
Peaches, Pears, and Apples. These were prominent objects upon the centre tables, and 
elicited much attention, from the beautiful arrangements of the various specimens. 

The Society were honored by the attendance of Delegates from the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, Philadelphia ; American Institute, New York ; New York State 
Agricultural Society ; Worcester Horticultural Society ; New Haven County Horticultural 
Society ; Rhode Island Horticultural Society ; Long Island Horticultural Society; Pomological 
Society, New Haven; Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural Society, and a volunteer 
delegation from our own Berkshire. These several delegations were duly honored and 
cared for by the Vice Presidents of the Society. This anniversary has been particularly 
profitable, as well in the interchange of civilities, as in imparting and receiving much 
information on subjects of Horticulture and Pomology, and in the severe tests to which 
many varieties of fruits and their cultivation have been put before large and intelligent 
boards of scientific men. Our numerous meetings were thus made instructive as well as 
pleasant and agreeable in friendly reciprocities. 

The weather during the exhibition was favorable, and the Hall filled most of the time 
to its utmost capacity of accommodation, by delighted visiters. It has now been proved 
to a demonstration, that the Hall is not of competent size to contain anything like all the 
specimens offered for exhibition ; and the Committee owe an apology to several for whose 
valuable collections space could not be found, and which, therefore, remained unpacked, 
and undisplayed. The Committee name this at the present time in the hope that measures 
will be taken, at an early day, to secure Faneuil Hall, or some other large building for 
the exhibition of 1848. 

The Committee trust that the awards of the Judges will be satisfactory, and that the 
premiums have been bestowed upon those justly entitled to receive them. 

For the Committee, HENRY W. DUTTON, Chairman, 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, very fine Dahlias, filling one of 
the circular stands, among them many new and beautiful varieties. Also, large plants of 
Acacias, Camellias, &c. 

From Parker Barnes, Samuel R. Johnson, John Parker, Joseph Breck & Co., J. L. L. F. 
Warren, Azell Bowditch, Hovey & Co., Robert Ames, James Nugent, 0. H. Mather, John 
Hovey, William Mellar, Charles A. Hewins, and others, Dahlias, in variety, filling all the 
side stands. 

From John A. Kenrick, a Basket of Flowers, and a Wreath, by his daughter. 
From Samuel A. Walker, a Motto, " Welcome Friends again," wrought with Amaranths 
on a Moss ground, with an Evergreen festoon, having an eagle and star attached. Also, a 



PROCEEDINGS. 67 

fine Wreath, thirtyfive feet long, composed of Evergreen, Amaranths, and other flowers, 
and another of the same length, made of Evergreen and various flowers. 

From Master Rosamond Walker, a Duck, feathered with the Immortal Flower. 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, a Design — a vase upon a pedestal, eight 
feet high, covered with Moss, and ornamented with the Immortal and other flowers. 

From John L. Gardner, by John Thomas, a Monumental Moss Design, of elaborate finish, 
highly ornamented with flowers and bouquets. 

From 0. H. Mather, Breck & Co., James Nugent, Charles A. Hewins, C. Davenport, 
and Hovey & Co., Cut Flowers, including fine German Asters. 

From Azell Bowditch, thirtyfive yards of fine Wreath, and two Hand Bouquets. 

From James Nugent, one pair of large Pyramidal Bouquets for the Bradlee Vases, and 
six Hand Bouquets. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, a Moss Grotto, of fine finish. 

From Alexander McLennan, one dozen plants of fine Dwarf Cockscomb. Also, a 
variety of Pot Plants, including one of Hedychium coronarium in bloom. 

From Hovey & Co., one pair of Pyramidal Bouquets, of large size, for the Marble Vases ; 
one pair smaller, and one pair Mantel do. Also, a Flat Design, of large size, wrought in 
Mosaic work, with Asters and the Immortal Flower, and a great variety of Pot Plants, 
including Achimenes rosea ; Fuchsias; Fulgens; Acanfha and Nymph : Gloxinia Cartoni, 
&c. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, one pair of large Pyramidal Bouquets, for the Bradlee 
Vases ; two Hand Bouquets ; one large Grass Bouquet, and the following Pot Plants : — 
Mammillaria discolor, M. dolichantia, M. scopa rubra, M. scopa alba, M. scopa pulchra, 
M. scopa pennis, and five varieties unknown ; Euphorbia monstrosa ; Echinocactus scopa, 
E. mammilosus, and a variety unknown; Hosmanthus coccineus; Cereus crucigerus, C. 
Wildianus, and three varieties unknown, and two Achimenes grandiflora. 

From Miss Russell, one large and one small basket of Flowers, and a pair of Stars, 
handsomely wrought with Immortal Flowers. 

From John Hovey, three Bouquets of dried flowers. 

From Orr N. Towne, a Design of Dahlias and other flowers, on a flat foundation. 

From George C. Crowninshield, by John Quant, two Pyramidal Bouquets, and one 
composed of indigenous flowers. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, two Bouquets, composed of indigenous flowers . 

From Messrs. Winship, one pair large Pyramidal Bouquets, for Vases, and one pair large 
Parlor do. 

From Nahum Stetson, by Henry Reed, a Design of Dahlias, on a flat foundation. 

From Misses Newhall, by Josiah Newhall, a Globe, composed of Marigolds. 

From Isaac Rich, by Charles Binney, a very neat Design of Mosaic work, wrought with 
Immortal and other flowers. 

From Miss Rebecca Bowker, a Tree with dried Autumnal leaves. Also, a combination 
of Grass Bouquets and Mosses, forming a neat Design. 

From M. P. Ellis, Dedham, plants of Arabian Jasmine, from Florida. 

From Mrs. D. Sparrell, a Tree, composed of a great variety of Grasses. 

From Jonathan Mann, Jr., a beautiful Grass Bouquet. 

From Francis R. Bigelow, three flowers of the Cactus triangularis. 

From R. West, Salem, four Hand Bouquets. 

From Hazen Hazeltine, fine Cockscombs. 

From Lewis Davenport, Roses, Dahlias, &c. 

From John D. Williams, by James McNeill, a Design, the Temple of Flora, with a 
fountain in the centre. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



68 PROCEEDINGS. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, of Dorchester, President of the Society, one hundred and 
fiftynine varieties of Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Ananas of the French, Angleterre Noisette, 
Angelique de Rome, A. de Bourdeaux, Ambrette, Autumn Superb, Belle et Bonne de 
He"e, B. et Bonne, B. Angevine, B. d' Angers, B. des Trois, B. Excellent, B. de Grande 
Montrouge, Beurre Bruneau, B. de Nerkman, B. Curtet, B. d'Elberg, B. de Louvain, B. 
Montefortaine, B. Incomparable, B. d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, B. d'Angleterre, B. Ranee, 
B. Easter, B. Coloma, B. d'Anjou, B. Cutter, B. Bronze (from France.) B. Bronze, (Lond. 
H. S.,) B. Diel, B. Golden of Bilboa, B. de Capiaumont, B. Bosc, B. Beaulieu, B. de Rhine, 
B. Kenrick, B. Brown, B. Beaureal, B. Audesson, Buffum, Brougham, Belmont, Williams's 
Bon Chretien, Bezi de la Motte, Bleeker's Meadow, Bezi Vaet, B. des Veterans, Bergamotte 
(Gansel's,) B. Parthenay, B. Easter, B. de Brunon, B. Suisse, B. Seedling, B. Dr. Ives's, 
Catillac, Chaumontel Beige, C. English, Colmar d'Aremberg, C. d'Ete, C. du Lot, Comte 
de Lamy, Comtesse de Lunay, Columbia, Comprette, Cushing, Dunmore, Dearborn's 
Seedling, Dix, Duchesse d'Angouleme, D. de Mars, D. d'Orleans, Doyenne Gray, D. gris 
d'hiver nouveau, D. dore, D. crotte, D. panachee, D. musque, De Tonneau, De Louvain, 
Delices Charles, Dumortier, Deschamps, Epine d'Hiver, E. d'Ete, Eyewood, Fulton, 
Fontarabie. Fondante d'Automne, Fortunee, Figue de Naples, Famenga, Fondante de 
Lille, Ferdinand de Meester, Gilogil, Glout Morceau, Gendesheim, Girardin, Heathcot, 
Henrietta, (Edwards's,) Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, Julienne, King Edward's, Knight's 
Seedling, Lawrence, Liberale, Louise Bonne de Jersey. Lewis, Leon le Clerc, Marie 
Louise, Miel de Waterloo, Napoleon, Doyenne Boussock (Manning's,) ditto, from France, 
Naigly, Passe Colmar, Petre, Philippe of France, Poire de Louvain, P. de Conde, P. 
d'Amour, Ridelle, Frederic de Wurtemburg, Rousselet de Rheims, Seckel, St. Germain 
de Tillion, St. G. Princes's, St. G. Striped, St. G. Uvedale's, Sieulle, Sucre Verte, Swan's 
Egg, Sageret, St. Andre, St. Laurens, St. Michael Archange, Sarazin, St. Denis, Tarquin, 
Triumph de Jodoigne, Summer Thorn, Sansparielle, Surpasse Virgoulouse, Urbaniste, 
Vicar of Winkfield, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Verte Longue, V. Longue d'Automne, V. 
L. Panachee, Voix aux Pre'tres, Vicompte de Spoelberch, Van Mons No. 65, Wilkinson, 
Winter Nelis, Wilbur, and six varieties unknown. 

From Vice President B. V. French, of Braintree, sixtysix varieties of Apples, viz. : — 
Gloria Mundi, Yellow Belle Fleur, Hawthornden, Male Carle, St. Lawrence, Reinette du 
Canada, Porter, Fall Greening, Adams's Sweet, French Sweet, Newtown Pippin, (yellow,) 
Baldwin, Jewett's fine Red, Wellington, York Russet, Blenheim Orange, ( ? ) Lady Apple, 
Royale, Winter Pearmain, Murphy, Nonesuch, Roxbury Russet, R. I. Greening, Sweet 
Greening, Wells Pippin, Jericho, Bourrassa, Red Winter, Dutch Codlin, Ruggles, Gardner's 
Russet, Bean Sweet, Danvers Winter Sweet, Seaver Sweet, Newark King, Mexico, Roman 
Stem, Blenheim Pippin, Fameuse, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Winter Gilliflower, Spice, 
iEsopus Spitzemberg, Conway, Perry's Winter Sweet Russet, Fearn's Pippin, Long Russet, 
Beauty of Kent, Scarlet Nonpareil, Ribstone Pippin, Ross Nonpareil, Pumpkin Sweet, Red 
Winter, Sugar Sweet, Dominie, Smith's fine Table, and several without names. Pears — 
thirtyseven varieties, viz. : — Harvard, Seckel, Vicar of Winkfield, Cushing, Thompson, 
Beurre de Capiaumont, Washington, Wilkinson, Chaumontel, Unknown, Phillips, Lewis, 
Beurre Bosc, B. Sutin, Tilton, Johonnet, Bleeker's Meadow, Jalousie, Heathcot, Messire 
Jean, Long Green, Hardenpont, Bartlett, Capsheaf, Fondante d'Automne, Spanish Bon 
Chretien, ( 1 ) Beurre Diel, Bon Chretien de Bruxelles, Marie Louise, Beurre de Argenson, 
Frederic de Wurtemburg, Urbaniste, Napoleon, and three varieties without a name. 
Peaches — Crawford's Early, Walter's Early, Early Royal George, and Old Mixon. 

From Vice President Cheever Newhall, of Dorchester, twentytwo varieties of Pears, 
viz. : — Urbaniste, Fondante d'Automne, Heathcot, Napoleon, Cashing, Fulton, Frederic 



PROCEEDINGS. 69 

de Wurtemburg, Dunmore, Althorp Crassane, Andrews, Vicar of Winkfield, Louise Bonne 
de Jersey, Glout Morceau, Beurre d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, B. Diel, Knight's Seedling, 
Wilkinson, Passe Colmar, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Black Pear of Worcester, Washington. 
Apples — Lyscom, Marigold, Chesnut. Peaches — Early Crawford. Grapes — Black Ham- 
burg. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, of Dedham, twelve varieties of Apples, viz. :— 
Walpole, Hawthornden, Sops-of-Wine, Boxford, Haley's Nonesuch, Pumpkin Sweeting, 
Dyer, Black Prince, Rambour Franc, Porter, Minister, one var. name unknown. Pears — 
Williams's Bon Chretien, Beurre Bosc. 

From the Pomological Garden, Salem, by Robert Manning, Proprietor, two hundred and 
fiftyfive varieties of Pears, viz. : — Aston Town, Angers ( 1 ) Althorp Crassane, Angelique 
de Rome, Ananas d'Ete, Alpha, Ambrosia, Alexander of Russia, Andrews, Bergamotte 
d'Automne, B. Libboten, B. Parthenay, B. Fortunee, B. Sylvange, B. Gansel's, B. Cadette, 
B. Hampden's, B. Welbeck, Beurre Spence, B. Whitzumb, B. Easter, B. Preble, B. 
Kenrick, B. Delbecq, B. Brown, B. Verte, B. d'Angleterre, B. Beaumont, B. d'Aremberg, 
B. Adam, B. Bosc, B. gris d'hiver nouveau, B. Diel, B. Coloma, B. Van Mons, B. Golden 
of Bilboa, B. Van Marum, B. de Capiaumont, B. d'Amalis, Beauty of Winter, Bezi 
Montigny, B. de la Motte, Buffum, Black Pear of Worcester, Bon Chretien Turkish, B. de 
Bruxelles, B. Tucker's, B. Fondante, B. Williams's, Belle et Bonne, Bleeker's Meadow, 
Belmont, Bois Napoleon, Bodin, Boucquia, Brugmansbirne, Bishop's Thumb, Bonne 
Louise, Copsea, Cross, Colmar Epine, Catillac, Calebasse Monstreuse, Chapman's, Columbs 
d'hiver, Charles de Boulogne, Capsheaf, Croft Castle, Citron of Bohemia, Chaptal, Columbia, 
Colmar Niel, Caen du France, Comte de Lamy, Chaumontel, Cuvellier, Clinton, Charles of 
Austria, Commodore, Coter, Crassane, Clara, Coloma, Caroline, Colmar d'Automne, Cabot, 
Calebasse, Cushing, Chelmsford, Doyenne Boussock, D. blanc, D. Crotte, D. Mons, D. Bosc, 
D. d'hiver, D. Louis, D. d'Alencon, Dingier, Duchesse d'Angouleme, D. d'Orleans, D. de 
Mars, Dix, Dundas, Double Amande, Dunmore, Dearborn, Endicott, Emerald, Eyewood, 
Enfant Prodige, Echasserie, Fulton, Figue Extra, Foster's St. Michael, Figue de Naples, 
Frederic de Wurtemburg, Flemish Sabine, F. Beauty, Fondante d'Automne, F. Van Mons, 
Fantasie Van Mons, Franc Real d'hiver, Glout Morceau, Girardin, Gendesheim, Gilogil, 
Green Pear of Yair, Henry IV., Huguenot, Hunt's Connecticut, Hericart, Henkel, Heathcot, 
Hathorne's Seedling, Hacon's Incomparable, Henrietta, Harvard, Hadley, Horticulture, 
Jaminette d'hiver, Jalousie, Jubin, Knight's Seedling, King Edward's. Juvardal, Jaminette, 
Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, Johonnot, Julienne, Lincoln, Las Canas, Locke, Louis Bonne 
de Jersey, Long Green of Europe, do. of Coxe, Vicar of Winkfield, Lewis, Leon le Clerc, 
Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Lederbirne, Louis of Boulogne, Late Deschamps, Louis Philipe, 
Marie Louise, Double Emploi, Manning's, Meuris d'hiver, Marie Louise (Pitt's,) Napoleon, 
Navez, Plombgastel, Petre, Pennsylvania, Pomme Poire, Paradise d'Automne, Princess of 
Orange, Pitfour, Passans du Portugal, Pope's Russet, Parmentier, Quetelet, Queen of the 
Low Countries, Passe Colmar, Reine des Pokes, Raymond, Ronville. Rousselet de Meester, 
R. de Rheims, Rameaux, Royale d'hiver, St. Germain (Uvedale's,) St. Germain (Prince's.) 
St. Germain (Brande's,) St. Germain d'Ete, Seckel, St. Ghislain, Superfondante, Shobden 
Court, Stevens's Genesee, Surpasse Virgoulouse, Surreine, Styrian, Sovereign de Printemps, 
Shakspeare, Sieulle, Sullivan, Summer Thorn, Schoeling Merry, St. Andre, Thompson's 
Urbaniste, Van Assene, Whitfield, Wilbur, Winter Nelis, Winter Crassane, Washington, 
Wilkinson, two seedlings; also, Nos. 104, 108, 135, 177, 365, 658, 858, 879, 969, 1036, 
1074, 1100, 1155, 1242, 1258, 1295, 1336, 1344, 1406, 1454, 1482, 1485, 1535, 1590, and 
1602, of Van Mons; Pyrus Pollveria, a distinct species. Apples — seventyfive varieties, 
viz. : Pigeonette, Sam Young, Swaar, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Pennock's, Pumpkin Sweet, 
King of the Pippins, Lyscom, Pound, Ribstone Pippin, Minister, Mignonne, Templeton 

17 



70 PROCEEDINGS. 

Winter Sweet, Marquis, Corse's Sweeting, Seaver Sweet, Hay Boys, Roxbury Russet, R. I. 
Greening, Vermont Sweeting, Dutch Mignonne, Slug Sweeting, Bickley's White Sweet, 
Kilham Hill, Belle Lamont, Waterman Reding, Edwards's Russet, Alexander, Fall Harvey, 
Stone Pippin, Wormsley's Pippin, Rymer, Illinois, Roi Saube, Yellow Bellflower, Porter, 
Gloucester, Baldwin, Danvers Winter Sweet, Caroline, Ramsdell's Red Pumpkin Sweet, 
President, Rambour Franc, Longville's Kernel, Triangle, Corse's Autumn Spice, Golden 
Noble, Ben, Fearn's Pippin, Jonathan, Fallowater, Red Calville, Wine Apple, Barcelona 
Pearmain, Fenner's Sweet, American Golden Pippin, Chandler, Scarlet Pearmain, Tolman 
Sweeting, Winesap, Beachamwell's, Spring Greening, Cos or Caas, Black Coal, English 
Golden Russet, Kirke's Lord Nelson, Beauty of Kent, Maiden's Blush, Catshead, Summer 
Sweet Paradise, Newtown Pippin, Winter Sweet Paradise, Pomme Royal, Large Burden, 
Lucombe's Seedling. Peaches — five varieties, viz. : Belle de Vitry, Crawford's Early, 
Walter's Early, Grosse Mignonne, Yellow Admirable. Plums — five varieties, viz. : Belle 
de Riom, Cruger's Scarlet, Green Gage, Roe's Autumn Gage, Rogers's. 

From Samuel Walker, sixty varieties of Pears, viz. : Andrews, Bergamotte (Hampden's,) 
Belle et Bonne, Beurre" d'Aremberg, B. Brown, B. Duval. B. Diel, B. de Capiaumont, B. 
Easter, B. Ranee, B. Golden of Bilboa, Bezi Vaet, Bon Chretien (Williams's,) Chaumontel, 
Catillac, Chaptal, Colmar (Autumn,) Crassane, C. Althorp, Dearborn's Seedling, Doyenne" 
white, D. gris, D. dore, Duchesse d'Angouleme, D. de Mars, Epine Dumas, Eyewood, 
Figue, Figue de Naples, Flemish Beauty, Fourcroy, Fondante d'Automne, Fondante Van 
Mons, Gendesheim, Glout Morceau, Hull, Jaminette, Johonnot, Lawrence, Louise Bonne 
de Jersey, Madotte, Messire Jean, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Pacquency, Princess d'Orange, 
Passe Colmar, Rousselet d' Rheims ( 1 ) St. Ghislain, Seckel, Urbaniste, Van Mons Leon le 
Clerc, Verte Longue d'Automne, Vicar of Winkfield, Bicknell, Seedling, Vallee Franche, 
and three varieties names unknown. 

From Josiah Lovett, about eighty varieties of Pears, viz. : Urbaniste, Julienne, Andrews, 

Alpha, Hacon's Incomparable ( ? ) Long Green, St. Julian ( 1 ) Flemish Beauty, Columbia, 

Duchesse d'Angouleme, Bleeker's Meadow, Harvard, Williams's Bon Chretien, Beurre 

d'Aremberg, Summer Franc Real, Figue de Naples, Fondante d'Automne, Boucquia, Dix, 

Winter Orange, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Seckel, Dearborn's Seedling, Golden Beurre" of 

Bilboa, Chaumontel, Lewis, Catillac, Charles Van Mons ( % ) Wilkinson, Hericart, Napoleon, 

Marie Louise, Beurre d'Amalis, Gansel's Bergamot, Stone (Ohio,) Doyenne white, Belle 

et Bonne, Jalousie, Glout Morceau, Vicar of Winkfield, Gilogil, Franchipane, Styrian ( ? ) 

Fulton, Bezi de La Motte, Easter Beurre, Passe Colmar, Fresh Pond ( 1 ) Cranston's Favorite, 

Beurre de Capiaumont, Cumberland, Louis de Boulogne, Beurre Diel, Winter Nelis, Van 

Mons, McLaughlin, Paradise d'Automne, Great Citron of Bohemia, Brown Beurre^ Hessel, 

Beurre Bosc, Passans du Portugal, St. Ghislain, Pound, Musk Bon Chretien, St. Michael 

Archange, King Edward's, Honey, Duchesse de Berri, Frederic de Wurtemburg, Surpasse 

Virgoulouse, Winter Crassane, Vicompte De Spoelberch, and eight varieties without names. 

From Otis Johnson, sixty varieties of Pears, viz. : Williams's Bon Chretien, Beurre Ranee, 

Dearborn's Seedling, Vallee Franche, Fondante d'Automne, Cushing, Bleeker's Meadow, 

Verte Longue, Rousselet de Rheims, Rousselet Panachee, Seckel, Green Sugar, Beurre 

d'Amalis, Buffum, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Uvedale's St. Germain, Dix, Glout Morceau, 

Winter Nelis, Beurre d'Aremberg, Doyenne" white, Echasserie, Martin Sec, Belle et Bonne, 

Easter Beurre, Passe Colmar, Messire Jean, Hericart, Henry IV., Beurre Diel, Prince's St. 

Germain, Vicar of Winkfield, Hacon's Incomparable, Jalousie, Beurre" Bosc, Frederic de 

Wurtemburg, Capiaumont, St. Ghislain, Flemish Beauty, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Gilogil, 

Urbaniste, Johonnot, Pope's Quaker, Epine d'Ete, Harvard, Napoleon, Bezi de la Motte, 

Julienne, Franc Real d'Hiver, Princesse d'Orange, Calebasse, Washington, Catillac, Beurre" 

Bronze, Columbia, and five varieties without name. Grapes — Zinfindal, Black Hamburg, 



PROCEEDINGS. 71 

White Chasselas, and Muscat of Alexandria. Plums — Duane's Purple, Smith's Orleans, 
and Prince's Gage. Peaches — George IV. and Coolidge's Favorite. 

From J. Fisk Allen, of Salem, twentyfive varieties of Grapes, viz. : White Gascoigne, 
Esperione, Black Prince, Chasselas de Fontainebleau, Golden Chasselas, Red Chasselas, 
Chasselas de Bar-sur-aube, Purple Sweetwater, Syrian, Black July, Black Lombardy, Black 
Hamburg, Wilmot's do., Wilmot's do. No. 16, Sweetwater, White and Grizzly Frontignan, 
Aleppo, White Tokay, Zinfindal, Ferral, White Nice, Miller's Burgundy, Tottenham Park 
Muscat, Wortley Hall, Muscat of Alexandria, and Isabella. Fifteen varieties of Pears, 
viz. : Doyenne white, D. d'Hiver, Long Green, Passe Colmar, Seckel, Bezi de la Motte, 
Fondante d'Automne, Ronville, Hannas, Napoleon, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Williams's 
Bon Chretien, Gansel's Bergamot, Urbaniste, Cabot. Figs — Brunswick, Black and Early 
White. Peaches — Bellegarde, Late Admirable. Plums — Lombard. Nectarines — Elruge. 

From Frederick W. Macondry, thirtyfive varieties of Pears, viz. : Passe Colmar, Catillac, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Vicar of Winkfield, Flemish Bon Chretien, Grosse de Bruxelles, 
Cushing, Summer Thorn, Beurre d'Amalis, Easter Beurre, Napoleon, Washington, Beurre 
Diel, Glout Morceau, White Doyenne, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Archduke Charles, Queen 
of the Low Countries, Ananas, Soldat Laborer ( 1 ) Beurre Moire, Rousselet de Rheims, 
McLaughlin, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Brown Beurre, Urbaniste, Messire Jean, Belle et 
Bonne, Beurre Bosc, Crassane, Seckel, Bezi de la Motte, and three varieties without name. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., seventy varieties of Pears, viz. : Arboricrite ( 1 ) Beurre 
d'Aremberg, B. de Moire, B. Diel (1 ) B. Crapaud, B. de Capiaumont, B. Brown, B. Ranee, 
B. Easter, B. Dumortier, B. de Beaumont, B. Curtet, Fondante d'Automne, Belle et Bonne, 
de Hee, B. d'Esquermes, B. Excellente, B. Heloise, B. Apres Noel, Belmont, Bergamotte 
de Parthenay, Bezi de Montigny, Colmar d'Aremberg, C. du Lot, C. Prieule, Captif St. 
Helene, Doyenne Musque, D. Boussock, D. Grey, Duquesne d'Ete, (or Julienne,) Delices 
de Jodoigne, Duchesse de Berri, D. d'Angouleme, Dingier, Dunmore, Esperine, Epine de 
Toulouse, Exeellentissima, Figue de Naples, Ferdinand de Meester, Forme de Delices, 
Fondante Rouge, Frederic de Wurtemburg, Inominee Patrie, Louise Bonne de Jersey, L. 
B. d' Angers, Leon le Clerc, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Melon de Kops, Madotte, Napoleon, 
Passe Colmar, Passans du Portugal, Poire Girardin, P. Sabine, P. Duvernay, St. Dorothee, 
Soldat Laborer ( 1 ) Seckel, Seedling Maria, Tarquin de Pyrennees, Tardive de Mons, Van 
Mons Sargeret, Van Mons Late, Vicompte de Spoelberch, Williams's Bon Chretien, and 
four new varieties from France. Twelve varieties of Grapes, viz. : Black Prince, Black 
Hamburg, Wilmot's do., Esperione, Bourdelas, St. Peter's, Chasselas de Fontainebleau, 
White Frontignan, Grizzly Frontignan, Muscat Blanc Hatif, Red Chasselas, and Chaptal. 
Apples — Hawthomden, White Doctor, and two new varieties from France. Peaches — 
Early York, Coolidge's Favorite, Sweetwater, Favorite, (of Coxe.) Plums— Semiana, and 
Rogers's Blue. 

From Messrs. Winship, forty varieties of Pears, viz. : Beurre d'Amalis, B. d'Hardenpont, 
B. Diel, B. Easter, B. Ranee, B. Brown, Colmar d'Ete, Rousse Lench, Muscadine, Gansel's 
Bergamot, Dearborn, Fulton, Bezi Vaet, Cumberland, Flemish Beauty, Passans du Portugal, 
Winter Nelis, Doyenne white, Seckel, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Frederic of Wurtemburg, 
Ananas, Rushmore's Bon Chretien, Marquise, Heathcot, Vallee Franche, Passe Colmar, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Washington. Messire Jean, Glout Morceau, Fondante d'Automne, 
St. Ghislain, La Fortunee, Surpasse Marie Louise, Wilkinson, Williams's Bon Chretien, 
and some without name. Apples — Grand Sachem. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., Pears— Williams's Bon Chretien, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Epine Dumas, Vicar of Winkfield, Belle et Bonne, Winter Nelis, 
Brown Beurre. 

From James L. L. F. Warren, thirtysix varieties of Pears, viz. : Beurre Brown, B. Easter, 



72 PROCEEDINGS. 

B. d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, Winship's Seedling C? ) Bezi de la Motte, Stone, Marquise, 
Verte Longue Panach^e, Belle et Bonne, Williams's Bon Chretien, Messire Jean, Black 
Pear of Worcester, Seckel, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Summer Franc Real, BufTum, Poire de 
St. Marc, Andrews, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Fortune^, Bishop's Thumb, Julienne, Bezi 
Montigny, Wilkinson, Figue, Doyenne dore, Marie Louise, Washington, Catillac, Madotte, 
Duchesse de Mars, St. Ghislain, Autumn Bergamot, B. de Paques. Apples — twentyfour 
varieties, viz. : Gloria Mundi, Blue Pearmain, Captain, Royal Russet, Porter, Hubbardston 
Nonesuch, R. I. Greening, Grand Sachem, Golden Russet, Dana Pearmain, Rose, Winter 
Sweet, Parkman's Favorite, Minister, Danvers Winter Sweet, Yellow Siberian Crab, Red 
do. do., Sweet Russet, Warren's Musk, Calville Rouge, Old Red Pearmain, Smith's Red 
Stripe, Roxbury Russet, Baldwin, and Pomme d'Api. Plums — Diamond, Duane's Purple, 
White Egg, Semianna, Huling ; s Superb. Grapes — Black St. Peter's, White Frontignan, 
Black Hamburg. Quinces — Portugal, Pear. Peach — Warren's Seedling. 

From Eben. Wight, fourteen varieties of Pears, viz. : Wilkinson, Vallee Franche, Dix, 
St. Ghislain, Burnett, Buffum, Gansel's Bergamot, Cushing, Napoleon, Long Green, Passe 
Colmar, Urbaniste, Seckel, and Lewis. Apples — fifteen varieties, viz. : Minister, Red and 
Green Sweet, Boxford, Pennock's Red, Baldwin, Danvers Winter Sweet, Jonathan, Dutch 
Codlin, Fameuse, Roxbury Russet, Drap d'Or, Gravenstein, Cornish Gilliflower, Roberts, 
Fall Harvey. 

From John M. Ives, Salem, twenty varieties of Pears, viz. : Petre, Dix, Bezi Montigny, 
Fondante d'Automne, Summer Rose, Cabot, Buffum, Long Green, Bezi de la Motte, Beurre 
Bosc, B. Golden of Bilboa, B. d'Amalis, Washington, Bon Chretien Fondante, Williams's 
Bon Chretien, Bleeker's Meadow, Napoleon. Andrews, Winter Cushing. Plums — Goliath, 
Caledonian, Green Gage, Roe's Autumnal, Reine Claude Violet. Apple — Minister. 

From Aaron D. Williams & Son, fhirtyhve sorts of Pears, viz. : Beurre d'Amalis. B. de 
Capiaumont, B. Easter, Passe Colmar, Harvard, Sylvange, Flemish Beauty, Columbia, Dix, 
Vicar of Winkfield, Napoleon, Chaumontel, Seckel, Williams's Bon Chretien, Harrison's 
Fall Baking, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Belle et Bonne, Winter Bon Chretien, Verte Longue 
d'Automne, Messire Jean, and seventeen other sorts. Apples — Hubbardston Nonesuch, 
Summer Sweet, Ram's Horn, Spice, R. I. Greening, Roxbury Russet, Blue Pearmain, Old 
Pearmain, Baldwin. Golden Pippin, Daniel Wise, Fall Harvey, and twelve other varieties. 

From Orr N. Towne, thirteen varieties of Pears, viz. : Duchesse d'Angouleme, Louise 
Bonne d'Jersey, Belle et Bonne, Vicar of Winkfield, Jalousie, Wilkinson, Passe Colmar, 
Winter Nelis, Fulton, and four varieties for names. Grapes — Black Hamburg, Chasselas 
of Fontainebleau, and Frankendale. 

From James Arnold, Grapes — Royal Muscadine, Victoria, Black Hamburg, St. Peter's, 
and Muscat of Alexandria. 

From Thomas Needham, Grapes — viz. : Cannon Hall Muscat, Muscat of Alexandria, 
White Frontignan, Black Hamburg, Syrian, Reigne de Nice, Golden Chasselas, Chasselas 
Musque, Black Lombardy, Frankendale, St. Peter's, and Chasselas de Fontainebleau. 

From the Philadelphia Horticultural Society, twentythree varieties of Pears, viz. : Easter 
Beurre, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Chapman, Petre, (seedling,) Surpasse Virgalieu, Doyennee 
Sieulle, Dumortier, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Beurre d'Aremberg, St. Germain, Gansel's 
Bergamot, Moyamensing, Compte de Lamy, Cushing, Holland Green, Dundas, Pennsylvania, 
Lodge, Doyenne roux, Beurre Capiaumont, B. Soule, B. de Colmar, and a variety for name. 
Apples — thirtythree varieties, viz. : Rodman Seedling, Maiden's Blush, Smoke House, Five 
Square, Sheepnose, Seek-no-further, Roman Stem, Vandevere, Cooper's Russet, Greyhouse, 
Bellfleur, Spice, Red Calville, Spitzemburgh, Wine Sops, M. H. Pippin, Red Streak, R. I. 
Greening, Russet Pearmain, Keg, Styre, Campfield, Wine, Harrison, Pennock, Priestley, 
White Calville, Morgan, Lady, two varieties unnamed, and specimens of the growth of 
1846, kept in a Fruit Preserver. Lemon — Bergamot. Melon — Mountain Sprout. 



PROCEEDINGS. 73 

From W. Stearns, Salem, twentyfive varieties of Pears — viz. : Lawrence, Washington, 
Chaumontel, Winter Nelis, Urbaniste, Wilkinson, Ronville, Autumn Bergamot, Williams's 
Bon Chretien, Harvard, Summer Thorn, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Beurre Brown, Orange, 
Napoleon, Seckel, Endicott, Long Green, Doyenne white, Rousselette de Rheims, Gansel's 
Bergamot, Bishop's Thumb, St. Ghislain, Piatt's Bergamot. 

From John Owen, Cambridge, Pears — viz. : Catillac, Bleekers Meadow, St. Germain, 
Seedling, Beurre Die], Brown Beurre, Bergamot. Apples — viz. : Porter, R. I. Greening, 
Newtown Pippin, Winter Pearmain, Ware Red ( 1 ) Peaches — Yellow and Red Rareripe, 
Trellis, Yellow Rareripe, Noblesse, Coolidge, Green Gage, Alberge. Grapes — Isabella, 
Purple, Duxbury Black. Plums — Green Gage. 

From Messrs. Hyde, Newton, Pears — viz. : Baiilett, (or Williams's Bon Chretien,) Bon 
Chretien, Buffum, Andrews, Harvard, Easter Beurre, Iron Pear, Coffin's Virgalieu, Burnet, 
Urbaniste, Chaumontel. Apples — Hubbardston Nonesuch, Gravenstein. Peaches — Heath 
and Jaques. A Watermelon, weighing thirtyeight pounds. 

From Samuel Phipps, Dorchester, Pears — viz. : Marie Louise, Roi de Wurtemburg, 
Williams's Bon Chretien, Passe Colmar, Gansel's Bergamot, Winter Nelis, Heathcot, 
Napoleon, Cushing ( 1 ) Virgoulouse, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Beurre d'Angleterre, Belle 
de Flanders, Columbia, Dix, Seckel. Apples — Gloria Mundi. 

From Henry Vandine, Cambridgeport, Pears — viz. : Duchesse d'Angouleme, Beurre. 
Diel, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Treasure ( 1 ) Bon Chretien Turc, Seckel, Long Rose 
Water, Passe Colmar, Hardenpont, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Flemish Beauty, Glout 
Morceau. Apples — Baldwin, Roxbury Russet, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Spice, Ribstone 
Pippin, and four varieties not named. Plums — Coe's Golden Drop, Persimmon. Peaches — 
Van Zandt's Superb, and Golden Purple. 

From Isaac Fay, Cambridge, Pears — Bartlett, Napoleon, Capiaumont, Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Golden Beurre, one sort unknown. Peaches — Owen's Lemon Rareripe, Coolidge's 
Favorite, Seedling. Plums — Smith's Orleans, Lombard, and Diamond. 

From William Clapp, Dorchester, Apples — Gravenstein, Nonesuch, Ribstone Pippin, 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Bellflower, Swaar, Mackay's Sweeting, Danvers Winter Sweet, 
Gloria Mundi, Minister. Pears — Flemish Beauty, Williams's Bon Chretien, and Cushing. 

From D. Chaplin, Cambridge, Pears — Beurre Ranee, Passe Colmar, Cushing, Glout 
Morceau, Messire Jean, Andrews, Urbaniste, Seckel, St. Germain, Golden Beurre. 
Apples — Pome d'Api. 

From Samuel Pond, Cambridgeport, Pears — Napoleon, Vicar of Winkfield, Dix, Andrews, 
Fondante d'Automne, Williams's Bon Chretien, Surpasse Virgoulouse, Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Harvard, Cushing, Julienne, Marie Louise, Urbaniste. 

From J. H. Welch, Dorchester, Pears — Gansel's Bergamot, Frederic of Wurtemburg, 
Williams's Bon Chretien, St. Ghislain, Howard, St. Michael Archange, Swan's Egg, and 
two varieties without names. 

From Jonathan French, Roxbury, Pears — Duchesse d'Angouleme. Catillac, Seckel, 
Chelmsford, Lewis, and ten varieties not named. 

From William R. Austin, Dorchester, Pears — Doyenne white, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
Williams's Bon Chretien, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Glout Morceau, Passe Colmar, Napoleon. 
Peaches — Early Crawford and Yellow Rareripe. 

From Ralph Crooker, Roxbury, Pears — Vicar of Winkfield, Iron, Easter Beurre, Beurre 
Diel, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Dix, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Doyenne white, Williams's Bon Chretien, Brown Beurre, Belle et Bonne, La Fortune, 
Napoleon, and one variety for name. 

From John S. Sleeper, Roxbury, Pears — Angora, Dix, Seckel, Catillac, Verte Longue r 
and Beurre Deil. 

18 



74 PROCEEDINGS. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, Pears — Napoleon, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Julienne, 
Pitt's Prolific, Doyenne" white, Fulion, Bartlett, Andrews, Marie Louise, Delices Hardenpont, 
and one variety for name. Quinces — Orange. 

From Nahum Stetson, Bridgewater, by Henry Reed, Apples— Fall Pippin. Peaches — 
Stetson's Seedling, Early Crawford. 

From Aaron D. Weld, Roxbury, Apples — High Top Sweet, Gardner Sweet, Porter, St. 
Petersburg, Monstrous Pippin, Pumpkin Sweet, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Roxbury Russet, 
Spitzemberg, two varieties unknown. Pears — Williams's Bon Chretien, Frederic de 
Wurtemburg, Chaumontel, and twelve varieties without name. 

From George Newhall, Dorchester, Pears — Bartlett, Seckel, Urbaniste, Cumberland, 
Fulton, Catillac, Louise Bonne de Jersey. 

From William R. Prince, Flushing, L. I., Pears — Richards's Beurre, Fortunee, Ramilie's, 
Chinese Sand, Bonne Ente, Beurre de Monte fortaine. Peaches — Howard's Splendid, Van 
Zandt's Superb. Also, fruit of Cydonia Japonica. 

From Jacob Deane, Mansfield, Mass., Apples — Sweet Superb, Spice Apple, Seek-no- 
further, White Apple, Wine Apple, and one variety without name. Peaches — Seedling. 

From Benjamin Wheeler, Framingham, Apples — Holland Pippin, Russet, (Everlasting,) 
Hubbardston Nonesuch. Peaches — Burgess's Beauty, Seedling, Seedling Clingstone. 

From Galen Merriam, West Newton, Pears — Williams's Bon Chretien, Doyenne white, 
Spanish Bon Chretien, Catillac, Bezi de la Motte, Beurre Diel, Long Green, Bleeker's 
Meadow, Easter Beurre, Passe Colmar, and three varieties for name. Peaches — Hastings, 
Jaques, and Blood. 

From S. Dike, Stoneham, Pears — Uvedale's St. Germain, Marie Louise, Orange. 
Apples — Siberian Crab. 

From Anson Dexter, Roxbury, Apples — Blue Pearmain, Crab. Pears — Seckel, Bussey, 
St. Ghislain. 
From A. Wellington, Lexington, Apples — River and Porter. 

From George Andrews, Salem, Pears — Louise Bonne de Jersey, Seckel, Beurre Diel, 
Frederic de Wurtemburg, Chelmsford. Apples — Lady, Large Sweeting, Porter. 

From William B. Kingsbury, Roxbury, Pears — Passe Colmar, Chelmsford, Doyenne 
Gray, Andrews, Doyenne ( 1 ) Beurre Diel. 
From James Nugent, Black Hamburg Grapes. 
From Azell Bowditch, Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From S. D. Pardee. New Haven, Pears — Henrietta, Dr. Totten's Seedling, and Edward's 
Seedling St. Germain. 
From Rev. F. D. Huntington, a branch containing eight Louise Bonne de Jersey Pears. 
From George Hallet, two Watermelons. 

From S. L. Goodale, Saco, Me., Vicar of Winkfield Pears, grown on the Mountain Ash. 
From W. G. Lewis, Roxbury, Green Gage Plums. 
From H. Adams, Waltham, Seedling Pears. 
From S. P. Allen, Cambridge, Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 
From Rev. R. W. Cushman, Roxbury, fine Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 
From S. W. Cole, Quince Apple and Spring Pippin, growth of 1846 and 1847. 
From J. M. Dresser, Rowley, Mass., Pears grown on the Apple, thirty one on a scion, 
of third year's growth. 

From Benjamin Silliman, jr., New Haven, fine Catawba Grapes. 
From N. P. Smith, Groton, a seedling Apple, called the Moor. 
From H. Hosmer, Watertown, Williams's Bon Chretien Pears. 
From D. Wilbur, jr., Pears— Somerset, Hull, and Wilbur. 
From L. Slack, Garden Royal Apples. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 75 

EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From S. W. Cole, Chelsea, thirty varieties of Potatoes, viz. : Victoria, Prince Albert, 
Long Red, Kidney, No. 36, (Early,) Hill's Early, Hall's Early. Knevett's Defiance, Early 
Maiden, Lady's Finger, White Chenango, Carter, Long White, Black, Wait's Seedling, 
Prince Edward, Ipswich Seedling, No. 29, St. Helena, Snowball, Pink Eye, Wellington, 
No. 30, Parker, Waterloo, Black Chenango, White Chenango No. 2, Chenango, Early 
White Blue Nose No. 35. For this most valuable and extensive collection exhibited by 
Mr. Cole, he has the thanks of the Committee. The exhibition embraced varieties ripening 
from the earliest to the latest, all of very fine appearance, free from worms, rot or canker. 
The Committee are of opinion that any gentleman desirous of selecting varieties for 
cultivation, could not do better than consult Mr. Cole's collection. Mr. C. also exhibited 
Farmington Pumpkin, Winter Crookneck Squash and Turnip Cabbage. 

From Vice President Benjamin V. French, Braintree, Long Blood Beets; Turnip do., 
and Wisconsin Squashes. 

From Aaron D. Williams & Son, Marrow and Canada Squashes; Blood Beets; Savoy 
Cabbage : Drumhead do. ; Tomatoes, and Pumpkins. 

From Frederick W. Macondry, Dorchester, Cabbages ; Marrow Squash ; Canada do. ; 
Turnips; Beets; Carrots; Parsnips; Field Corn, and Lima Beans. 

From Leonard Stone, Watertown, two new varieties of Cabbage ; seed received from 
Henry Colman, Roxbury. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, Tricosanthos columbina ; Snake Melon ; Squash, growth of 
1846. 

From Alpheus Hardy, Andover, specimen of a stalk of Wheat, of Egyptian Corn, from 
seed received from the banks of the river Nile. 

From W. M. Stone, Watertown, a double Crookneck Squash, quite a curiosity. 

From Vice President Edward M. Richards, Dedham, Canada Squash, raised in 1846. 

From Charles Howe, Dorchester, Canada Squash, raised in 1846. 

From Otis Johnson, Lynn, some fine Canada Squashes. 

From John L. Gardner, Seedling Potatoes. 

From Parker Barnes, Apalachicola Beans. 

From William Bogle, Melrose, Scotch Kale. 

From Josiah Newhall, Lynnfield, Black Spanish Radish ; French Sugar Beets ; Club 
Gourds, and Spanish Peppers. 

From John F. Allen, Salem, Giant Tomatoes. 

From Richard Waterman, Warwick, L. I , Early June Potatoes. 

From Aaron D. Weld, Roxbury, Long Orange Carrots. 

From Samuel Reed, E. Cambridge, Seedling Potatoes. 

From Josiah Stickney, very large Beets. 

From Daniel Brims, Roxbury, fine Celery. 

From Nahum Stetson, Bridgewater, by H. Reed, Giant Tomatoes, one weighing three 
pounds. 

From Orr N. Towne, Somerville, extra fine Egg Plants. 

From G. C. Crowninshield, by John Quant, three fine Egg Plants. 

From George Hallet, Tomatoes. 

From W. H. Sumner, Clipper Gourd. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Chairman. 



76 PROCEEDINGS. 

AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

ON FRUITS. 

Apples. — Eben. Wight, Robert Manning, Otis Johnson, Judges. 

To Vice President B. V. French, of Braintree, for the best exhibition of Apples, the 
Society's plate, valued at twentyfive dollars. 

To James L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, for the second best, the Appleton Silver Gilt 
Medal, ten dollars. 

To Vice President E. M. Richards, of Dedham, for the third best, five dollars. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, for twelve specimens of the Hubbardston Nonesuch, 
five dollars. 

To John Owen, of Cambridge, for twelve specimens of the Porter, three dollars. 

Pears. — Robert Manning, David Haggerston, and Eben. White, Judges. 

To Marshall P. Wilder, of Dorchester, the President of the Society, for the best exhibition 
of Pears, the Lyman Plate, valued at twentyfive dollars. 

To Samuel Walker, of Roxbury, for the second best do., the Lowell Silver Gilt Medal, 
ten dollars. 

To Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, for the third best do., five dollars. 

To Samuel Pond, of Cambridgeport, for twelve specimens of the Williams's Bon Chretien 
Pear, five dollars. 

To Henry Vandine, of Cambridgeport, for twelve specimens of the Flemish Beauty Pear, 
three dollars. 

The Committee, in awarding the premiums for the best Pears of not less than twelve 
specimens, deemed, it a duty incumbent on them to bestow the premium (where there 
was a doubt,) in favor of the variety the quality of which had been repeatedly tested and 
approved. They would, therefore, beg leave to recommend a gratuity of five dollars, 
equal to the highest special premium, 

To Ralph Crooker, of Roxbury, for twelve specimens of the Van Mons Leon le Gere 
Pear. 

Grapes. — David Haggerston, Alex'r McLennan, William Quant, Judges. 

To Thomas Needham, of Brighton, gardener to 0. H. Mather, for the three best varieties, 
(two bunches of each,) the Lyman Plate, valued at twentyfive dollars. 

To Hovey & Co., of Cambridgeport, for the second best do., ten dollars. 

To Wellwood Young, gardener to James Arnold, New Bedford, for the third best do., 
five dollars. 

They recommend a gratuity of ten dollars to John Donald, gardener to Horace Gray, 
for fine exhibition of Grapes. 

Assorted Fruit. — C. M. Hovey, John F. Allen, David Haggerston, Judges. 

For the best basket of Assorted Fruit, containing a fine variety, to Otis Johnson, of Lynn, 
ten dollars. 

For the second best basket of do., to William Quant, of Brookline, seven dollars. 

They recommend a gratuity of five dollars, to Azell Bowditch, of Roxbury, for a basket 
of Grapes, tastefully arranged. 

ON FLOWERS. 

Floral Decorations, &c. — Joseph Breck, E. Augustus Story, William Quant, A. 
McLennan, L. Winship, Samuel R. Johnson, Judges. 

For the best pair of Vase Bouquets, for the marble vases, to Hovey & Co.. ten dollars. 
For the second best do., to James L. L. F. Warren, six dollars. 

For ihe best pair of Vase Bouquets for the Bradlee vases, to James Nugent, ten dollars. 
For the second best do., to Messrs. Winship, six dollars. 



PROCEEDINGS. 77 

For the best pair of Parlor Bouquets, to Messrs. Winship, five dollars. 

For the second best do. ; to Charles Brims, three dollars. 

For the third best do., to Hovey & Co., two dollars. 

For the best pair of Hand Bouquets, to A. Bowditch, three dollars. 

For the second best do., to James Nugent, two dollars. 

For the third best do., to R. West, one dollar. 

For the best Bouquet, composed of indigenous flowers, to John Quant, three dollars. 

For the second best do., to Vice President Edward M. Richards, two dollars. 

Designs, Baskets of Flowers, &c. — To William Quant, for a Moss Vase, on a pedestal, 
with flowers, first premium, twelve dollars. 

To John Thomas, for a Design, wrought with moss and flowers, second premium 
eight dollars. 

To Hovey & Co., for a Design, mosaic work in Asters and other flowers, third premium, 
six dollars. 

To Thomas Needham, for a Grotto, fourth premium, five dollars. 

Wreaths. — For the best, not less than thirty feet, to Samuel A. Walker, ten dollars. 
For the second best, to William Quant, five dollars. 
For the third best, to Azell Bowditch, three dollars. 



GRATUITIES. 

To Samuel A. Walker, for a Motto, on which was inscribed, " Welcome, friends, again," 
with an evergreen wreath, star and eagle, seven dollars. 

To Mrs. Sparrell, for a Grass Design, four dollars. 

To Miss Bowker, do., three dollars. 

To Miss Russell, for one large and one small basket of Flowers, four dollars. For a pair 
of stars, two dollars. 

To Miss Kenrick, for basket of Flowers and Wreath, two dollars. 

To Charles Brims, for Mosaic Design, three dollars. 

To Orr N. Towne, for Design composed of Dahlias, two dollars. 

To Henry Reed, for Design composed of Dahlias, two dollars. 

To Samuel Walker, for Design composed oi Dahlias, two dollars. 

To John Quant, for one pair of round Bouquets, two dollars. 

To Azell Bowditch, for Wreath, made by a child, one dollar. 

To A. McLennan, for fine Cockscombs, three dollars. 

To Jonathan Mann, jr., for best Grass Bouquets, three dollars. 

To J. L. L. F. Warren, for second best do., two dollars. For a pair of hand Bouquets, 
one dollar. 

To James McNeill, for Grotto and Fountain, five dollars. 

To Master A. R. Walker, for a Design, ornamented with flowers, one dollar. 

ON VEGETABLES. 

Frederick W. Macondry, Aaron D. Williams, Jr., Josiah Lovett, Judges. 

To S. W. Cole, for thirty varieties of Potatoes, among which were several superior 
seedlings, ten dollars. 

To Frederick W. Macondry, for the best display and greatest variety of Vegetables, ten 
dollars. 

To Aaron D. Williams & Son, for the second best do. do., seven dollars. 

To William Bogle, for Scotch Kale, a gratuity of three dollars. 

To S. Reed, East Abington, for a bushel of very fine Seedling Potatoes, a gratuity of 
seven dollars. 

19 



78 PROCEEDINGS. 

To Richard Waterman, Warwick, R. I., for a bushel of early June Potatoes, a gratuity 
of seven dollars. 
The Judges recommend a gratuity of five dollars, to D. Brims, for blanched Celery. 



FRUITS TESTED. 

Friday, September 24, 1847. 
At a meeting of the Committee on Fruits held this day, the following fruits were tested 
by the Committee and the Delegates : 

No. 1. Apple, found in the woods in the town of Dracut; of fine appearance, good size 
and pleasant flavor. 

2. Apple, from N. P. Smith, Groton, grown upon the farm of Rufus Morris, called the 
Funding, (Foundling'?) ; fine flavor and handsome. 

3. Williams's Pear, from Aaron D. Williams, Roxbury. 

4. Apple, called Hollow Crown, from Barton Whipple, Cumberland, R. I., presented by 
Stephen H. Smith, Esq., President of the Rhode Island Horticultural Society, first rate. 

5. Pear, Rapelje, from Dr. Stevens, of Astoria, N. Y. ; a No. 2 fruit. 

6. Pear, Dunmore, from Josiah Stickney. Do. from Marshall P. Wilder, President ; 
rather acid, and not equal to its English character. 

7. Pear, Knight's Seedling, from Marshall P.. Wilder ; the specimens presented not of 
average quality. 

8. Pear, Washington, from CheeverNewhall, Vice President,. and Frederick W. Macondry; 
fine. 

9. Pear. Cushing, from Samuel Pond and Dr. Chaplin ; fine. 

10. Pear, Frederick de Wurtemburg, from Cheever Newhall ; not in eating, 

11. Pear, Fondante d'Automne,. from Marshall P.. Wilder ; fine. 

12. Pears, Johonnot, from Otis Johnson, Lynn ; fine. 

13. Pear, Seedling, No. 1. from Dr. Ives, of New Haven, a small but good fruit. 

14. Pear, Andrews, from Samuel Pond ; specimens large, but not of average flavor. 

15. Pear, from Dr. J. B. Chapin, Provincetown, supposed by some to be identical with 
the Doyenne Boussock ; specimens not equal to those tasted last year. 

16. Henkel Pear, from Robert Manning,, of Salem ;. very juicy. 

17. Pear, No. ,187 of Van Mons, from Robert Manning. 

18. Pear, Liberale, from Marshall P. Wilder. 

19. Pear, Capsheaf, from Dr. J. B.. Chapin; second rate. 

20. Pear, Knight's Seedling, from Dr. J. B. Chapin. 

21. Pear, Louis Bonne de Jersey, from Samuel Pond. 

22. Pear, Wilbur, from Marshall P. Wilder. 

23. Pear, Harvard, from Samuel Pond. 

24. Pears, Doyenne roux, fine ; Brown Beurre, fine specimen ; Compte de Lamy, not 
in eating — from J. B. Smith, Philadelphia. 

25. Pear, Chapman, from Col. Carr r Philadelphia. The specimens were not in good 
order, but the Committee consider this a fruit of high flavor. 

For the Committee, OTIS JOHNSON. 



PROCEEDINGS. 79 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 25. 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for membership : — Edward H. Perkins, of 
Brookline, by George C. Crowninshield ; George R. Minot, of Roxbury, and Nathaniel 
Hooper, of Boston, by F. W. Macondry ; Dr. Daniel Chaplin, of Cambridge, by C. M. 
Hovey, and Edward King, of Boston, by Franklin King. 

A letter was received and read from Mr. Franklin Knights, of New York, the publisher 
of " Washington's Agricultural Correspondence," accompanied with three specimen copies 
of the work, for the Society's inspection. 

Voted, That the Society purchase the three copies of " Washington's Agricultural 
Correspondence," and that the Recording Secretary advise Mr. Knights of their decision. 

Voted, That the Recording Secretary cause an inventory to be made of all the Glass 
Ware, Baskets, and Furniture of the Society, and that for the future no member or person 
be allowed to take any of the Baskets or Dishes from the Hall of the Society. 

Voted, That the Committee on Fruits be charged with the care of the Glass Ware and 
Baskets of the Society. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Vice Presidents for the 
acceptable manner in which they entertained the Delegates and Guests of the Society. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to H. W. Dutton, the Chairman, and 
the gentlemen composing the Committee of Arrangements, for the efficient and satisfactory 
manner in which they have discharged their duties. 

The Chairman of the Committee of Nominations reported a printed list of candidates for 
Officers and Committees of the Society, for the coming year, to be chosen at the Annual 
Meeting. 



FRUITS TESTED. 

The following fruits were tested by the Committee this day : 

Apples, Walpole, from Edward M. Richards ; of better size and flavor than any heretofore 
received. 

Apple, Foundling, from S. C. Wheeler ; a handsome, good sized fruit : excellent for 
cooking. 

Pears, from the President; Fondante d'Automne, and Belle Excellente. 

Pears, Doyenne white, from the Philadelphia Horticultural Society. 

Pears, from Daniel Wilbur, Jr., Hull and Early Wilbur. 

Peaches, Seedling, from S. C. Wheeler, not first rate. 

A very handsome seedling Apple, was received from Mr. Burnett, of Southboro', which 
came to hand after the adjournment of the Committee ; its quality will be tested at the 
next meeting. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

Saturday, October 2, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Recording Secretary laid before the Society four newspapers, published in Boston, 
as vouchers that due notice had been given of the Annual Meeting for the Election of 
Officers and Committees. 

Voted, That the polls be kept open thirty minutes. 



80 PROCEEDINGS. 

Messrs. C. K. Dillaway and Samuel Walker, were appointed by the Chair, a Committee 
to assort and count the voles. They reported the election of the following gentlemen : — 

President.— Marshall P. Wilder. 

Vice Presidents. — Benjamin V. French, Cheever Newhall, Edward M. Richards, Joseph 
S. Cabot. 

Treasurer. — Samuel Walker. 

Corresponding Secretary. — James E. Teschemacher. 

Recording Secretary. — Edward C. R. Walker. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology. — John Lewis Russell, A. M. 

Professor of Entomology. — T. W. Harris, M. D. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry. — Professor E. N. Horsford. 

Committee on Fruits. — Samuel Walker, Chairman; P. B. Hovey, Jr., Otis Johnson, David 
Haggerston, Joseph S. Cabot, Eben. Wight, Frederick W. Macondry. 

Committee on Plants and Flowers. — Joseph Breck, Chairman ■ Henry W. Dutton, W. E. 
Carter, Alexander McLellan, E. Augustus Story, William Quant, William B. Richards. 

Committee on Vegetables. — Aaron D. Williams, Jr., Chairman ; William B. Kingsbury, 
Aaron D. Williams, Josiah Newhall, James Nugent, Azell Bowditch, Edward C. R. Walker. 

Committee on Library. — Charles M. Hovey, Chairman; Charles K. Dillaway, R. M. 
Copeland, Joseph Breck, William B. Richards. 

Committee on Synonyms of Fruit. — Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman ; Benjamin V. French, 
Charles M. Hovey, Joseph S. Cabot, The Chairman of the Fruit Committee. 

Executive Committee. — The President, Chairman ; The Treasurer, Augustus Aspinwall, 
Edward M. Richards, Otis Johnson. 

Committee for Establishing Premiums. — The Chairman of the Committee on Fruits, 
Chairman ; The Chairman of the Committee on Flowers, The Chairman of the Committee 
on Vegetables, Charles M. Hovey, David Haggerston. 

Finance Committee. — Josiah Stickney, Chairman; Joseph Balch, Frederick W. Macondry. 

Committee of Publication. — James E. Teschemacher, Chairman ; Charles K. Dillaway, 
Eben. Wight, Recording Secretary, Chairman of the Committee on Fruits, Chairman of the 
Committee on Flowers, Chairman of the Committee on Vegetables. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for membership : — For Life membership, 
Alexander Pope, of Dorchester, by Eben. Wight : Subscription, Horace Gray, of Boston, 
and Stephen M. Weld, of Roxbury, by the President, and Benjamin Hemmenway, of 
Dorchester, and James Hill, of Somerville, by E. C. R. Walker. 

A letter was received from A. E. Belknap, Esq., accompanied with seed of Lentils, 
received from Smyrna. 

Voted. That the thanks of the Society be presented to A. E. Belknap, Esq., and the 
Seed placed in the hands of the Committee on Vegetables, for distribution. 



EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

The exhibition of Dahlias this day was considered by amateurs the best that was ever 
witnessed in the rooms. The stands were all filled, and it was necessary to dispose of 
many fine flowers by arranging them on the tables. The competitors for premiums were 
numerous. 

From the President of the Society, a splendid collection of Dahlias, consisting of more 
than three hundred blooms, including the following, viz : Marchioness of Cornwallis, 
Mimosa, Princess Radzville, Fulwood Scarlet, Hon. Mrs. Herbert, Lady of the Lake, 
Essex Goldfinch, Isis, Gazelle, Sir Edward Antrobus, Golden Rule, Punch, Eugene Sue, 
Dawn of Day, Ultimatum, Captivation, La Beaute, &c. Also, a plant of Erica hyemalis } 
(a superb variety,) covered with bloom, and flowers of Abutilon venosum. 



PROCEEDINGS. 81 

Dahlias were exhibited in great variety and perfection by the following gentlemen : — 
Parker Barnes, Colonel T. H. Perkins, (by Wm. Quant,) Samuel R. Johnson, Joseph 
Breck & Co., Messrs. Winship, Hovey & Co., J. L. L. F. Warren, William Mellar. John 
Parker, Edward Allen, John Hovey, James Nugent, Azell Bowditch, G. C. Crowninshield, 
(by J. Quant,) Alex. McLennan, and 0. H. Mather, (by T. Needham.) 

From Parker Barnes, a plant of Achimenes Lehmanii, a beautiful variety. 

From Messrs. Winship, one pair of Mantel Bouquets, and specimens of the foliage of 
Magnolia acuminata, auriculata, and macrophylla. Also, specimens of Bachans halineafolia 
and Aralia spinosa, in bloom. 

From John Hovey, a pair of Bouquets, composed of Amaranths. 

From William Kenrick, three Bouquets. 

From Hovey & Co.. six Hand Bouquets. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, five Hand, two Pyramidal, and one Flat Bouquet. 



AWARD OF PREMIUMS 

On Dahlias. Judges on Dahlias in Division A, specimen blooms, and various colors ; 
Division B, Class 1 and 3 — E. A. Story, John Thomas, and Francis Thieler. 

Specimen Bloom — Premium, of three dollars, to J. L. L. F. Warren, — a fine Lilac Dahlia, 
Lady Charleville. 

Various Colors — one dollar each, for nine flowers, as follows : — best yellow, Cleopatra, to 
Henry Reed : best buff, or orange, Biondetta, to Parker Barnes ; best purple, or maroon, to 
Thomas Needham; best crimson or claret, to John Quant; best very dark, to Parker 
Barnes ; best white, Antagonist, to William Quant ; best edged, or tipped, Viscount 
Ressigieur, to Thomas Needham ; best scarlet, to John Quant ; best pink, or rose, to Thomas 
Needham. 

Division B, Class 1 — For the best 18 dissimilar blooms, first premium to William Quant, 
eight dollars. 

Second do. to James Nugent, five dollars. 

Class 3 — First premium to Hovey & Co., five dollars. 

Second do. to William Quant, three dollars. 

Judges on Premier Prize, and Class 2 — William Quant, Samuel R. Johnson, and John 
Donald. 

Premier Prize — the Society's Silver Medal, valued at five dollars, awarded to Parker 
Barnes. 

Class 2 — First premium to Parker Barnes, six dollars. 

Second do. to J. L. L. F. Warren, four dollars. 

The Judges recommend a gratuity, of five dollars, to Joseph Breck & Co., for a fine 
display of Dahlias. 

The Committee recommend a gratuity, of six dollars, to the President of the Society, for 
his fine display of Dahlias. 

Premiums on Bouquets. The Committee award to Hovey & Co., the first premium for 
Hand Bouquets, two dollars. 

Second do., to Alexander McLellan, one dollar. 

Parlor, or Mantel Bouquets — 1st premium, to Messrs. Winship, two dollars. 

A gratuity to William Kenrick, for large Bouquets, one dollar. 

Among the varieties of Dahlias that obtained the premiums were Beeswing, crimson ; 
Antagonist, white ; Cleopatra, yellow ; Arethusa, purple ; Purity, white ; Biondetta, buff ; 
Viscount Ressigieur, tipped ; Constantia, edged ; Primrose, sulphur ; Lady Cooper, rose ; 
Golden Rule, yellow ; La tour de Auvergne, scarlet ; Cheltenham Queen, white ; Sir 

20 



82 PROCEEDINGS. 

Edward Antrobus, crimson ; Caleb Cope, vivid rose ; La Polka, primrose ; Ultimatum, 
line scarlet ; Ithuriel, buff, shaded with pink ; Ansel's Unique, yellow, tipped with red ; 
La Belle Blonde, white, tipped with lavender ; Lady St. Maur, white, tipped with light 
purple ; Princess Alice, white ; Essex Triumph, very dark ; Essex Champion, bright 
orange; Princess Radzville, white, laced with purple; Harlequin, white, edged with 
scarlet ; Lady Charleville, fine lilac ; Victory of Sussex, maroon ; Monsieur Walner, deep 
crimson, with white edge; Indispensable, white; King of Lilac ; Fleur de grand, lilac ; 
Spitfire, scarlet; Essex Scarlet. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From Hazen Hazeltine, by John Martin, one dozen roots of blanched Celery. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, October 9, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

From the President, Joseph Breck & Co., Hovey & Co., Parker Barnes, Emery Bemis, 
James L. L. F. Warren, John Parker, William Mellar, 0. H. Mather, Azell Bowditch, 
John Hovey, Kendall Bailey, T. Seaward, and others, a superb collection of Dahlias, 
embracing numerous fine varieties and specimens. 

From J. L. L. F. Warren, two Pyramidal and six Hand Bouquets. 

From John Hovey, two plants of Amaryllis Belladona, and two Mantel Bouquets. 

From Azell Bowditch, five Hand Bouquets. 

From William Mellar, two Mantel Bouquets. 

From James Nugent, nine Hand Bouquets. 

From Hovey & Co., two Mantel and six Hand Bouquets. 

From John Quant, one Pyramidal Bouquet. 

The Committee award to Hovey & Co., for the best six Hand Bouquets, two dollars. 

To James Nugent, for the second best do., one dollar. 

They recommend a gratuity, of one dollar, to John Quant, for a fine Pyramidal Bouquet. 
For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President, Duchesse d'Orleans, Beurre Cutter, Belle de Brissac, very high 
flavored, Heathcot, fine, and Colmar d'Ete Pears. Also, from Ellwanger & Barry, Onondaga 
Pears, and a remarkably fine specimen of Corse's St. Lawrence Apple. 

From J. Monroe, Jr., Chelmsford, Heathcot, and Vicar of Winkfield Pears, and two 
dishes of Pears for a name. 

From William Mellar, Late Royal George and Heath Peaches. 

From John F. Allen, Gansel's Bergamot, fine, Seckel, Napoleon, Urbaniste, and Ronville 
Pears ; Figs, and Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From Anson Dexter, handsome Deacon Job Apples ; Seckel Pears, and two dishes of 
Pears for a name. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, Black Hamburg, Frankendale, Cannon Hall, 
fine bunches and large berries, Black Lombardy, fine, and Syrian Grapes. 

From Kendall Bailey, fine Isabella Grapes. 



PROCEEDINGS. 83 

From Emery Bemis, fine Louise Bonne d' Jersey and Frederic de Wurtemburg Pears. 

From Hovey & Co., Semiana Plums, and Beurre Crapaud Pears. 

From J. W. Seaver, fine Brown Beurre Pears. 

From Galen Merriam, extra large and fine Flemish Beauty Pears ; Heath Peaches, and 
two dishes of seedling Peaches. 

From John L. Gardner, Capiaumont, Napoleon, Brown Beurre, fine specimens, Buffum, 
and Louise Bonne d' Jersey Pears. 

From John S. Sleeper, fine Seckel Pears. 

From Abijah Merriam, Orange Pears. 

From W. H. Blodgett, large and fine Quinces. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, large and handsome Quinces. 

From L. P. Grosvenor, Pomfret, Pound Royal Apples. 

From James Arnold, Milton, large and well colored Oranges. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From T. H. Perkins, by William Quant, a dozen fine heads of Palestine Lettuce. 

For the Committee, A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 16, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — James H. Welch, and 
Amherst H. Frazer, of Boston ; Solon Dike, of Stoneham ■ J. H. Bacon, and Robert Bacon, 
of Medford, and John Donald, of Brighton. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President, Colmar d'Aremberg, Beurre Audusson, Doyenne MusqueGirardin, 
Doyenne, Panachee, Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre de Rhine, Doyenne doree, Belle et Bonne 
d'Hee, Delices Charles, Doyenne Gray, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, Bergamot d'Brunon, 
Sageret, Beurre d'Nerckman, Petre, No. 944, No. 12, No. 120, and No. 196 Pears. 

From E. M. Richards, Dedham, a beautiful collection of Pennock, White Calville, 
Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Pomme d'Api, Black Prince, Minister, Spice ( ? ) Fall 
Sops of Wine, Walpole. Lyscom, Kilham Hill, American Wine, Porter, Boxford, Gardner's 
Sweeting, Fall Pippin, Moor's Sweeting, Pumpkin Sweeting, Pumpkin Russet, and three 
varieties of Apples unknown ; McLaughlin, Beurre Bosc, Heathcot, Urbaniste, Harrison's 
Fall Baking, Vicar of Winkfield, and two varieties of Pears unknown, and Orange Quinces. 

From E. Brown, Lynn, fine Seckel, and Uvedale's St. Germain Pears. 

From Cheever Newhall, of Dorchester, fine Napoleon and Urbaniste Pears, and Norton's 
Seedling and Ohio Grapes. 

From Samuel A. Walker, very fine Brown Beurre Pears. 

From Aaron D. William & Son, fine Urbaniste. Seckel, and Marie Louise Pears. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., fine Louise Bonne de Jersey Pears. 

From Frederick Tudor, Nahant, Napoleon, Fortunee, Chaumontel, Croft Castle, Buffum, 
Beurre Diel, Belle et Bonne, Doyenne white, Glout Morceau, Easter Beurre, Louise Bonne 
de Jersey, Uvedale's St. Germain, Catillac, Beurre d'Angleterre, Seckel, Martin Sec, and 
Prince's St. Germain Pears, and a very handsome collection of Porter Apples. 

From Capt. Comstock, by J. B. Chapin, Providence, Capsheaf Pears. 



84 PROCEEDINGS. 

From Isaac Fay, Cambridgeport, Golden Beune", Easter Beurre, and Capiaumont Pears; 
Oldmixon Freestone Peaches, and Blue Imperatrice Plums. 

From John Fisk Allen, Salem, White Nice, Syrian, Black Hamburg, Wilmof s No. 16, 
Wilmot's Black Hamburg, Portuguese Muscat, (very high flavored,) and White Fronlignan 
Grapes : Noblesse Peaches, and fine Seckel Pears. 

From E. Grant, Roxbury, finely ripened Isabella Grapes. 

From H. Vandine, Cambridgeport. a variety of fine Quinces. 

From 0. H. Mather, by T. Needham, fine Syrian, Black Hamburg, White Fronlignan, 
White Muscat of Alexandria, and Frankendale Grapes. 

From the Neponset Hotel, a remarkable cluster of Uvedale's St. Germain Pears. 

From John S. Sleeper, very fine Dix Pears. 

From John Gordon, Brighton, remarkably large Passe Colmar, Duchesse d'Angouleme. 
Queen of the Low Countries, and two other varieties of Pears. 

From S. W. Cole, Pocahontas and Pierce's Seedling Pears, and Long Stem Apples. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, Delices d'Hardenpont Pears. 

From Anson Dexter, Blue Pearmain ( % ) Apples, and Passe Colmar and Duchesse de 
Angouleme Pears. 

From Mr. Bailey, Isabella Grapes. 

FRUITS TESTED. 

Among the Fruits tested by the Committee were the following Pears : — 

From the President, Colmar d'Aremberg, astringent, (trees received by Col. Wilder 
as the Miel de Waterloo and Beune Incomparable proved to be the same as this,) Delices 
Charles, handsome, but ordinary; Beurre d'Anjou, had much the flavor of Brown Beurre 
and fully sustained the high character formerly given it by the Committee; Sageret, 
worthless; Girardin, pleasant, but not high flavored; No. 944, good; No. 12, pleasant, not 
rich; No. 120, insipid; Beurre de Rhine, good ; Heathcot, fine ; Doyenne Musquee, poor ; 
Beurre d'Nerckman, pleasant; No. 196, astringent; Bergamot d'Brunon, lacks flavor. 

From Frederick Tudor, Onondaga or Swan's Orange, the specimens deficient in flavor. 

From Samuel Walker, the Eyewood, rich flavor; Beurre Duval, good. 

From John Washburn, Plymouth, Delices d'Hardenpont, fine. 

From Hovey & Co., Beurre Crapaud, good; Excel] entissima, fine. 

It is proper to state, that some of the specimens were not strictly in eating, the rare kinds 
having been picked for the September exhibition. The Committee have frequent proofs 
that many of the varieties introduced with high reputation, are worthless in our climate, 
and that to supply the excessive demand for new kinds from abroad, dishonest expedients 
are sometimes resorted to, for sending fruits under new names. 

For the Committee, OTIS JOHNSON. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 
From Frederick W. Macondry, fine Celery. 
From Josiah Lovett, a fine show of Cauliflowers. 

For the Committee. A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 23, 1847. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Membership: — William W. Merrill, of 
Boston, by E. C. R. Walker, and Charles Carruth, of Boston, by Franklin King. 



PROCEEDINGS. 85 

Samuel Walker, in the absence of the Chairman of the Committee of Publication, 
submitted the following Report : — 

The Committee of Publication feels itself obliged to apologize for the delay which has 
taken place in the issue of the first number of the Transactions of this Society, the sheets 
of which have long been ready. 

This delay has arisen from an anxious desire to have plates in a style of excellence much 
superior to that of those which now accompany it. After infinite trouble and disappoint- 
ment, the Committee feels satisfied that the process of Chromolithing, in its present state, is 
not adapted for a work of the character which it is determined to stamp on the Transactions 
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, or to give a faint idea of the beautiful drawings 
made by the artist, Mr. W. Sharp. 

While, therefore, the Committee regrets extremely that it is obliged to issue the present 
number with Chromolithed plates / it has resolved not only that the plates of the future 
numbers shall appear in a very different style, but that, if possible, those of this first 
number shall be reproduced in a uniform manner. 

Voted, That the Report of the Committee of Publication be accepted. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President, Marie Louise, Ananas, seedling St. Germain, (Edwards,) Parasille, 
Jaquimont, ( 1 ) Napoleon, fine, and Bezi de la Motte Pears. 

From George Newhall, Fulton, fine, Seckel, and Urbaniste Pears. 

From Samuel A. Walker, Brown Beurre, very large and handsome specimens, Frederic 
de Wurtemburg, and Louise Bonne de Jersey, fine, Pears. 

From No. 7 McLean street, fine Doyenne white Pears. 

From Miss Jones, Chestnut street, extra fine specimens of the Doyenne white Pear. 

From E. J. Long, fine Doyenne white Pears. 

From Hovey & Co., Onondaga, or Swan's Orange, Reed's Seedling, or Oswego Beurre, 
Figue de Naples, Beurre Crapaud, Passe Colmar, Bezi de Montigny, and Beurre d'Arem- 
berg Pears. 

From John Washburn, of Plymouth, Orange and fine Portugal Quinces, and Isabella 
Grapes. 



FRUITS TESTED. 

From the President, Marshall P. Wilder, Pears — Jaquimont ( % ) Seedling St. Germain, 
Ananas, very good, sustains its reputation, and Parasille, very handsome, though not in 
eating. 

From Samuel Walker, Pears — Eyewood, very fine, Urbaniste, and superior Van Mons 
Leon le Clerc. 

From Josiah Stickney, Pears — Madotte d'Hiver, ordinary. 

From Miss Jones, Pears — Doyenne white, in perfection. 

From Hovey & Co.. Pears — Vicompte de Spoelberch, on Quince, fine ; Onondaga, or 
Swan's Orange — this pear has been tested for several meetings in succession, and from 
various sources, and the Committee are unanimous in the opinion that it does not meet the 
high reputation with which it has been ushered into notice. 

From J. S. Cabot, of Salem, Pears — Knight's Monarch. From the reputation which had 
preceded the distribution of scions, in this country, the fruiting of this specimen had been 
looked for with anxiety by many of our members ; but, as in every other instance, it proved 
totally worthless, though received from such sources as Messrs. Wilder, Manning, Hovey 
& Co., and Kenrick. The variety under test was received by Mr. Cabot, from Hovey & 
Co.'s collection. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 

21 



86 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 30, 1847. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Committee oa Fruits submitted the following Rules of Pomology, for the adoption 
of the Society : — 

THE RULES OF AMERICAN POMOLOGY. 

1. No new Seedling Fruit shall be entitled to a name, or to pomological recommendation, 
which is not at least equal to any similar varieties of the first rank already known ; or 
which, if only of second rate flavor, is so decidedly superior in vigor, hardiness, or 
productiveness, to varieties of the same character already known, as to render it well 
worthy of cultivation. 

2. The originator, first grower, or he who first makes known a new Native variety of 
merit, shall be entitled to suggest a name for such variety, which name, if a suitable one, 
(i. e. coming within the rules of nomenclature,) shall be adopted by the writer describing 
the fruit for the first time. But if the name proposed is inappropriate, or does not come 
within the rules, then the describer shall be at liberty to give a name. 

3. No new Native Fruit shall be considered as named until the same has been accurately 
described, in pomological terms, by some competent person conversant with existing 
varielies; some Pomologist of reputation, or the Standing Fruit Committee of some 
established Horticultural Society. 

4. The description shall embrace the following particulars: — The size, form, and 
exterior color ; the texture and color of the flesh ■ the flavor and time of ripening of 
the fruit, with the addition, in Stone Fruits, of the size of the stone, adherence or non- 
adherence of the flesh, form of the suture, and the hollow at the stem ; and in Kernel 
Fruits, of the size of the core and seeds, the length, position, and insertion of the stalk, 
and form of the eye. In Peaches, the form of the leaf glands, and size of blossoms. In 
Grapes, the form of the bunches ; and in Strawberries, the character of the blossoms, 
whether staminate or pistillate : and also where there is any marked character in the 
foliage, growth of the young wood, or bearing tree, the same shall be given. 

5. The name of the new variety shall not be considered as established until the descrip- 
tion shall have been published in at least one horticultural or one agricultural journal, or 
some pomological work of large circulation and acknowledged standard character. 

6. In giving names to newly originated varieties, all harsh, vulgar, or inelegant names 
shall be avoided, such as " Sheepnose," " Hogpen," &c. 

7. No new names shall be given, which consist of more than two words, excepting only 
when the originator's name is added. [Thus all unnecessarily long titles, such as " New 
Large Black Bigarreau," " Beurre gris d'hiver nouveau," will be avoided.] 

8. Characteristic names, or those in some way descriptive of the qualities, origin, or 
habit of fruit or tree, shall be preferred. They may be either of intrinsic properties, as 
"Golden Sweeting," "Downer's Late," &c. ; or of local origin, as "Newtown Pippin," 
" Hudson Gage"; of the season of ripening, as " Early Scarlet," " Frost Gage"; of the 
form and color, as "Golden Drop," " Blue Pearmain" ; or which commemorate a particular 
era, place, or person, as " Tippecanoe," "La Grange," " Baldwin," or any other titles 
which may be significantly applied. 

9. Before giving a name to a new fruit, its qualities should be decided by at least two 
seasons' experience ; and no new fruit can be safely recommended for general cultivation, 
until the same has been tested and found valuable in more than one locality. 

10. When two persons have named or described a new native fruit, then the name and 
description first published, if according to the rules herein indicated, shall have the priority. 

11. No person introducing new fruits from abroad, shall be allowed to rechristen the 



PROCEEDINGS. 87 

same, or give them his own name j but shall submit the same to some competent pomologist 
to ascertain the true name. 

12. In deciding the names of fruits already described, the " Catalogue of the London 
Horticultural Society," shall be considered the standard European authority; and Downing's 
"Fruits and Fruit Trees of America," the standard American authority. 

Voted, That the foregoing Rules be adopted by the Society. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, three baskets fine Duchesse d'Angouleme Pears. 

From John Fisk Allen, Syrian, Zinfindal, Wilmot's No. 16, Esperione, Wilmot's Black 
Hamburg, and White Nice Grapes • Verte Longue d'Automne Pears, and Figs. 

From Amherst A. Frazer, Duchesse d'Angouleme Pears. 

From Josiah Stickney, Beurre Diel and Coffin's Virgalieu ( % ) Pears. 

From Otis Johnson, Lynn, Duchesse d'Angouleme Pears ; the basket contained seventy- 
seven large pears, the produce of a trained tree, five feet high and nine feet spread. 

From Anson Dexter Apples. 

From Otis Pettee, large Sweeting Apples, received from Attica, N. Y. 

From John Gordon, fine specimens of Easter Beurre Pears. 

From John Washburn, Quinces, in variety. 

From Samuel Pond, Quinces. 

From Cheever Newhall, Seedling Apples. 

From S. W. Cole, Doyenne white and Louise Bonne de Jersey Pears ; Holden Pippin, 
Weston, Leland Pippin, and fine Magnolia Apples. 

From A. H. Ernst, Cincinnati, a Corresponding Member, by the President, Beurre Diel, 
Whiter Orange, and Sieulle Pears, and Newton Spitzemberg, Kaighn's Spitzemberg, White 
Pippin, Yellow Bellflower, Wine Sap, Rambo, Pryor's Red, fine, Milan, Newtown Pippin, 
Roxbury Russet, (received under the name of Putnam's Russet,) and Gennetting Apples. 



FRUITS TESTED. 

From George Jaques, Worcester, by the President, Pears, past eating. 

From Josiah Stickney, Pears — Coffin's Virgalieu. 

From S. D. Pardee, N. Haven, by the President, Pears — New Haven Beauty, handsome, 
but wanting in flavor. 

From Cheever Newhall, Oliver's Russet, sustains its reputation. 

From John F. Allen, a Seedling Pear. 

From Otis Johnson, Brown Beurre. 

From Hovey & Co., Pears — Vicompte de Spoelberch, Doyenne Gray, Doyenne Santelete, 
and Arborocrite. 

From A. H. Ernst, Apples — Pryor's Red ; the flavor of this apple bears a very close 
resemblance to the Herefordshire Pearmain. 

For the Committee, EBEN. WIGHT. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, November 6, 1847. 

From Hovey & Co., Excellentissima and Belle et Bonne d'Hee Pears. 
From Edward M. Richards, Urbaniste Pears, on Quince, good. 
From John S. Sleeper, Belle et Bonne d'Hee Pears. 
From Samuel Walker, Pears — Beurre" Duval, fine, and Figue, fine. 
From W. Stearns, of Salem, Lawrence Pears, very fine. 

For the Committee, P. B. HOVEY, Jr. 



88 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 13, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : — Edward W. Perkins, 
of Brookline ; George R. Minor, and S. M. Weld, of Roxbury ; Nathaniel Hooper, Edward 
King, and Horace Gray, of Boston ; Daniel Chaplin, of Cambridge ; Alexander Pope, and 
Benjamin Hemmenway, of Dorchester, and James Hill, of Somerville. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
From John Fisk Allen, Emerald, Winter Nelis, fine, Jervis, good, Chaumontel, Brugman's 
birne, worthless, and Glout Morceau Pears. 

From Dr. J. C. Warren, fine Beurre Diel Pears. 

From 0. H. Mather, by Thomas Needham, Frankendale ( % ) Syrian, Black Hamburg, 
Black St Peters, and Muscat of Alexandria Grapes. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, November 20, 1847. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Fruits, presented some fine specimens of the 
" Watermelon" Apple, with the following letter, addressed to him, dated 

" Macedon, Wayne County. N. Y., November, 1847. 

" My Dear Friend — I have taken the liberty of forwarding to thy address, a few specimens 
of an apple known here as the ' Watermelon,' though noticed in a Rochester Nurseryman's 
Catalogue as c Norton's Melon,' for what reason I am not informed. It has been cultivated 
to a very limited extent in East Bloomfield for perhaps thirty or forty years, having been 
circulated from the old Chapin orchard, famous for its paternity of the Northern Spy, &c. 
From a member of the Chapin family, I learn that it is not considered a native of their 
vicinity, but was brought from Salisbury, Ct. On this point, however, there seems much 
uncertainty ; and I have thought it expedient to send it to your society for exhibition, 
hoping that it might be recognized. Ordinarily it keeps well until midwinter, frequently 
several weeks later. The smaller specimens indicate the average size. 

" Thy sincere Friend, WILLIAM R. SMITH. 

11 Samuel Walker." 

The Committee submit the following description and character of the specimens pre- 
sented : — 

Size — large, 3 to 3)4 inches in diameter. Form — roundish, flattened at the ends. Stem — 
Straight and slender, not rising above the surface, deeply sunk. Calyx — partially open, 
in rather deep, narrow basin. Color — pale yellow ground, striped with light and dark 
lake, becoming very bright on the sunny side. Skin — smooth, fair, highly polished. Flesh — 
white, crisp, tender and juicy. Flavor — Melon-like with an agreeable combination of 
saccharine and subacid. Core — Small. Seeds — Small. Maturity — November to February. 

From Mrs. Battell, of Norfolk, Connecticut, by the President of the Society, the Torring- 
ton Pounder Apple ; the specimens were large and fine ; quality not first rate. 

From Joseph Burnett, Southboro', Flushing Spitzemberg ( 1 ) and Belden Sweet Apples ; 
the specimens were handsome, but in quality below first rate. 

From John Owen, Cambridge, two Apples, without names, and Messire Jean Pear. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Esperine Pear, past eating. 

From Samuel Walker. Verte Longue d'Automne, Beurre Ranee, Sabine, good, Figue, fine, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, fine, Beurre" Diel, fine, and Vicar of Winkfield Pears ; this last 
variety fully sustains its reputation ; the specimens were fine and the quality excellent. 
For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 89 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 27. 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Membership : — Abel Moore, of Concord, Ms., 
by Azell Bowditch ; William Bogle, of North Maiden, and Daniel Leach, of Roxbury, by 
Samuel Walker. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President, the following new Pears : — Doyenne Boussoch— these specimens 
were different from all others which have been exhibited under this name— Doyenne 
Nerckman, and Beurre d'Elberg. 

From Edward M. Richards, specimens of the Minister Apple. This apple sustains its 
reputation as one of the best. 

From Samuel Walker, Passe Colmar, Vicar of Winkfield, Beurre d'Aremberg. Glout 
Morceau, and Beurre Ranee Peais. 

The specimens of the Beurre Ranee were the best ever exhibited at the Hall of the 
Society, but still they were deficient in quality compared with Mr. Thompson's description 
in the London Horticultural Society's Catalogue. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 4, 1847. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were proposed for Membership : — Dan S. Smalley, Jamaica 
Plains, by Azell Bowditch, and Edward S. Rand, of Dedham, by Eben. Wight. 

The President, from the Executive Committee, reported (in accordance with the duty 
imposed upon them by the sixteenth section of the By-Laws) that, after an examination of the 
present state of the Treasury, and a prospective view of the receipts for the ensuing year, 
they recommend as an appropriation for Premiums and Gratuities, for 1848, the same 
amount, and in the same proportion to the various Committees, as was granted the past season. 

Voted, That the report of the Executive Committee be accepted. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Herman Wendell, M. D., of Albany, 
N. Y., for the two numbers of the " Journal of Agricultural Science," containing a colored 
plate and history of Wendell's Mottled Bigarreau Cherry. Also, that the Recording 
Secretary forward to Dr. Wendell a copy of the "Transactions of the Society." 

Voted, That the Committee on the Library, be authorized to purchase the back numbers of 
the " Farmer's Library," published at New York, and to subscribe for the future numbers. 

Cheever Newhall, Esq., staled that he had been waited upon by the Librarian of the 
Natural History Society, with a request that the Library of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society might be transferred to their rooms, in which case the members of this Society 
would have access to both Libraries, together with all the privileges which they now enjoy. 

Voted, That the subject be referred to the Executive Committee. 

A letter was received from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, in reference to 
appointing the days for the next Annual Exhibition, and the matter was referred to a 
Committee consisting of the following gentlemen : Otis Johnson, C. M. Hovey, Ebenezer 
Wight, with the request to report early. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members : — William W. Merrill, and Charles 
Carruth, of Boston, and E. K. Johnson, of Nahant. 

22 



90 PROCEEDINGS. 

EXHIBITIONS. 

Saturday, December 11, 1847. 
EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President, Beurre d'Aremberg and Glout Morceau Pears : they both sustain 
their high character. 

From John F. Allen, Winter Nelis, Passe Colmar, Chaumontel, fine, Easter Beurre, fine, 
and Lewis Pears, and White Frontignan and Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From Jabez Wetherbee, Apples, for a name. 

For the Committee, OTIS JOHNSON. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 25, 1847. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Delegation appointed to attend the Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, submitted the following report : — 

The undersigned, delegates appointed to visit the Annual Exhibition of the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, held at Philadelphia, on the 15th, 16th and 17th of September, 
1847, beg leave respectfully to report that they have attended to the duty assigned them. 

The fame of this Society, for its enthusiastic love of flowers and fruits, — its usefulness — 
its zeal — its gorgeous displays, rendered more efficient by the extent of its splendid Hall — 
and the hospitality of its members, has reached every part of our country. With a full 
knowledge of these facts, your Committee proceeded to Philadelphia with the impression 
that they should be made wiser, if not better, by the grand exhibition they anticipated. 
In this they were not disappointed. The exhibition of Pot Plants was truly a splendid 
affair. The designs were beautiful, the arrangements chaste. Indeed, every thing was 
so nicely managed by the efficient Committee of ladies and gentlemen, that the Hall, from 
its entrance to its roof, told that the Spirit of Horticulture was there. 

To go into detail is not the province of your Committee, but they cannot refrain from 
stating that the Floral display of this Society was far superior to any thing of the kind they 
ever visited. 

The fruit department contained many fine specimens of Apples, Pears, Plums and 
Peaches j but as this was not an abundant fruit season in that State, the specimens were 
not so numerous as usual. 

Among the varieties of Pears we noticed several Seedlings which originated in Phila- 
delphia, and its vicinity, some of which are already known and cultivated in Europe, as of 
the best quality, viz. : — Seckel, Petre, Lodge, Chapman, Smith's Moyamensing, Smith's 
Pennsylvania, Haddington, Washington, Copea, Leach's Kingsessing, and Tyson. 

The kind attentions, and courteous civilities extended to your Committee will ever be 
remembered and cherished. 

(Signed.) B. V. FRENCH, 

SAMUEL WALKER. 

Voted, That a Committee of three be appointed to settle with the Treasurer of Mount 
Auburn. 

The President, the Treasurer, and the Chairman of the Committee on Finance, were 
appointed that Committee. 

Voted, That the President and Secretary be authorized to send copies of the " Transac- 
tions of the Society," to such Horticultural and Agricultural Societies and distinguished 
personages as they may think expedient. 

The Committee appointed to determine the days of the Annual Exhibition of the Society, 
reported that they suggest the 20th, 21st, and 22d of September next. 

Voted, To accept the report, and that the Corresponding Secretary be requested to 
announce the same to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. 



PROCEEDINGS. 91 

The Committees on Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables, submitted their Annual Reports of 
Premiums and Gratuities awarded in the year 1847, which Reports were accepted, and the 
Treasurer authorized to pay the several amounts. The following are in addition to those 
published in the preceding pages : — 

ON FRUITS. 

For the best and most interesting Exhibition of Fruits during the season, to John Fisk 
Allen, of Salem, the Lowell Gold Medal, valued at forty dollars. 

SPECIAL PRIZE LIST. 

For the two best varieties of Autumn Apples : to Ebenezer Wight, of Dedham, for the 
Gravenstein, five dollars, and to John Owen, of Cambridge, for the Porter, five dollars. 

For the two best varieties of Winter Apples : to Edward M.'Richards, of Dedham, for the 
Rhode Island Greening, five dollars. Second premium withheld. 

The Committee withheld the premiums for the two best varieties of Summer Pears, as 
the specimens exhibited were not, in the opinion of the Judges, meritorious. 

For the two best varieties of Autumn Pears : to A. D. Williams & Son, of R oxbury, for 
the Urbaniste, five dollars, and to H. Vandine, of Cambridgeport, for the Flemish Beauty, 
five dollars. 

For the two best varieties of Winter Pears : to Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, for the Winter 
Nelis, five dollars, and to Edward M. Richards, of Dedham, for the Echassery, five dollars. 

For the two best varieties of Plums : to J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, for the Green 
Gage, five dollars, and to Samuel R. Johnson, of Charlestown, for the Bolmar's Washington, 
five dollars. 

The Peaches exhibited for the special prizes were not worthy. 

DURING THE SEASON. 

Apples. — For the best Fall Apples, on or before the first of December, to Edward M. 
Richards, of Dedham, a premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., to Ebenezer Wight, of Dedham, a premium of four dollars. 

For the best Winter Apples, on or before the first of March, to Edward M. Richards, of 
Dedham, a premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., no premium awarded. 

Pears. — For the best collection of new Pears, not exhibited before this year, to Marshall 
P. Wilder, of Dorchester, the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, valued at fifteen dollars. 

For the next best do., to Hovey & Co., of Cambridge, a premium of ten dollars. 

For the best Summer Pears, on or before the first of September, no premium awarded. 

For the best Fall Pears, on or before the first of December, to George Newhall, of 
Dorchester, a premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., to Josiah Stickney, of Watertown, a premium of four dollars. 

For the best Winter Pears, on or before the first of December, to John Gordon, of 
Brighton, a premium of ten dollars. 

For the next best do., to Edward M. Richards, a premium of six dollars. 

Peaches. — For the best specimens grown under glass, to William Quant, of Brookline, a 
premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., to F. W. Macondry, of Dorchester, a premium of four dollars. 

For the best specimen grown in open culture, to F. W. Macondry, of Dorchester, a 
premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., to Galen Meriam, of Newton, a premium of four dollars. 

Apricots. — No premiums awarded. 

Nectarines. — For the best specimens, to William Quant, of Brookline, a premium of six 
dollars. 

For the next best do., to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, a premium of four dollars. 

23 



92 PROCEEDINGS. 

Quinces. — For the best specimens of the best kinds, to John Washburn, of Plymouth, a 
premium of live dollars. 

For the next best do., to Samuel Pond, of Cambridgeport, a premium of three dollars. 

Plums. — For the best Plums, of the best flavor, not less than two quarts, to Samuel R. 
Johnson, of Chai lestown, a premium of six dollars. 

For the next best do., to J. L. L. F. Warren, of Brighton, a premium of three dollars. 

Gooseberries. — For the best flavored, and finest specimens, two boxes, to Josiah Lovett, 
of Beverly, a premium of five dollars. 

For the next best do., to John Hovey, of Roxbury, a premium of three dollars. 

Currants. — For the best flavored, and finest specimens, two boxes, to George Wilson, of 
Marblehead. a premium of five dollars. 

For the next best do., to Otis Johnson, of Lynn, a premium of three dollars. 

Strawberries. — For the best specimen of Strawberries, not less than two boxes, to Josiah 
Richardson, of Cambridgeport, a premium of six dollars. 

For the second best do., to Augustus Aspinwall, of Brookline, a premium of four dollars. 

For the third best do., to Isaac Fay, of Cambridgeport, a premium of three dollars. 

Water Melon. — No premiums awarded. 

Musk Melon. — For the best Musk Melon, to E. M. Richards, of Dedham, a premium of 
five dollars. 

For the next best do., to William Quant, of Brookline, a premium of three dollars. 

Figs. — For the best specimen of Figs, to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, a premium of five 
dollars. 

For the next best do., to Nahum Stetson, of Bridgewater, a premium of three dollars. 

Grapes. — For the best specimens and the best varieties grown under glass, previous to 
the first of July, to John Fisk Allen, of Salem, a premium of ten dollars. 

For the next best do., to William Quant, of Brookline, a premium of seven dollars. 

For the best varieties and specimens, grown under glass, subsequently to the first of July, 
to Thomas Needham, of Brighton, a premium of ten dollars. 

For the next best do., to Azell Bowditch, of Roxbury, a premium of seven dollars. 

Grapes, (Native.) — For the best specimen and variety, to Kendall Bailey, of Charlestown, 
a premium of five dollars. 

For the next best do., to Charles E. Grant, of Roxbury, a premium of three dollars. 

Blackberries. — To Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, for fine specimens of Blackberries, a 
Gratuity of five dollars. 



ON FLOWERS. 

For the best Display of Green-House Plants in Pots, through the season, to William 
Quant, the Appleton Gold Medal, valued at forty dollars. 

For the next best do., to Hovey & Co., the Society's Silver Gilt Medal, fifteen dollars. 

Herbaceous Perennials. — For the best display through the season, to Breck & Co., 
five dollars. 

For the second best display, to Messrs. Winship, four dollars. 

For the third best display, to Hovey & Co., three dollars. 

Annuals. — For the best display through the season, to Breck & Co., five dollars. 

For the second best display, to Parker Barnes, four dollars. 

For the third best display, to Thomas Needham, three dollars. 



on vegetables. 
Asparagus. — For the earliest and best, to William Quant, a premium of five dollars. 
Beets. — For the best pure Blood Beets, through the season, to Aaron D. Williams, five 
dollars. 



PROCEEDINGS. » 93 

Beans. — For the best and earliest peck of String Beans, to James Nugent, a premium of 
three dollars. 

For the best and earliest Lima Beans, to Azell Bowditch, a premium of three dollars. 

Cucumbers. — For the best pair under glass, to Thomas Needham, a premium of five 
dollars. 

For the second best do., to William Quant, a premium of three dollars. 

Corn. — For the best and earliest Sweet, to A. D. Williams, a premium of three dollars. 

Cabbage. — For the best Drumhead, during the season, to F. W. Macondry, a premium 
of five dollars. 

For the best Savoy, during the season, to A. D. Williams, a premium of three dollars. 

Lettuce. — For the best six heads, to A. D. Williams, a premium of three dollars. 

Potatoes. — For the best and earliest peck, to A. D. Williams, a premium of three dollars. 

Rhubarb. — For the largest and best, to Josiah Lovett, a premium of five dollars. 

Squashes. — For the best pure Canada, to A. D. Williams, a premium of five dollars. 

Tomatoes. — For the best and earliest, to A. D. Williams, a premium of five dollars. 

Vegetables. — For the best display, and greatest variety at the weekly exhibitions, to A. 
D. Williams, a premium of ten dollars. 

Peppers. — To Josiah Newhall, for fine display of Peppers, a Gratuity of three dollars. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 8, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Finance Committee submitted the Annual Report, which is subjoined. 

The Committee of Finance, having examined the accounts of the Treasurer, respectfully 
submit the enclosed Statements of Receipts, Expenditures, and Investments of the Society, 
from which it appears that the Receipts have been seven thousand six hundred and thirty- 
three dollars and sixtyseven cents, including the balance of fiftynine dollars and fiftyeight 
cents in the Treasurer's hands at the commencement of the year, as per statement 
marked A. 

That the Expenditures and Investments during the year have been seven thousand five 
hundred and eightysix dollars and thirtytwo cents, leaving a balance in the Treasurer's 
hands, on the 31st of December, 1847, of fortyseven dollars and thirtyflve cents, as per 
Statement B. 

That the Real Estate and personal property of the Society, as valued in the Schedule 
annexed, marked C, amounts to fortyfive thousand and ninetythree dollars and fifty cents. 

STATEMENT A. 
Receipts from January 1 to December 1, 1847. 

Balance in the Treasury January 1st, $59 58 

Cash of George Bond, Esq., Treasurer of Mount Auburn, .... 3,233 41 

Rent and Taxes of Store, - 1,090 00 

Rent and Taxes of Hall, -------..-- 350 00 

Donation by Josiah Bradlee, Esq., - 500 00 

Admission Fee — Assessments, --------- 1,356 00 

Weekly Exhibitions, - - - - $i83 83 

Annual Exhibition, - 560 86 

749 69 

Dividends, ..-....- 294 99 

$7,633 67 

24 



94 PROCEEDINGS. 

STATEMENT B. 

Paid investment of Bradlee Fund, $500 00 

" Insurance for 1847 and 1848, two years, 115 00 

" Premiums, 1,241 00 

" for Railroad Stock, 2,458 50 

" Taxes, 180 00 

" for Library, 141 00 

" Interest, - 750 00 

" Doorkeeper and care of Hall, 444 72 

u on account of Transactions, ......... 450 00 

" J. B. Hancock, 160 75 

" for Repairs, » 238 13 

" for Printing and Advertising, ---- 409 73 

" for Diplomas, 43 50 

" for Gas, 54 00 

" Miscellaneous Expenses, 399 99 

Balance in the hands of the Treasurer, December, 31st, 1847, - - - 47 35 

$7,633 67 

C. SCHEDULE 
Of the Property of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Horticultural Hall, in School Street, valued at $36,000 00 

Three Chandeliers in said Hall, 390 00 

Two Marble Vases, 95 00 

Two Bradlee Vases, 150 00 

Glass and other Ware, 900 00 

Library, 1,300 00 

Furniture and Safe, - 300 00 

Appleton Fund, 1,000 00 

Lyman Fund, 1,000 00 

Lowell Fund, 1,000 00 

Bradlee Fund, 500 00 

Twentytwo Shares Boston and Worcester Railroad Stock, at cost, ... 2,458 50 

$45,093 50 

The only debt of the Society, known to the Committee, is a note, secured by mortgage 
on the real estate, for fifteen thousand dollars, dated 18th May. 1844, payable in five years 
with interest, at the rate of five per cent, per annum, half-yearly ; but it is understood that 
there are claims against the Society for unliquidated accounts for premiums awarded but 
not paid — Printing, Dies for Medals, alterations of the Hall, Painting, &c. amounting to 
about two thousand dollars. 

The same Committee also reported, that the certificate of the Bradlee Fund, invested in 
the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, had been passed to the Treasurer. 

The Special Committee appointed to settle with the Treasurer of the Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, reported that they had attended to that duty, and received the sum of three 
thousand five hundred dollars, and that a final settlement would be made on the third 
Monday of the month, when a further amount might be expected. 

Voted, That the Finance Committee invest the sum of two thousand dollars towards 
paying off the mortgage of the Society's Building. 



PROCEEDINGS. 95 

Mr. C. M. Hovey, Chairman of the Library Committee, submitted the Annual Report, 
which was accepted and passed to the Executive Committee to fill the blank appropriation 
asked for, with such a sum as the finances of the Society will admit of. 

The Executive Committee reported the List of Premiums offered for the year 1848, with 
a revised Code of Regulations, which was accepted. 

Ordered, That the List of Premiums awarded for 1847, and those offered for 1848, be 
printed and laid upon the table for distribution at the next meeting. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 1, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

C. W. Dabney, Esq., of Fayal, presented the Society with a small quantity of Poitugal 
Onion seed, and the thanks of the Society were voted for the same. 

The Finance Committee reported, that in accordance with a vote of the Society, they 
had purchased fifteen shares of the Old Colony Railroad, at ninetythree dollars and twenty- 
five cents per share, amounting to one thousand three hundred and ninetyeight dollars and 
seventyfive cents, and the same had been paid by the Treasurer. The Committee also 
reported, that the Society's proportion of new stock in the Worcester Railroad would require 
the payment of several hundred dollars, and, in consequence of this, only the above amount 
had now been invested. 

The}- likewise reported, that the Store had been re-leased to the present occupant, for 
two years, upon the same terms as before. 

The President and Recording Secretary were authorized to procure Tickets for the use 
of the members, and for the purpose of sale for admission to the Hall, upon the same terms 
as in previous years. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, June 3, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A communication was received from Edward Bartlett, Esq., of Newburyport, accom- 
panied with seed of the Potatoe as found indigenous in Peru. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Edward Bartlett, Esq., and the 
seed placed in the hands of the Committee on Vegetables, for distribution among the 
Society's members. 

The subject of holding a Festival, at the close of the present season, having been 
discussed, it was 

Voted, That the whole subject be referred to the Committee of Arrangements, with 
instructions to report at the next meeting. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, June 17, 1848. 



President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

Several copies of the Report of the Committee of the Cincinnati Horticultural Society, 
on the Strawberry, were received through A. H. Ernst, Esq. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Cincinnati Horticultural Society. 



96 PROCEEDINGS. 

The Committee of Arrangements, to whom was referred the subject of holding a Festival, 
reported, that they recommend to the Society that a Festival be held in Faneuil Hall, at 
the close of the Annual Exhibition, in September next, — whereupon it Was 

Voted, That the President, Vice Presidents, and Secretaries be added to the Committee 
of Arrangements, as a committee to manage all matters pertaining to the Festival. 

Voted, That the Committee, thus constituted, have full powers to appoint Marshals, and 
call in such other aid as they may deem expedient. 

On motion of Samuel Walker, it was 

Voted, That, whereas an invitation has been extended to this Society by the New York 
Agricultural Society to send delegates to a Pomological Convention, to be held in Buffalo, 
in September next, and whereas a call has been made through a public medium, by a 
member of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for a similar meeting, and also an 
application from the American Institute, that such a Convention should be holden in the 
city of New York, in October next, therefore 

Resolved, That a committee of three, consisting of the President and two others, be 
appointed by the Chair, to correspond with the above named paities, and report at a future 
meeting what, in their opinion, is desirable to be done in the matter. 

Messrs. Samuel Walker and Eben Wight, were appointed on the Committee. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 19, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A letter was received from W. D. Brinkle, M. D., of Philadelphia, accompanied with 
specimens of new Pears. 

A vote of thanks for the same was tendered to Dr. Brinkle. 

On motion of Mr. Walker, it was 

Voted, That the following Societies be invited to send delegations to the Annual Exhibi- 
tion of the Society, September 20th, 21st and 22d : — 

Cincinnati Horticultural Society; Essex County Institute; Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society; New York State Agricultural Society; Albany and Rensselaer Horticultural 
Society; New Haven County Horticultural Society; American Institute, New York; 
Worcester County Horticultural Society, and New Bedford Horticultural Society. Said 
delegation to consist of the President and two other members. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 2, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

Letters were read from the St. Louis Horticultural Society, requesting copies of the 
Transactions of the Society, and from the New York State Agricultural Society, with a vote 
of thanks for copies of the Transactions. 

The President, Vice Presidents, members of the Fruit Committee, R. Manning, and A. 
J. Downing, with such other persons as may hereafter be added, were appointed a delega- 
tion to attend the Central Convention of Fruit Growers, to be holden at New York on the 
10th of October next. 



PROCEEDINGS. 97 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

The Twentieth Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society commenced 
in Faneuil Hall, September 19, at 12 o'clock, M. } and was continued during the two 
following days. 

A more magnificent collection of Fruit was never before presented to the public e5^e in 
this city, and we doubt whether it has ever been equalled in this country, or surpassed by 
the exhibition of any Society in Europe. As to quantity, it was so great that six large 
tables, the whole length of the Hall, were hardly sufficient to contain it. The variety of 
Pears was immensely large, probably not much, if any, short of three hundred kinds. 
Of these, however, there were many sorts that were of no value in the exhibition only to 
show cultivators that they were not worthy of a place in their grounds. It is impossible 
for the Committee of Arrangements to designate the best specimens and the best varieties : 
we can only say, that large dishes of perfect fruit thickly studded the tables. 

The display of Apples, too, was without a parallel — embracing a very great number 
of varieties, some of them very beautiful, most of them well known as of the best quality. 

The season for Plums being nearly over, there were but few dishes of this fruit exhibited. 
Of Peaches, also, the season was nearly passed, consequently they were not so abundant 
as they would have been had the exhibition been a little earlier. There were, however, 
some magnificent specimens of the Lemon Rareripe, Early Crawford, Old Mixon, and 
other varieties. Grapes, from Messrs. Russell, Strong, Allen, and others, were very fine 
and in great variety. 

There was a great collection of Pot Plants from the various Conservatories, and Green- 
Houses of our amateurs and nurserymen, but for the want of room they were not exhibited 
to the greatest advantage. Among them were some large and splendid plants of Camellias, 
Oranges, Acacias, and other species. The stands for flowers were all filled with choice 
Dahlias, Asters, Roses, &c. 

The display of Vegetables was better than at any former exhibition. 

The Decorations were designed by Mr. Sharp, and executed by Mr. Haggerston and his 
associates, and were of the most tasteful and pleasing character. 

The whole arrangement of Fruits, Flowers, Plants, Vegetables, and Mottos was of the 
first order. Old Faneuil Hall never looked more lovely. The hallowed influence of Fruits 
and Flowers, seemed to have dissipated the political atmosphere of mists in which the 
place is wont to be shrouded, and it appeared to smile like the Garden of Eden. 

The throng of visiters was very great : among them we were happy to recognize delega- 
tions from the Horticultural Societies of Philadelphia and West Chester, Pennsylvania ; 
New Haven, Connecticut; Providence, Rhode Island; Worcester and New Bedford, 
Massachusetts; Rochester, and Delaware, (Queen's County,) New York, and St. Louis, 
Missouri. The exhibition was honored by great numbers of distinguished strangers, as 
well as our best and most valuable citizens ; and we believe there was a universal feeling 
of satisfaction on the part of all who witnessed the display, and an acknowledgement that 
progress had been made in the Horticultural art. 



EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 
From Marshall P. Wilder, of Dorchester, President of the Society, two hundred varieties 
of Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Angleterre Noisette, Ananas, (French,) Ah Mon Dieu, Alpha, 
Belle Angevine, B. d' Angers, B. d'Esquermes, B. Excellente, B. et Eonne, B. et Bonne, 
(de Hee,) B. Caenais, B. Craonnaise, B. de Trois, Beurre d'Aremberg, B. d'Anjou, B. 
d'Amalis, B. d' Angleterre, B. Beauchamps, B. Beauleau, B. Bronze, (French,) B. Bronzee, 
B. Bosc, B. Beaureal, B. Brown, B. Capiaumont, B. Coloma, B. Cutter, B. Diel, B. Imperi- 

25 



98 PROCEEDINGS. 

ale, B. Goubault, B. Gens, B. Kenrick, B. Golden, (Rivers,) B. d'Elberg, B. de Rhine, B. 
Triguer, B. Knox, B. Nerckman, B. Gris d'Hiver Nouveau, B. Moire", B. Noir Chain, B- 
Ranee, B. Spence, Bon Chretien, (Williams's,) B. C. Fondante, B. C. Winter, Bergamotte 
Cadette, Bergamot, (Gansel's,) B. Easter, Buffnm, Belmont, Bleeker's Meadow, Bezi de la 
Motte, B. des Veterans, Black Worcester, Brougham, Bankerbine, Beau present d'Artois, 
Bezi Vaet, Bizamumy, Bonne ente, Benoist, Cadet de Vaux. Catillac, Chaumontel Beige, 
C. Anglaise, Colmar Van Mons, Colmar d'Aremberg, C. du Lot, Columbia, Comte de 
Lamy, Comtesse de Lunay, Captif St. Helene, Cushing, Delices de Jodoigne, Dunmore, 
Dix, Duchesse d'Angouleme, D. d'Orleans, Doyenne White, D. Gray, D. Gris d'Hiver 
nouveau. D. Musque, Dingier, Drake, (Edwards's,) De Lepine, Eyewood, Enfant Prodigue, 
Edwards (summer,) Epine d'Hiver, E. Dumas, Echasserie, Exquis, Fulton, Fortunee, Figue 
de Naples, Flemish Beauty, Fondante d'Automne, F. du Bois, F. du Bois (Vilmorin,) F. de 
Charneuse, Frederick of Wurtemburg, Gilogil, Glout Morceau, Girardin, Gendesheim, 
Glout Morceau, (Cambrone,) Green Sugar, Gros Romain Carmelite, Heathcot, Howell, 
Hericart, Inconnue Van Mons, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, Jalvie, Juvardelle, Jalousie 
nouvelle, Knight's Seedling, (R. I.,) King Edward, Lawrence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Leon le Clerc, Long Green (of Coxe,) Monarch, Madotte, Mansuette, Marie Louise, 
McLaughlin, Napoleon, Ne plus Meuris, Pater Noster, Poire de Conde, P. de Jacob, Passe 
Colmar, Paradise, Passe Tardive, Queen Caroline, Ridelle, Roi de Rome, Rousselet de 
Rheims, R. d'Hiver, St. Michael Archange, (Rivers's,) St. Michael Archange, Sanspareille, 
Seckel, St. Germain, (Prince's,) do. (Edwards's,) do. (Uvedale's,) St. Andre, (0.,) Sieulle, 
Sucre Vert. Sageret, Stuyck, St. Denis, St. Laurens, St. Francis, Souvraine d'Hiver, Sans 
Pepins, Soldat Laboureur, (Belgique,) Salviati, Swan's Egg, St. Andre, (V.,) Tarquin, 
Thompson, Unknown sorts 11, Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, Verte longue d'Automne 
panachee, Voix aux Pretres, Vicompte de Spoelberch, Van Mons No. 65, Van Mons Leon 
Leclerc, Winter Nelis, Wilbur, Whitfield, Wilkinson, Waterloo, &c, &c. Plums — Coe's 
Golden Drop, Merveille, (new,) Reine Claude de Bavay, (new,) St. Catharine. Apples — 
Gravenstein, Lyman's Sweet, Gloria Mundi. 

From the Pomological Garden, Salem, by R. Manning, two hundred and sixty sorts of 
Pears, viz. : — Ambrosia, Ananas d'Ete, Andrews. Althorp Crassane, Alpha, Aston Town, 
Bruno de Bosco, Bergamotte d'Automne, Black Pear of Worcester, Bezi de Montigny, 
Beurre Witzhumb, B. Van Marum, B. Crapaud, B. Kenrick, B. Ranee, B. Angleterre, B. 
d'Aremberg, B. Adam, B. of Bolvviller, B. Diel, B. Amandes, B. Thouin, B. d'Amalis, 
B. Delbecq, B. Bosc, Bleeker's Meadow, Bergamotte Parthenay, Bordeaux, Bergamotte 
Fortunee, Brown Beurre, Brougham, Bon Chretien Fondante, Belle Fondante, Bergamotte 
Cadette, Bishop's Thumb, Burgomaster, Bezi de la Motte, Bois Napoleon, Bonne Louise, 
Brugman's Birne, Brande's St. Germain, Buffum, Bartlett, Belle et Bonne, Bergamot Neill, 
Cross, Comte de Lelieur. Colmar Epine, Calebasse Monstreuse, Comte de Lamay, Croft 
Castle, Caroline, Columbia, Capauchin, Capsheaf, Capiaumont, Capucin, (Van Mons,) 
Catillac, Caillot Rosat, Chaptal, Caen du France, Coter, Calebasse, Clinton, Charles of 
Austria, Citron of Bohemia, Crassane, Clara, Coloma, Chaumontel, Cuvelier, Colmar Neill. 
Cabot, Dearborn, (of Van Mons,) Doyenne Boussoch, Du Parrain, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
Duchesse d'Orleans, Dix, Doyenne d'Hiver, D. Gray, D. d'Alencon, D. White, D. Louis, 
Dundas, Dunmore, Duchesse de Mars, Delices d'Hardenpont, Eyewood, Easter Beurre, 
Endicott, Emerald, Easter Bergamot, Enfant Prodigue, Epine d'Et6, Flemish Beauty, F. Bon 
Chretien, Fig of Naples, Fulton, Fondante d'Automne, Frederic of Wurtemburg, Fantasie, 
(Van Mons.) Flemish Sabine, Foster's St. Michael, Glout Morceau, Gilogil, Gendesheim, 
Gansel's Bergamot, Green Sugar, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Henry the Fourth, Hadley, 
Hunt's Connecticut, Hathorne's Seedling, Heathcot, Hacon's Incomparable, Henrietta, 
Hericart, Henri Van Mons, Harvard, Huguenot, Jaminette d'Hiver, Jalousie, Jean de Witte, 



PROCEEDINGS. 99 

Jaminette, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendue, John Dean, Juvardal, Jubin, Johonnot, King 
Edward, Lincoln, Leon le Clerc, (three varieties,) Long Green, (of Duhamel,) Louise Bonne 
of Jersey, L. B. Real, Long Green, Lederbirne, Las Canas, Locke, Lewis, March Bergamot, 
Muscadine, Meuris d'Hiver, Marie, Manning, Marie Louise, Moccas, Messire Jean, Miel 
de Waterloo, Monarch, (false,) Madotte, Marcelis, Napoleon, Ne plus Meuris, Prince's St. 
Germain, Pitt's Marie Louise, Plombgastel, Paradise d'Automne, Pomme Poire, Princesse 
d'Orange, Petre, Passe Colmar, Pope's Russet, Pater Noster, Pennsylvania, Parmentier, 
Pailliau, Queen of the Low Countries, Quilletette, Rousse Lench, Raraeau, Rousselette de 
Rheims, R. de Meester, R. d'Esperen, Raymond, Ronville, Reine des Poires, Seedling, 
Seckel, Surpasse Virgalieu, Sousreine, Sickler, Sanspariel, St. Germain Tillon, St. Bruno, 
St. Germain, Spanish Bon Chretien, Sieulle, Sovereign of Spring, Sullivan, Serrurier 
d'Automne, Schooling Merry, Stevens's Genesee, St. Ghislain, Swiss Bergamot, Shobden 
Court, Superfondante, Thompson's, Tillington, Uvedale's St. Germain, Urbaniste, Van 
Mons Leon Leclerc, Vacat, Vicar of Winkfield, Van Assene, Whitfield, Winter Crassane, 
Winter Nelis, Wilkinson, White Doyenne, Winter Quince, Washington, Williams's Early, 
Wurzer d'Automne ; fifteen varieties unknown, and the following numbers of Van Mons : — 
135, 177, 182, 365, 698, 858, 879, 968, 969, 982, 1028, 1036, 1074, 1082, 1253, 1258, 1325, 
1451, 1454, 1482, 1535, 1602, and five varieties unknown. Apples — one hundred and 
eighteen varieties, viz. : — Aunt Hannah, Acton Spice, Ananas, Alfreston, American Golden 
Pippin, Brabant Bellflower, Black Apple, Baldwin, Boxford, Ben, Black Coal, Beauty of 
Kent, Beachamwell's, Bickley's White Sweet, Cambuthnethum, Crow's Egg ( 1 ), Cornish 
Aromatic, Chandler, Corse's Sweeting, Danvers Winter Sweet, Drap d'Or, Denmark, Dutch 
Codlin, Downton Pippin, Dumelow Seedling, Esopus Spitzenberg, Edward's Russet, English 
Summer Pearmain, English Golden Russet, Fall Harvey, Framata Rosa, Fameuse, Fearn's 
Pippin, Fallawater, Fenouillet Rouge, Granny Earl, Gravenstein, Green Sweet, Hay Boys, 
Grey French Reinette, Gloucester, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Haskell Sweeting, Holland 
Pippin, Hoary Morning, Ipswich Seek-no-further, Jonathan, Kraam, King of the Pippins, 
Hampshire Green, King Philip, Lovett Sweeting, Lucombe's Seedling, (two varieties,) 
Leyden Pippin, Lyman Pumpkin Sweet, Lyscom, Large Burden, Minister, Maiden's Blush, 
Murphy, Mela Carla, Morgan's Royal, Morgan, Merchants' Reding, Nonesuch, Needles, 
Newark Pippin, Ortley Pippin, Pumpkin Sweet, Pennock's Pigeonette, Pelham Sweet, 
Pound, Pomme Royale, Pearson's Plate, President, Porter, Pownal Spitzenberg, Priestley, 
Rawles' Janet, Ribston Pippin, Rose of Sharon, Rhode Island Greening, Rymer, Ramsdell's 
Red Pumpkin Sweet, Roxbury Russet, Rambour Franc, Red Calville, Roe's Sweet, Rambo, 
Roman Stem, Russet Pearmain, Spice Sweet, Swan's Pine, Swaar, Sam Young, Scarlet 
Nonpareil, Sparhawk's Spring Greening, Slug Sweeting, Strawberry, Templeton Winter 
Sweet, Turn of the Lane, Vermont Sweet, Vandevere, (two varieties,) Wormsley Pippin, 
Winesop, Wellington, (two varieties,) Winter Sweet Paradise, Wells Sweeting, Waterman 
Redding, Winter Queen, Wing Sweeting, Warner Russet, Yellow Bellflower. 

From Vice President B. V. French, of Braintree, seventythree varieties of Apples, viz. : — 
Adam's Sweet, Black Apple, (of Cox,) Blenheim Orange, Burrasoe, Baltimore, Ben Apple, 
Blooming Red, Baldwin, Canada Reinette, Dutch Codlin, Dominisky, (or Lord's.) Danvers 
Winter Sweet, Esopus Spitzenberg, French's Sweet, Fallawater, Fall Greening, Fearn's 
Pippin, Gardner's Sweet, Gravenstein, Golden Russet, Garden Striped, Hoary Morning, 
Hawthornden, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Jonathan, Kenrick's Autumn, Long Nonesuch, Long 
Russet, Lucomb's Seedling, Lyscom, Murphy, Monstrous Pippin, Mela Carla, Nonesuch, 
Nonpareil, Pomme de Niege, Porter, Pomme d'Api, Pumpkin Russet, (sweet,) Pearmain, 
Peck's Pleasant, Pennock, Royal, Ruggles, Ross's Nonpareil, Roxbury Russet, Rhode 
Island Greening, Seaver's Sweet, Sugar Sweet, Seek-no-further, (from Hingham,) Spice, 
Seek-no-further, Wine, Winter Gilliflower, White Wales Apple, Wellington, Yellow 
Bellflower, Yellow Newton Pippin ; thirteen varieties unknown. Pears — Beurre Bosc, B. 



100 PROCEEDINGS. 

Van Marum, Capiaumont, Duchesse d'Augouleme, Grosse Bruxelles, Gore's Heathcot, 
Good Lewis, (?) Harvard, Long Green, Messire Jean, Seckel, Passe Colmar, Tillington, 
Vicar of Winkfield. Peaches — Crawford's Late, Old Mixon (free.) 

From Vice President Cheever Newhall, of Dorchester, twentyfour varieties of Pears, 
viz: — Althorp Crassane, Beurre" Diel, B. D'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, Bleeker's Meadow, 
Chaumontel, Dunrnore, Dix, Frederic de Wurtemburg, Fondante d'Automne, Fulton, 
Harrison Autumn, Heathcot, Knight's Seedling, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Lawrence, Long 
Green, Vicar of Winkfield, Marie Louise, McLaughlin, Napoleon, Oliver's Seedling, 
Rousselett de Rheims, Urbaniste. Apples — Domine, De Niege, Gravenstein, Golden 
Pippin, Porter, Rhode Island Greening, Rambo, Ribston Pippin, Snow Apple, Seaver 
Sweet, Winter. Plums — Coe's Golden Drop, Orleans, Purple Prune, Prune d' Agen. 
Peaches — Crawford's Early, Old Mixon. 

From Samuel Walker, Roxbury, eightytwo varieties of Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Ananas, 
Angora, Belle et Bonne, Boucquia, Belle et Bonne de Hee, Bergamot, (Gansel's,) Bergamot, 
(Hampden's,) Beune d'Aremberg, B. Brown, B. Capiaumont, B. Diel, B. Duval, B. Easter, 
B. Ranee, B. Golden of Bilboa, B. d'Anjou, B. Piquery, Bezi Vaet, Bicknal, Bon Chretien, 
(Williams's,) Broom Park, Chaumontel, Chaptal, Colmar d'Et6, Colmar d'Automne, Comte 
de Lamy, Champagne, Columbia, Crassane, Crassane, (Winter,) Crassane Althorp, Dix, 
Doyenne White, D. Gray, D. Rouge, D. Dore, Duchesse d'Angoul6me, Dunrnore, Delices 
de Jodoigne, Epine Dumas, Eyewood, Flemish Beauty, Fondante d'Automne, F. Van Mons, 
Figue, F. de Naples, Fourcroy, Gilogil, Gendesheim, Glout Morceau, Hacon's Incompara- 
ble, Johonnot, Lawrence, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Messire Jean, McLaughlin, Monarch, 
(Knight's,) Moor-fowl Egg, Martin Sec, Napoleon, Ne plus Meuris, Pacquency, Passe 
Colmar, Queen of Low Countries, Rouselett de Rheims, Rousselett, Seckel, St. Germain, 
St. Ghislain, St. Mesmire, Swan's Egg, Stone, Tyson, Urbaniste, Van Mons Leon Leclerc, 
Verte Longue d'Automne, Voix aux Pretres, Winter Nelis, Williams's Early ; two varieties 
unknown. 

From Josiah Lovett, of Beverly, twentysix varieties of Pears, viz. : — Althorp Crassane, 
Andrews, Beurre Bosc, B. Diel, B. d'Amalis, Gansel's Bergamot, Catillac, Dunrnore, Fulton, 
Flemish Beauty, Fondante d'Automne, Great Citron of Bohemia, Harvard, Golden Beurre" 
of Bilboa, Jalousie, King Edward, Knight's Monarch, Louise Bonne de Jersey, McLaughlin, 
Marie Louise, Madotte d'Hiver, Pitt's Prolific, Summer Franc Real, Urbaniste, Williams's 
Bon Chretien, Winter Nelis. 

From Otis Johnson, Lynn, sixtythree varieties of Pears, viz. : — Angleterre, Brown 
Beurre, Beurre d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, B. Bronzee, B. Diel, Buffum, Bleeker's Meadow, 
Bezi de la Motte, Belle et Bonne, Calebasse, Catillac, Cushing, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
Doyenne* blanc, Dix, Echasserie, Epine d'Ete, Easter Beurre, Flemish Beauty, Frederic of 
Wurtemburg, Franc Real d'Hiver, Glout Morceau, Gilogil, Harvard, Henry IV., Hacon's 
Incomparable, Hericart, Jalousie, Johonnot, Lewis, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Lawrence, 
Moccas, Maria Louise, Martin Sec, Marquis, Napoleon, Princess of Orange, Passe Colmar, 
Prince's St. Germain, Pope's Russet, Rousselett de Rheims, R. Panache, Seckel, St. 
Ghislain, Uvedale's St. Germain, Urbaniste, Vallee Franche, Verte Longue, Vicar of 
Winkfield, Winter Nelis, Washington, Williams's Bon Chretien ; seven kinds unknown. 
Grapes — Black Hamburgh, White Chasselas, White Muscat of Alexandria, Zinfendal. 
Two varieties of Apples. Four varieties of Peaches. Four varieties of Plums. 

From Joseph S. Cabot, Salem, sixtysix varieties of Pears, viz.: — Althorp Crassane, 
Andrews, Beurre Diel, B. d'Aremberg, B. Meise, B. Curtet, Basket, Bezi de la Motte, 
Bon Chretien Fondante, Belle Esquermes, Gansel's Bergamot, Boucquia, Capiaumont, 
Cushing, Catillac, Capucin, Comte de Lamy, Croft Castle, Columbia, Cross, Capsheaf, 
Chaumontel, Colonel's Winter, Doyenne" d'Hiver, Duvivier, Easter Beurr6, Enfant 
Prodigue, Fulton, Fig Extra, (Van Mons,) Fondante Rouge, Fortunee, Flemish Beauty, 



PROCEEDINGS. 101 

Great Citron of Bohemia, Gendesheim Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Hericarte, Henri Quatre, 
Jalousie, Long Green, Lewis, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Long Green of Autumn, Messil 
d'Hiver, Muscadine, Marie Louise nova, Paradise d'Auturrme, Pacquency, Princess of 
Orange, Poire Raraeux, P. Gerande, Queen of the Low Countries, Rousselet Precoce, St. 
Andre, Summer Rose, Surpasse Virgalieu, Ghislain, Seckel, Seedling Maria, Surpasse St. 
Germain, Sucre Vert, Spence, (from Rivers,) Smith's Pennsylvania, Thompson, Urbaniste, 
Winter Nelis, Wilkinson. 

From Thomas Dowse, Cambridge, four dishes of Bartlett Pears, and three of Gansel's 
Bergamot Pears. 

From Josiah Gilmore, by G. L. Gilmore, Newton, Apples, viz. : — Blue Pearmain, Blush 
Apple, Bellflower, Egg Apple, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Lady Apple, Roxbury Russet, 
Spitzenberg. Pears — Flemish Beauty, Seckel. 

From John M. Ives, Salem, Pears, viz.: — Andrews, Bartlett, Beurre Romain, (1), B. 
Bosc, Belle Lucrative, Bezi de la Motte, Cushing. Columbia, Flemish Beauty, Fulton, 
Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Harrison's Fall Baking, Hacon's Incomparable, Jalousie. Long 
Green, Washington, Winter Nelis. Apples — A superior late Apple from Stratham, N. H. ; 
a fine tender sweet, Essex County variety. Plums — Green Gage, Reine Claude Violet, Red 
Gage of Downing, Sharp's Emperor. Peach — Ives's Early Melacoton. 

From I. Fay, Cambrigeport, Pears, viz.: — Williams's Bon Chretien, Capiaumont, 
Chaumontel, Easter Beurre, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Napoleon, 
St. Michael, Seckel, and one unnamed. Peaches — Cooledge's Favorite, Jaques's Rare- 
ripe, Lemon Rareripe, Owen's Rareripe, Pike's Rareripe, Red and Yellow Rareripe. 

From Parsons & Co., Flushing, Long Island, New York, thirtytwo varieties of Apples, 
viz. : — Autumn Bough, Court of Wyck, Esopus Spitzenburg, Fallawater, Franklin's 
Golden Pippin, Fall Harvey, Fameuse, Fall Pippin, Federal Pearmain, Golden Russet, 
Herefordshire Pearmain, Hawthornden, Kilham Hill, Long Stem, Michael Henry Pippin, 
Marigold, Morris Sweeting, Maiden's Blush, Newton Pippin, Newton Spitzenburg, None- 
such, Pennock's, Pickman's Pippin, Rambo d'Ete, Scheenmaker, Seek-no-further, Tolman's 
Sweeting, Trimmer's Russet, Vandevere, Willis's Sweeting, Yellow Bellefleur. Pears — 
Lawrence, from the original tree. 

From George R. Russell, West Roxbury, Grapes, viz. : — Black Hamburg, Chasselas de 
Fontainebleau, Muscat of Alexandria, Royal Muscadine, Red Frontignan, Syrian, Wilmot's 
Black Hamburg, White Frontignan. 

From Thomas Liversidge, Dorchester, Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From M. H. Ruggles, Fall River, Pears, viz. : — Bartlett, Durfee, Hull, Phillips, Seckel, 
Wilbur, all fine specimens. 

The following note from Mr. Ruggles accompanied these Pears : — 

Durfee, or Shawl Pear. — This variety originated on the farm of George Durfee, in 
Tiverton, R. I. The trunk of the parent tree is some eight or ten inches in diameter. It 
may be thirty or forty years old. It is a good bearer. 

Wilbur Pear. — Originated on a farm owned by William Wilbur, in Somerset. It has 
been undergoing a change in some trees ; the fruit is much larger and the flavor not so 
good as when the fruit was smaller. 

Phillips Pear. — Originated on the Phillips farm in Newport, R. I., or I found it there, 
and have been able to trace all synonyms to that stock. The tree from which I took the 
grafts is quite old — perhaps one hundred years, or more. 

Hull Pear. — Originated in Swanzey. The Parent tree was found by Mr. Hull, and by 
him brought home and nurtured. On the same farm was found another native variety, 
which was called Mason Pear.* By some means the names have become confounded. 

*The variety under cultivation in this region as the " Hull." 

26 



102 PROCEEDINGS. 

Mr. Wilbur sent some of the latter to the Society a few years ago, by the name of Hull 
pears, which were very much liked, and perhaps ihe misnomer may thereby be perpetuated. 
Fall River, Sept. 16, 1846. M. H. RUGGLES. 

From George C. Crowningshield, Brcokline, Persian Green-flesh Melon. 
From George Newhall, Dorchester, Pears, viz.: — Williams's Bon Chretien, Beurr6 
Bosc, Black Pear of Worcester, Cumberland, Catillac, Dix, Frederick of Wurtemburg, 
Fulton, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Seckel, Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield. Peaches — 
Jaques. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., Dorchester, Pears, viz, : — Louise Bonne de Jersey, Golden 
Beurre of Bilboa, Vicar of Winkfield, Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From F. W. Macondray, Dorchester, thirtyseven varieties of Pears, viz. : — Arch Duke 
Charles, Andrews, Belle et Bonne, Beurre Moire, B. Chori, B. Brown, B. Diel, B. Royal, 
B. Picquery, B. Easter, B. d'Amalis. Bezi de la Motte, Black Pear of Worcester, Crassane, 
Chaumontel, Catillac, Callabasse Bosc, Dix, Doyenne Gray, Figue de Naples, Fortunee, 
Flemish Bon Chretien, Glout Morceau, Long Green of Autumn, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
McLaughlin, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Prince's St. Germain, Queen of the Low Countries. 
From Messrs. Winship, Brighton, thirtythree varieties of Pears, viz. : — Althorp Crassane, 
Angleterre, Williams's Bon Chretien, Belle et Bonne, Belle Lucrative, Bern're" Diel, B. de 
Capiaumont, B. Ranee, B. Lucrative, B. d'Hiver, Bergamot de Paysans, B. de Paques, B. 
Pentacote, B. Dore, Cumberland, Catillac, Dunmore, Doyenne d'Ete, Duchesse, Fortune^, 
Fulton, Glout Morceau, Heathcot, Jalousie de Fontenay, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Lewis, 
Moorfowl Egg, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Rousse flench, Sageret, Winter Nelis, Wilkinson. 
Apples — Grand Sachem, London, Leadington. 

From Warren's Garden, Brighton, fortyfour varieties of Apples, viz. : — Alexander, 
Atwater, Bellflower, Baldwin, Blue Pearmain, Captain, Danvers Sweet, Detroit, Early 
Russet, Egg Apple, Gardner Sweeting, Golden Russet, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Hawthorn- 
den, Long Nonesuch, Lancaster, London, Minister, New York Greening, Old Pearmain, 
Pumpkin Sweet, Porter, Prince Charles, Pomme de Niege, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island 
Greening, Ribstone Pippin, Red Siberian, Red Bellflower, Sweet Russet, Spice, Seedling, 
Spitzenberg, Striped Spice, Vandervere, Warren's Spice, Yellow Bellflower, Yellow Sibe- 
rian, and five other kinds. Pears — fhirtyeight varieties, viz. : — Andrews, Buffum, Bezi 
Montigny, Beurre Diel, Crassane, Catillac, Duchesse d'Angoul&me, Easter Beurre, 
Flemish Beauty, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Glout Morceau, Gansel's Bergamot, Heathcot, 
Iron Pear, Julienne (second crop,) Marie Louise, Napoleon, Seckel, Vert Longue Panachee, 
Winter Nelis, Williams's Bon Chretien, Wilkinson, Washington, and twelve others for 
names. Fruit of the Pyrus Japonica. Quinces — Orange, Musch-Musch, Pear Quince. 
Melon — Persian Green-flesh. Grapes — Black Hamburg, Black St. Peter's, Palestine, 
Red Chasselas, and a fine basket of Fruit. 

From Aaron D. Williams & Son, Roxbury, twentysix varieties of Pears, viz. : — Angle- 
terre, Andrews, Beurre d'Amalis, B. Brown, B. Easter, Bergamot, Belle Lucrative, Crassane, 
Flemish Beauty, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Harvard, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Messire Jean, 
Madotte, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Rousselet de Rheims, Seckel, St. Germain, St. Michael, 
Summer Thorn, Urbaniste, Verte Longue, Vicar of Winkfield, Williams's Bon Chretien, 
Williams's Early. Apples — fourteen varieties, viz. : — Baldwin, Blue Pearmain, Daniel 
Wise, Fameuse, Gravenstein, Golden Pippin, Greening Sweet, Porter, Roxbury Russet, 
Rhode Island Greening, Ram's Horn, Russet Sweet, Summer Sweet. 

From Alfred A. Andrews, Roxbury, Pears, viz. : — Beurre d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, B. 
Diel, Bezi de la Motte, Columbia, Colmar d'Aremberg, Fulton, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Passe Colmar, Swan's Egg. 

From Phillipp J. Mayer, Weston, Apples, viz. : — Blue Pearmain, Baldwin, Congress, 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Mackey's Greening, do. Sweeting, Porter, Roxbury Russet, Rhode 



PROCEEDINGS. 103 

Island Greening, Trull Sweeting. Pears — Doyenne White, Williams's Bon Chretien. 
Peaches — three varieties. 

From the farm of Moses Kingsley, Esq., Kalamazoo, Michigan, Apples, gathered August 
28, 1845, viz. : — Baldwin, Bellflower, Cabushaw, Greening, Gilliflower, Jonathan, None- 
such, Pippin, Red Winter, Spitzenberg, Seek-no-further, Twenty-ounce Pippin. 

From Nahum Stetson, Bridgewater, Grapes, viz. : — Black Hamburg, Pitmaston White 
Cluster, Chasselas d'Fontainebleau, Esperione, New Black Hamburg, Rose Chasselas, Syrian, 
Wilmot's Black Hamburg. Pears, viz. : — Duchesse d'Angouleme, Doyenne White, Figue 
de Naples, St. Ghislain, Williams's Bon Chretien. Peaches — Crawford's Early, Stetson's 
Seedling, Tice's Early, and three varieties names unknown. Figs — Brunswick. Plum — 
Fellemburg. 

From Asa Clement, Dracut, Apples, viz. : — Haskell Sweeting, Kilham Hill, Parker's 
Sweeting, Porter, Russet Sweeting, Rhode Island Greening, York Apple. 

From John Gordon, Brighton, twentythree varieties of Pears, viz. : — Buffum, Brown 
Beurre, Beurre Ranee, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Easter Beurre, Flemish Beauty, Frederick 
of Wurtemburg, Glout Morceau, Henry IV., Locke's Seedling, Louise Bonne de Jersey, 
Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Queen of the Low Countries, Stevens's Genesee, Doyenne White, 
Seckel, St. Ghislain, Vicar of Winkfield, Verte Longue, Williams's Bon Chretien, Winter 
Nelis, Wilkinson. Plums — Coe's Golden Drop. Three Watermelons. 

From 0. H. Mathers, Brighton, by Thomas Needham, fourteen varieties of Grapes, viz. : — 
Black Hamburg, Black St. Peter's 7 Btack Lombardy, Cannon Hall, Chasselas Musque, 
Chasselas d'Fontainebleau, Frankendale, Golden Chasselas, Grizzly Frontignan, Muscat of 
Alexandria, Palestine, Purple Malvasia, Syrian, White Frontignan. 

From Francis Dana, Roxbury, Peaches — four Seedlings. Quince Apple. 

From John A. Kenrick, Newton, Apples, viz.: — Baldwin, Cogswell, Hightop Sweeting, 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Porter. Pears — Benrre de Capiaumont, Flemish Beauty, Louise 
Bonne de Jersey, Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield. ■ 

From John S. Sleeper, Roxbury, Pears, viz. : — Belle et Bonne d'Hee, Beurre Diel, 
Doyenne White, Eyewood, Glout Morceau, Marie Louise, Verte Longue Panachee, Vicar 
of Winkfield. Apples — Hubbardston Nonesuch. 

From Galen Merriam, West Newton, Pears, viz.: — Beurre Diel, Bezi de la Motte, 
Catillac, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Fortunee, Long Green, Martin Sec, Napoleon, Rousselet, 
Williams's Bon Chretien. Peaches — Crawford's Early, George IV., Lemon Rareripe, 
Morris White. 

From Lewis Davenport, Milton, Apples, viz.: — Baldwin, Golden Russet, Nonesuch 
Peck's Pleasant, Rhode Island Greening, Roxbury Russet. Grapes — Black Hamburg. 
Peaches — Tippecanoe Cling. 

From Dr. Ellwood Harvey, near Chads-Ford, on the Brandywine, Delaware county, Penn., 
two specimens of the Brandywine Pear. 

From Isaac Jeffries, Chester county, Pennsylvania, Seedling Apples, viz. : — Two Red, 
called Jeffries, and two yellow, called Burlingham. 

From Dr. Eshelmar, Chester county, Pennsylvania, a basket of red Seedling Apples. 

From the orchard of William C. Hickman, near West Chester, Chester county, Pennsyl- 
vania, a basket of Peaches. 

From B. K. Bliss, Springfield, Massachusetts, very large Native Grapes. 

From John F. Allen, West Cambridge, eight very large Cantelope Melons. 

From Mrs. Spaulding, South Reading, Apples — Crab and Pumpkin Sweet. Fruit of the 
Passion Flower, and a Lemon from a tree fourteen years old, having on it one hundred fine 
specimens. 

From George Walsh, Charlestown, Apples, viz. : — Baldwin, Nonesuch, Winter Green- 
ing, three varieties for name, and three varieties of Crab Apples. Pears, viz. : — Brown 



104 PROCEEDINGS. 

Beurre, Doyenne" White, Williams's Bon Chretien, Winter Nelis, two varieties for names. 
Grapes — Isabella. 

From W. Keith, West Roxbury, Apples, viz. : — Hightop Sweet, Pumpkin Sweet, Porter. 

From John Henshaw, Cambridge, Pears — Beurre" Diel, Duchesse d'Angouleme. 

From J. Balch, Jr., Roxbury, Pears : — four varieties. 

From S. D. Pardee, New Haven, Connecticut, the Howel's Seedling Pear — from the 
original tree, in the garden now owned by Mr. John English. 

From John Arnold, Jr., Milton, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Zinfendal. 

From Mrs. C. Hutchinson, Boston, Grapes — Black Malaga, and one variety unknown. 

From Artemas Rogers, Watertown, Rogers's Purple Plum, and one pot of Honey. 

From Oliver Livermore, Brighton, one dozen of Apples. 

From John David D' Wolfe, West Chester County, New York, Seckel Pears. 

From John Albree, Newton Corner, Pears — Duchesse d'Angouleme, Easter Beurre, 
Napoleon, Williams's Bon Chretien. Apple — Pumpkin Sweeting. 

From George Peirce, West Cambridge, fine Williams's Bon Chretien Pears, and fine 
Porter Apples. 

From Mrs. James Adams, Roxbury, two dishes of Seckel Pears, extra fine, and one dish 
of Chaumontel Pears. 

From William B. Kingsbury, Pears, viz. : — Beurre Diel, B. Brown, Bell Pear, Catillac, 
Doyenne Gray, Iron Pear, Martin Sec, Passe Colmar, and two varieties unknown. 

From L. R. Mears, Dorchester, Seckel Pears. 

From John H. Welch, Dorchester, thirteen varieties of Pear, viz. : — Beurre Diel, Dix, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, Fulton, Frederick of Wurtemburg, Flemish Beauty, Gansel's 
Bergamot, Rousselet de Rheims, Swan's Egg, St. Michael, St. Ghislain, Urbaniste, Verte 
Longue Panach6e. 

From Henry V T andyne, Cambridge, twentyniae varieties of Pears, viz.: — Andrews, 
Beurre Spence, B. Diel, Charles of Austria, Doyenne White, Flemish Beauty, Frederick 
of Wurtemburg, Glout Morceau, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Heathcot, Marie Louise, New 
Long Panachee, Passe Colmar, Prince's St. Germain, Queen of the Low Countries, Seckel, 
Spanish Bon Chretien, Turkish Bon Chretien, Treasure, Williams's Bon Chretien, Wash- 
ington, and seven varieties unknown. Plums — Huling's Superb, Coe's Golden Drop. 
Seedling Nectarine. 

From Charles H. Tomlinson, Schenectady. New York, large Gansel's Bergamot Pears. 

From Elbridge Tufts, Cambridgeport, Apples, viz. : — Baldwin, Blue Pearmain, Cory 
Greening, English Pearmain, Fall Pippin, Ribstone Pippin, Roxbury Russett, Striped Red 
Sweeting, Tufts's Baldwin, (seedling,) York Russet, a kind unknown. 

From James Eustis, South Reading, twentyfive varieties of Apples, viz. : — Ben, Burr's, 
Bough, Baldwin, Columbian Pippin, Dutch Codlin, Golden Ball, Hubbardston Nonesuch, 
Harvest, Jewett's fine Red, Kilham Hill, Kittredge Sweet, Nonesuch, Orange Sweet, Porter, 
Philadelphia Pippin ( ] ), Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Spice Apple, Sweet 
Winter Russet, Triangle, Trunnell. Seedling Peach. 

From Lewis Wheeler, Cambridgeport, Pears — Dunmore, Williams's Bon Chretien. 
Plums — Lombard, White Gage. 

From Enoch Bartlett, Roxbury, Pears — Culotte de Suisse, Frederick of Wurtemburg, 
Gansel's Bergamot, Heathcot. 

From Hovey & Co., one hundred and two varieties of Pears, viz. : — Abricote, Angleterre, 
Beurre d'Aremberg, B. Brown. B. d'Amalis, B. Capiaumont. B. Diel, B. Easter, B. Ranee, 
B. Romaine, B. d'Anjou, B. de Moire, B. de Beaumont, B. Rose, Belle et Bonne de Hee, 
Belle et Bonne, Belle Lucrative, B. Epine Dumas, B. Heloise, B. Henriette, B. de Thouars, 
B. Esquermes, Bergamot de Bruxelles, B. Cadette, B. Parlhenay, Bon Chretien, (Williams's,) 
B. Spanish, B. Fondante, Belmont, Chaumontel, Comte de Lamy, Cross, Colmar du Lot, 



PROCEEDINGS. 105 

C. d'Aremberg, Chaptal, Coter, Doyenne White, D. Boussoek, D. Santelete, D. Musque, 
Duchesse de Mars. D. Angouleme, D. de Berri, Dunmore, Duvernay, Dumortier, Esperine, 
Flemish Beauty, Forelle, Figue de Naples, Fondante Rouge, Glout Morceau, Grosse 
Calbasse, (Jamin,) Hull, Leon le Gere, (old,) Leon le Clerc, (Van Mons,) Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Le Cure, Las Canas, Marie Louise, Monarch, (Knight's,) Madotte, Napoleon, Ne 
plus Meuris, Passe Colmar, Poire Henriette, Rousselet de Rheims, Seedling Maria, Seckel, 
Styrian, Sargeret, (Van Mons,) Soldat Laboureur ( f ), Sieulle, Verte Longue d'Automne, 
Vicompte de Spoelberch, six kind unnamed, and the following new varieties, viz. : — Adele 
de St. Denis, Belle apres Noel, Beurre Baud, B. Supreme, B. Benoits, Bezi Veterans, 
Bonne des Zees, Captif St. Helene, Dingier, Due de Bordeaux, Episcopal, Ferdinand de 
Meester, Girardin, Inconnue Van Mons, Jersey Gratioli, Poire de Carisie, St. Nicholas, St. 
Denis, Triomphe de Jodoigne, Truckhill Bergamot, and 292 of Van Mons. Apples, viz. : — 
Baldwin, Court Pendu, Carthouse, Down ton Pippin, Hawthornden, Herfordshire Pearmain, 
Hormead Pearmain, James River, Jonathan, Pleasant Valley Pippin, Russet ( ? ), Roxbury 
Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Sturmel Pippin, aud three varieties unnamed. Grapes, 
viz.: — Bourdelas, Black Prince, Black Hamburg, Wilmot's Hamburg, Wilmot's No. 16, 
Chaptal, (new,) Chasselas of Fontainbleau, De Candolle, (new,) Esperione, Frontignan, 
(White,) F. Grizzly, Golden Chasselas, Moranet, (new,) Muscat Blanc Hatif, M. de la 
Mi Aout, M. of Alexandria, M. of Tottenham Park, M. of Portugal, M. Cannon Hall, 
Syrian, Scharges Henling, (new,) White Nice, Zinfendal. Guava, (Psidium Cattleynum.) 
Melons — Beechwood, Christiana, Nutmeg, Peach, Persian. Peaches — Favorite, Sweet 
Water, White Ball. Plums — Semiana, Roger's Blue. Oranges and Lemons, 

From Bissell & Hooker, Rochester, New York, Apples, viz. : — Fameuse, Fall Juneting, 
Hooker, Pomme Gris, Swaar. Pears, viz. : — Swan's Orange, Stevens's Genesee, White 
Doyenne. 

From James Munroe, Cambridge, Pears — Calebasse, Capiaumont, Vicar of Winkfield, 
Passe Colmar. 

From Messrs. S. & G. Hyde, Newton, fortysix varieties of Apples, viz. : — Andover 
Harvest, Baldwin, Blessings, (from Vermont,) Bough Harvest, Blue Pearmain, Belle- 
fleur, Codlin, Cathead, Detroit, Egg Apple, French Nonpareil, Flanders Pippin, Fuller's 
Apple, French Pippin, (Fall,) Green Russet, Gravenstein, Gardner's Sweet, Hubbardston 
Nonesuch, Long Nonesuch, Newton Spitzenberg, Newton Pippin, No Core, Old Pearmain, 
Old Red Nonesuch, Pelham's Sweet, Picena Apple, Philadelphia Pippin, Porter, Pound 
Royal, Pumpkin Sweet, Pearmain, Roxbury Russet, Ribston Pippin, Red Sweet, Rhode 
Island Greening, Red Crop, Spitzenberg, Seaver's Sweet, Strop Apple, (Fall,) Sudbury 
Pound, (Fall,) Sweet Greening, (Fall,) Winter Spice, Yellow Apple, Yellow Crab. 

From John A. Hall, Raynham, Apples, viz. : — Baldwin, English Pearmain, Nonesuch, 
Pomme Water, Peck's Pleasant, Rhode Island Greening, Roxbury Russet, Tender Sweet, 
Tallman's Sweeting, Wing Sweeting. 

From James Cruickshanks, Waltham, Water Melons — Black Spanish, Mountain Sprout, 
Long Island Round. 

From Henry H. Crapo, New Bedford, Pears, viz.: — Ananas, Beurre d'Anjou, B. Golden 
of Bilboa, B. de Beaumont, B. de Capiaumont, B. Diel, B. d'Aremberg, Colmar d'Arem- 
berg, Dunmore, Duchesse d' Angouleme, Doyenne Boussock, Fulton, Fondante d'Automne, 
Holland Bergamot, Hacon's Incomparable, Julienne, Jean de Witt, Jalousie de Fontenay 
Vendee, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Madotte, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Seckel, Vert Longue, 
Vicar of Winkfield, Williams's Bon Chretien, and five varieties for names. Apples — - 
Autumn Bough, Twenty-ounce — grown upon the farm of Humphrey Howland, of Scipio, 
Cayuga county. New York. 

From John Fisk Allen, of Salem, thirtythree varieties of Grapes, viz. : — Wilmot's new 
Black Hamburg, Black Hamburg, Wilmot's No. 16 Black Hamburg, White Gascoigne, 

27 



1 06 PROCEEDINGS. 

Esperione, Grizzly Frontignan, White Frontignan, Hansteretto, Black Sweet Water, Black 
Prince, Portuguese Muscat, Zinfendal, Syrian, Chasselas de Fontainebleau, Chasselas de Bar 
sur Aube, Red Chasselas, Rose Chasselas, Golden Chasselas, White Sweet Water, White 
Tokay, White Nice, De Candolle, Muscat of Lunel, Muscat of Alexandria, Black St. 
Peter's, Black Lombardy, Chaptal, August Muscat, Red Traminer, Whortley Hall Seedling, 
Ferral, Royal Muscadine, Isabella. Pears — Fondante d'Automne, Gansel's Bergamot, 
Ronville, Seckel. Peaches — Bellegarde, La Fayette, Yellow Rareripe, Tippecanoe, Teton 
de Venus, Kenrick's Orange. Plums — Coe's Golden Drop. 

From Eben Wight, Dedham, Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Easter Beuir6, Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Long Green, Seckel, St. Ghislain, Williams's Bon Chretien, Winter Nelis. Apples, 
viz. : — Autumn Bough, Baldwin, Bottle Greening, Blue Pearmain, Danvers Winter Sweet, 
Fameuse, Fall Apple, Hawthornden, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Hightop Sweeting, Lady 
Apple, Mattison's Scarlet, Marston's Red Winter, Orange Sweet, Pumpkin Sweeting, Porter, 
Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Spice Apple, Yellow Bellefleur. Plums, viz. : — 
Green Gage, Coe's Golden Drop, Huling's Superb, Cloth of Gold, Lombard, White Gage, 
Bingham. Peaches — Cooledge's Favorite, Crawford's Early, Crawford's Late, Lemon 
Rareripe, Morris's White, Tice's Early. 

From Weebern, Wyoming county, New York, by F. K. Phoenix, of the Delavan Nursery, 
Delavan, Wisconsin. Apples, viz : — Edgerly Sweet, Durham, or Flower of Edinburgh, Tift 
Sweet, Federal, Changeable, Sweet Gilliflower, Lenox, Detroit Red, Perry Russet, Pound 
Sweet, September Sweet, Striped Pippin, Ox Apple, Pearmain, White Bellefleur, King 
George's Favorite, Green Sweet, King Apple, Griffith's Sweet, Striped Sweet, Early Sweet 
Red, Harvest Gilliflower, and nine other kinds nameless, or merely local names. 

From James P. Oliver, Lynn, Oliver's Russet Pears, from the original tree. 

From H. Snyder, Kinderhook, N. York, Pears — Doyenne White, and Vandervere Apples. 

From R. Whittier, Chicopee, Pears — Brown Beurre, Bleeker's Meadow, Easter Beurre, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Seckel. 

From Aaron D. Capen, Dorchester, Pears, viz.: — Beurre de Capiaumont, Duchesse 
d'Angouleme, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Passe Colmar, Seckel. Apples — Golden Russet, 
and a variety unknown. Seedling Peaches. Melons. 

From Charles Sprague, Boston, Spanish Filberts, grown in the city of Boston. 

From Charles E. Fisk, Natick, Porter Apples. 

From James Arnold, New Bedford, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Chasselas of Fontaine- 
bleau, Royal Muscadine, Royal Muscat, St. Peter's. 

From Geo. Jaques, Worcester, Pears — Coffin's, White Doyenne, Virgalieu. Peach — 
11% inches in circumference; weight, lljj£ ounces. 

From W. W. Cutler, South Reading, Apples — River ? 

From Samuel Pond, Cambridgeport, Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Beurre Diel, Columbia, 
Cushing, Doyenne* White, Dix, Flemish Beauty, Fondante d'Automne, Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Seckel, Surpasse Virgalieu, Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, 
Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From Isaac Pullen, Hightstown, New Jersey, Peaches — Crawford's Late, Melacoton. 

By Isaac P. Davis, Endicott Pears, from the original tree, two hundred and twenty years 
old. 

From G. F. Chandler, Lancaster, Apples. 

From William Adams, Wobum, a Water Melon, weighing 37^ pounds. 

From N. N. Dyer, South Abington, Apples — Black Detroit, Brown Jacket, Bedford 
Sweeting, Crow's Egg, Fameuse. 

From J. M. Everett, Foxboro', Native Grapes. 

Extra fine specimens of Seckel Pears, from the New Jersey Horticultural Society. 



PROCEEDINGS. 107 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 
Prom Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society, a great variety of fine Plants, con- 
sisting of large Camellias, &c. Also, fine Dahlias, Phloxes, Roses, and other Cut Flowers. 
From A. Aspinwall, Roses, in variety. 

From John A. Lowell, a great variety of superb Plants — among them, Sagus Rumphii, 
or Sago Palm, Manettia glabra, Xylophylla speciosa, Calathea zebrina, Draccena ferrea, D. 
fragrans, Russellia juncea, Jatropha pandureefolia, Hibiscus splendens, Chamaerops hystrix, 
Polypodium (Pleopeltis) aureum, Ardisia crenulata, A. solanacea, Eugenia myrtifolia, E. 
australis, Strelitzia regina, S. Augusta, Araucaria excelsa, A. imbricata. Aucuba Japonica, 
Burchellia Capensis, Billbergia awana, Ilex Magellanica, Illicium Floridanum, Melaleuca 
glauca, Sabal Adansoni, Yucca filamentosa, Alpinia nutans, Nandina domestica, Magnolia 
grandiflora, Hedychium flavum, Coffea occidentalis, (Coffee tree,) Acacia dealbata, Daphne 
hybrida. 

From Thomas Liversidge, Dorchester, Plants, viz. : — Orange Tree, Cactus, Jerusalem 
Cherry Tree, Salvia, Scabius. 
From Messrs. Winship, fine Pot Plants, Bouquets, Dahlias, &c. 
From John Albree, Dahlias, Roses, &c. 
From F. R. Bigelow, flowers of Cactus triangularis. 
From John Hovey, Dahlias, Roses, &c. 

From Hovey & Co., a fine display of Green House Plants, viz. : — Russellia juncea, 
Guava cattleyanum, Campanula pyramidalis, Erica Boweana, E. triculata, Mimosa pileda, 
Crowea Saligna, Ardisia crenulata, Achimenes patens, Vinca rosea and alba. Fuchsias — 
Nymph, Acantha, Defiance, Enchantress, Carmarkii, and one seedling. Amaryllis vittata, 
Leschenaultia formosa. Cut Flowers and Bouquets. 

From Charles B. Shaw, Dedham, by T. Murray, five pots of Cockscombs, and one pot of 
Grass Amaranthus. 

From George C. Crowningshield, by John Quant, fine specimens of Green House Plants, 
viz. : — Acacia pubescens, Achimenes grandiflora, patens and grandiflora, Thunbergia alata, 
Veronica Lindleyana, Gloxinia speciosa, cartonia and variegata, Leschenaultia formosa 
Oxalis Boweii, Russellia juncea, Vinca rosea and purpurea, Rondeletia speciosa, Ruellia 
formosa, Erica mimosa, &c. 

From Lewis Davenport, a great variety of fine Roses, Dahlias, &c. 
From Parker Barnes, Cut Flowers, Dahlias, &c. Also a large Grass Bouquet, Design, 
&c. 
From O. H. Mathers, by T. Needham, a variety of fine Pot Plants. 
From Warren's Gardens, by J. Cadness, the following Plants : — large Melaleuca, Abu- 
tilon striatum, Camellia Buckliana, C. elegans, C. Seedling, C King, C. Tricolor, C. Fordii, 
C. Nanetensis, C. Queen Victoria, C. Middlemist, C. Buist's Martha, C. Hempsteadii, 
C. Eximia, C. Warratah, Abutilon Bedfordiana, large Rhododendron, Alta Clarence, R. 
multimaculatum, R. Smithii, Amie Vibert rose, Lamarque rose, Magnolia grandiflora, Aloe 
Succoteensis, Tamus Elephantipes, Variegated Holly, Acacia linearis, Musa Paradisiaca, 
Phylica ericoides, Globe Amaranthus, Aloes — pentagona, minor, marginata and variegata, 
Euphorbia meloformis, E. heptagonis, E. multicorymbosa, E. Monstrosus • Mammillara — 
Parkinsonii, Dillenii, pulchra, discolor, Wildiana, Nivea, Royenii, sempervivi, scopa rubra, 
stellaris, scopa alba, pectinatus, ruficeps, recurvus, Schiedanus, Dolichantia, cincigera, 
acanthophleyma, sculptus, tenuis, and a seedling • Echinocactus — Descaisniana, Ottonis, 
myriostigma, cornigerus, Eyriesii, exculptus, tetraxiphus, pectinatus, pulcherrimus, scopa 
nova, villosus, mammulosus, Zuccariana, sp., sp. ; Cereus — hexagonus, ccerulescens, 
monstrosus, heptagonus, senilis. Also, Balsams, Passiflora Loudonii, Coxcombs, Abelia 
rupestris, Vinca alba, Anemone Japonica, Finger Orange, Calystegia pubescens, Achimenes 
pedunculata, A. coccinnea, A. rosea, A. picta, A. grandiflora, Hcemanthus tigrinus, Ixora 



108 PROCEEDINGS. 

rosea, Cryptomeria Japoniea. Large Round Bouquet, for Bradlee Vase, and two Flat 
Bouquets. Dahlias and Cut Flowers in variety. 

From H. T. Haseltine, Asters, Verbenas, Cockscombs, &c. 

From J. Mann and Mrs. E. Parker, fine Grass Bouquets. 

From William Kenrick, by Miss Russell, an arbor Design. 

From Mrs. J. Dyer, a handsome Design. 

From M. E. C. Brown, J. Shekeen, Miss Kenrick, Miss Mary Kenrick, and J. Gilmore, 
Designs of various sorts. 

From John Parker, very fine Dahlias. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., Dahlias, and other Cut Flowers. 

From James Nugent, Dahlias, Roses and Bouquets. 

From B. K. Bliss, Springfield, two fine Cockscombs, and a Design. 

The committee have not received the names of many plants contributed, some of which 
were very fine, nor do they know from whence they came. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From J. E. Teschemacher, East Boston, New Cabbage, sown 19th of April, in the open 
ground ; only manure, one tablespoonful of guano ; the finest flavored, and the most 
delicate of the Cabbage tribe ; have been grown of 15 pounds weight — introduced and 
distributed by Mr. Teschemacher, in 1847. Sprouts from the same. New Cabbage — 
Early Northern ; seed from St. Petersburg, Russia, received by the kindness of Horatio R. 
Storer; sown in the open ground, 19th April; ready for table, 9th July. Sprouts of the 
same. New String Bean — seed from California ; sown first week in June ; first gathering, 
1st of August. The same plants continue to produce abundantly till the frost : the 
specimen exhibited flowers, young beans and ripe seed on the same stem ; extremely 
tender ; flavor very delicate ; grows about three feet high : introduced by Mr. T. White 
Beet root, from which sugar is extracted in France and Germany. Seed from France, 
1848. Onions, Carrots and Scotch Kale — exhibited, also, to show the action of guano. 
All these vegetables were raised on very poor soil, which has had no manure for three 
successive years but guano, at the rate of about four hundred pounds to the acre. 

From James Cruickshanks, German Curled Greens, or Scotch Kale ; Scotch Flag Leek ; 
Bassano Beet; Early Horn Carrot; Stringham do. ; Orange do. ; brace Douglass Champion 
Cucumber, new ; brace Victory of England do. ; Lima Beans, for table ; quantity of do. 
ripe ; Custard Winter Squash ; Marrow do. ; Club do. 

From D. Denny, Dorchester, Drumhead Cabbages. 

From G. C. Crowningshield, by John Quant, Celery and Egg Plants. 

From Lewis Davenport, Milton, a peck of Sweet Potatoes. 

From Elbridge Tufts, Cambridgeport, Canada Squash; Crooknecked Striped do., six 
from one seed. 

From Nahum Stetson, South Bridgewater, Mammoth Tomato; Club Gourd. 

From F. W. Macondry, Dorchester, Pumpkins; Blood Beet; Sugar do. ; Orange Carrot; 
Marrow Squash ; White Crooknecked do. ; Canada Crooknecked do. ; Royal Cape Lettuce ; 
Large Dutch Parsnip; Corn; Sugar Pumpkin; Drumhead Cabbage; Pea Beans; Seva 
do. ; Horticultural do. ; Early China do. ; Russian bush do. ; Lima do. ; Seymour Celery ; 
Cucumber; three varieties of Tomatoes, and thirtyfour varieties of Potatoes. 

From S. W. Cole, Chelsea, Potatoes, viz. : — Hill's Early, Egg, White Kidney, Knevet's 
Defiance, Holmes's Early, White Bluenose, Hall's Early, Early June, Wait's Oval, Light 
Chenango, Chenango, Superior do., (two sorts), White Chenango, Carter, Snowball, Wait's 
Round, Victoria, Kidney, St. Helena, Hancock, Butman, Long White, Wait's Long, Apple, 
Longneck, Mohawk or Seal's Foot, Black, Peach Blow, Rohan, Calico, Waterloo, Clinton 



PROCEEDINGS. 109 

White, Cranberry, American Blues, Prince Edward, Michigan, Connecticut, Orange, Dean, 
Prince Albert, Pinkeye, Parker's Seedling, Stockbridge, Lady's Finger, four varieties 
nameless, and thirtyseven Seedling Potatoes, of 1848. Crooknecked Squash; Marrow do. ; 
Blood Beet. 

From Herbert S. Cole, a basket of Potatoes, of various kinds. 

From A. D. Williams & Son, Roxbury, Pumpkins; Blood Beets; Carrots; Ruta Baga ; 
Drumhead Cabbage ; Savoy do. ; Salsify ; Canada Squash ; Marrow do. ; Celery ; Turnip 
Beet ; Tomatoes ; Corn. 

From George Pierce, West Cambridge, Purple Broccoli ; Giant Celery ; Red Cabbage ; 
White Cauliflower; Marrow Squashes. 

From John Albree, Newton Comer, Egg Plants. 

From Daniel Brims, Roxbury, Celery. 

From Alexander McLennan, Watertown, Egg Plants. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Seal's-foot Potato ; Shepherd's Early do. 

From Azell Bowditch, Roxbury, Savoy Cabbage; Northern do. ; Drumhead do. ; Sweet 
Corn ; Yellow do. ; Gourd. 

From Benjamin V. French, Braintree, Early June Potatoes ; Hill's Early do. ; Knevet's 
Defiance do.; Blood Beet; Yellow Turnip do.; Turnip Blood do.; Mangel Wurtzel ; 
Purple Egg Plant ; White do. A fine specimen of Egyptian Wheat. 

From Mrs. Spaulding, South Reading, Blood Beets. 

From John Schouler, West Cambridge, by J. Gilmore, Blood Beets. 

From N. N. Dyer, South Abington, two Canada Crookneck Squashes, two years old. 

From Pickering Dodge, Salem, two German Cabbages. 

From Warren's Gardens, Brighton, a Bouquet of Egyptian Wheat ; Snake Cucumber ; 
Yard Bean. 

From J. Balch, jr., Roxbury, Tomatoes. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

SUB-COMMITTEE ON BASKETS OF FRUIT. 

The sub-committee of Judges on the Baskets of Fruit, beg leave to report and recom- 
mend as follows : — 

For the best basket of Fruit, the first premium, of ten dollars, to Otis Johnson. 
For the second best, the second premium, of seven dollars, to Messrs. Hovey & Co. 
(Signed,) F. W. MACONDRAY, 

EBEN WIGHT, 
Sept. 29, 1848. DAVID HAGGERSTON. 

SUB-COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 

The sub-committee of Judges on Fruit, recommend the following premiums to be 
awarded to the undernamed persons : — 

For the best twelve varieties of Pears, consisting of twelve specimens each, the first 
premium to Samuel Walker. 

The second premium, for second best, to Hovey & Co. 

Third premium, for third best, to Josiah Lovett. 

For the best dish of Pears — 

First premium to James Adams, for his dish of fine Seckel Pears. 

For second best dish, second premium to Samuel Pond, for his dish of Dix Pears. 

J. S. CABOT, 
ROBERT MANNING, 

Sept. 29, 1848. F. W. MACONDRAY. 

28 



110 PROCEEDINGS. 

The Committee recommend gratuities of the Society's Medal of five dollars, to the 
following named persons, for beautiful specimens of Pears : — 

John Gordon, Frederick W. Macondray, Ralph Crooker, Henry Vandine, C. Newhall, 
Alfred A. Andrews, Enoch Bartletl. 

And they further recommend a gratuity of a Gold Medal, or piece of Plate, of the value 
of twentyfive dollars, to Marshall P. Wilder, President of the Society. Also, a gratuity of 
like value, to Robert Manning, of Salem, for the extensive collection of Pears exhibited 
by those gentlemen. 



COMMITTEE ON GRAPES. 

The Committee on Grapes, exhibited at the Annual Exhibition, beg leave to report and 
recommend as follows : — 

To George R. Russell, for the best five varieties, the first premium of fifteen dollars. 

To Thomas Needham, for the best three varieties, second premium of ten dollars. 

To J. F. Allen, for the best two varieties, third premium of seven dollars. 

To Nahum Stetson, for the best one variety, fourth premium of five dollars. 

They also recommend a gratuity of fifteen dollars to John Fisk Allen, for his extensive 
collection of Grapes, many of which are new varieties. Also, to Otis Johnson, B. D. 
Emerson, and James Arnold, of New Bedford, the Society's Medals, of five dollars each, 
for their well grown specimens. 

Sept. 29, 1848. For the Judges, D. HAGGERSTON, Chairman. 



S U B- C M MI T TE E ON APPLES. 

The sub-committee on Apples, at the Annual Exhibition, beg leave to report as 

follows : — 

For the best twelve varieties, of twelve specimens each, to J. L. L. F. Warren, the 
Society's Plate of twentyfive dollars. 

For the second best do., to Messrs. Hyde, ten dollars. 

For the third best do., to.E. Tufts, five dollars. 

Gratuity for the largest collection — to Benjamin V. French, the Society's Medal, or 
Plate, of twentyfive dollars. 

For the best basket of Fall Apples, to George Pierce, six dollars. 

For the second best do., to Josiah Stickney, four dollars. 

The Committee would beg leave to mention the following exhibitors as deserving of a 
gratuity of the Society's Medal, of five dollars each, for beautiful specimens, viz. : — James 
Eustis, A. D. Weld, Anson Dexter, Hovey & Co., A. D. Williams & Son, R. Manning, and 
A. Hall 

EBEN WIGHT, 
OTIS JOHNSON, 

Sept. 29, 1848. P. B. HOVEY, Jr. 

JUDGES OF FLOWERS. 

The Judges on Flowers, report and recommend as follows : — 

Pot Plants. — For the best collection, first premium of fifteen dollars, to John Cadness. 

For the second best do., to John Quant, second premium of ten dollars. 

For the third best do., to Hovey & Co., eight dollars. 

For the fourth best do., to Messrs. Winship, five dollars. 

Cockscombs. — First premium of three dollars, to James Nugent. 

Second premium of two dollars, to Alexander McLennan. 

Double Balsams. — First premium of three dollars, to James Nugent. 



PROCEEDINGS. Ill 



The Judges recommend a gratuity of ten dollars to Thomas Willot, for a fine display of 
Plants, and to Thomas Cowen, for a fine plant of Araucaria excelsa, three dollars. 

WILLIAM QUANT, \ 
E. A. STORY, J. Judges. 

Sept. 29, 1848. W. B. RICHARDS, j 



JUDGES ON BOUQUETS. 

Vase Bouquets. — For the best pair for the Bradlee Vases, first premium of ten dollars, 
to Thomas Cowen. 

Second premium of six dollars, to Hovey & Co. 

For the best pair for the Society's Vases, first premium of ten dollars, to Hovey & Co. 

Second premium of six dollars, to E. A. Story. 

Mantel Bouquets. — For the best pair, first premium of eight dollars, to John Cadness. 

For the second best do., to James Nugent, six dollars. 

For the third best do., to E. A. Story, five dollars. 

The Judges recommend the following gratuities, viz. : — 

For Grass Bouquets and Designs, five dollars each, to Miss H. Barnes, Mrs. J. Mann, 
Mr. M. E. Parker, Mr. J. Dier, Miss Russell, and J. Sheen. To Miss H. Barnes, and Mrs. 
E. C. Brown, two dollars each ; to Miss Mary Kenrick, and J. Gilmore, one dollar each. 

Also, to John Cadness, for a splendid pair of Bouquets, ten dollars. 

alex. Mclennan, ) 

JOHN QUANT, V Judges. 

Sept. 29, 1848. WILLIAM QUANT, j 

The Flower Committee recommend a gratuity of five dollars to Lewis Davenport, for a 

fine display of Roses. 

JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 



COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 

The Committee to whom was assigned the duty of awarding premiums on Vegetables, 
at the Annual Exhibition, submit the following report : — 

For the best display and greatest variety of Vegetables, first premium of ten dollars, to 
F. W. Macondray. 

Second do., of six dollars, to A. D. Williams. 

Gratuities. — To S. W. Cole, for a fine show of fortyfive varieties of Potatoes, thirty- 
seven of which were seedlings of 1848, ten dollars. 

To George Pierce, for fine Blue and White Broccoli, five dollars. 

To Daniel Brims, for fine Celery, five dollars. 

To J. E. Teschemacher, for a fine display of Vegetables, many of them new, five 
dollars. 

To James Cruickshanks, for a fine display of Vegetables, three dollars. 

To A. Bowditch, for fine Cabbages, two dollars. 

To A. McLennan, for superior Egg Plants, two dollars. 

To E. Cameron, for the largest Drumhead Cabbages, two dollars. 

To N. Stetson, for large Tomatoes, one dollar. 

To B. V. French, and Hovey & Co., for a fine show of Potatoes, one dollar, each. 

At no former Exhibition has there been so fine a display of Vegetables. The committee 
would congratulate the Society on the increased interest manifested in this department, 
and hope that it will be an encouragement to future efforts. 

A. D. WILLIAMS, Jr., ~) 
WM. B. KINGSBURY, ! 
A.D.WILLIAMS, f JUDGES - 

Sept. 29, 1848. JAMES NUGENT, j 



112 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 23, 1848., 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

Letters from Josiah Bradlee and Samuel Appleton, Esqrs., were read. Mr. Bradlee'3 
letter enclosed a donation of five hundred dollars. It was voted that this sum be added to 
his former donation of five hundred, and that the amount be invested as a permanent fund 
for premiums on Flowers and Fruits. 

With Mr. Appleton's letter a donation of two hundred dollars was received, to be 
expended in the increase of the Library. 

Voted, unanimously, That the thank of the Society be presented to Messrs. Bradlee and 
Appleton, for their liberal donations. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the several Committees, upon the Annual 
Exhibition and Festival, for the services performed by them. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. Lovett, D. Haggerston, and E. M. Richards, was 
appointed to nominate a list of Officers for the year ensuing. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 30, 1848. 

The President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting to nominate a list of Officers, submitted a 
ticket, with the name of the Hon. B. V. French, for President, — Col. Wilder having declined 
a re-election — whereupon Mr. French tendered his thanks to the Society for the honor 
intended, but respectfully declind the nomination. 

The Report was recommitted. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 7, 1848. 
President Marshall, P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Medals, Mr. Newhall, submitted the following 
Report : — 

The Committee chosen some time since, to obtain Medals for the use of the Society, have 
attended to the charge, and herewith present their report. 

Immediately after their appointment, your Committee engaged the services of Mr. 
Mitchell, who has finished a die for the Society's Medal ; fifty silver medals have been 
stamped at the mint in Philadelphia, and placed in the hands of the Treasurer of the 
Society. 

The same artist has recently executed a die for the Appleton Medal, twentyfive of 
which have been stamped in Bronze, in Philadelphia ; five have been given to Samuel 
Appleton, Esq., whose likeness it bears, the others are herewith presented for the use of the 
Society. The sum demanded for the Society's Medal, was two hundred and fifty dollars, 
and for the Appleton Medal, one hundred and twentyfive dollars, which amounts have 
been paid by the Treasurer. 

Your Committee have examined many medals by other artists, and find those executed 
for this Society, equal to any they have seen, either European or American, and, in their 
opinion, reflect great credit upon the distinguished artist, Francis N. Mitchell, Esq. : your 



PROCEEDINGS. 113 

Committee were further charged to procure another die for a Medal, for the Society, but, 
at the request of the Executive Committee, have deferred further action, until otherwise 
instructed by a vote of the Society. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

The report was accepted, and it was 

Voted, That the President of the Society, and the members of the Medal Committee, be 
presented with a copy of each Medal executed in bronze. 

The Committee to nominate a list of Officers for the year ensuing, reported that they 
had attended to the duty assigned them — when the Annual Election took place, and the 
following persons were unanimously elected : — 

President — Samuel Walker. 

Vice Presidents — B. V. French, Cheever Newhall, E. M. Richards, J. S. Cabot. 

Treasurer — F. W. Macondray. 

Corresponding Secretary — Eben Wight. 

Recording Secretary — E. C. R. Walker. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology — J. L. Russell, A. M. 

Professor of Entomology — T. W. Harris, M. D. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry — E. N. Horsford. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On Fruits — F. W. Macondray, Chairman; P. B. Hovey, Jr., J. S. Cabot, Eben Wight, 
Josiah Lovett, J. Breck, R. Manning. 

On Plants and Flowers — David Haggerston, Chairman; A. McLennan, William B. 
Richards, E. A. Story, J. Cadness, F. L. Winship, E. C. R. Walker. 

On Vegetables — A. D. Williams, Jr., Chairman; W. B. Kingsbury, J. Nugent, A. Bow- 
ditch, A. D. Weld, S. W. Cole, George Pierce. 

On the Library — C. M. Hovey, Chairman ; H. W. Dutton, J. Breck, W. B. Richards, R 
M. Copeland, Librarian. 

On Synonymes of Fruits — M. P. Wilder, Chairman; C. M. Hovey, J. S. Cabot, R. 
Manning, F. W. Macondray. 

Executive Committee — S. Walker, Chairman ; F. W. Macondray, M. P. Wilder, E. M. 
Richards, 0. Johnson. 

For Establishing Premiums — F. W. Macondray, Chairman ; D. Haggerston, A. D. Will- 
iams, C. M. Hovey, J. Lovett, 2d. 

On Finance — M. P. Wilder, Chairman ; J. Stickney, 0. Johnson. 

On Publication — Eben Wight, Chairman ; C. K. Dillaway, J. Lovett, 2d, E. C. R. 
Walker, F. W. Macondray, D. Haggerston, A. D. Williams, Jr. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 21, 1848. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A letter from Edward Bartlett, Esq., accompanied with seeds of an Ornamental Tree, 
was laid before the Society. Whereupon it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. Bartlett. 

29 



114 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 4, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A letter from William R. Bunnell, respecting a preventive for the ravages of the Curculio, 
and other insects of a similar nature, was received. 

On motion, it was 

Voted, That it be submitted to the Fruit Committee, to take such action upon it as they 
deem fit, and that notice be given to Mr. Bunnell, of such disposal, by the Corresponding 
Secretary. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 18, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed to procure a piece of plate, of the value of fifty dollars, to be 
presented to the late Recording Secretary, Mr. Eben Wight, reported that they had attended 
to the duties assigned them, and submitted the correspondence. 

Mr. Cabot offered the following : — 

Voted, That a committee be chosen to consider, and report to the Society, upon the 
expediency of the adoption by this Society, of some measures to obtain and disseminate 
information as to the best mode of cultivating Fruits. 

Messrs. J. S. Cabot, S. Walker, D. Haggerston, C. M. Hovey, E. M. Richards, M. P. 
Wilder, Joseph Breck, B. V. French, and Otis Johnson, were appointed a Committee to 
report on the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 2, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Executive Committee, in accordance with the duty enjoined on them, recommended 
that the sum of twelve hundred and fifty dollars be appropriated by the Society for 
premiums for the year 1849 ; that the income derived from the Appleton, Lowell, Lyman, 
and Bradlee Funds, constitute a part of the amount, and that the apportionment to the 
several Committees be the same as for the year 1848. 

The Fund for Special Prizes having all been awarded, it was suggested by the Committee, 
that ten sets of Colman's European Agriculture, and the Medals remaining on hand, (after 
the distribution of those already awarded,) be given as premiums, or gratuities, for such 
objects as are worthy of distinction, and are not provided for in the prize list. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 16, 1848. 

The President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

A letter was read by the President, from M. Tougard, President of the Central Society 
of Horticulture, of Rouen, France : with the letter was received a Catalogue of his Nursery, 
and the publications of the Society over which he presides. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to M. Tougard, and the Corresponding Secretary- 
was directed to transmit to him a copy of the vote, and also a copy of the Transactions of 
the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS. 115 

A letter from F. R. Elliott, Cleveland, Ohio, presenting the Society with seven new native 
varieties of Cherry trees, was received. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Elliott, and the trees, for the Society's use, 
were placed under the care of the President. 

Copies of the twentyfirst Annual Fair of the American Institute, were laid on the table 
for distribution. The thanks of the Society, for the same, were voted. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 23, 1848. 

President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair. 

The Committee of Publication presented their report, by which it appeared there were 
some bills unpaid — whereupon it was 

Voted, That the Treasurer be authorized to pay all outstanding bills, presented by the 
Committee. 

A Committee, consisting of the President and Treasurer, J. Stickney, F. W. Macondray, 
and Otis Johnson, was appointed to settle with the Treasurer of Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

The Corresponding Secretary was requested to forward copies of the Proceedings of the 
Twentieth Annual Exhibition of the Society, to the several Horticultural Societies in the 
country. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Flowers and Vegetables presented their reports, 
on awarding premiums for 1848, which were accepted, and the thanks of the Society voted 
to the Committee for their not having exceeded the appropriation. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 6, 1849. 
President, Marshall P. Wilder, in the Chair.. 

After taking the Chair the President introduced Mr. Walker, the President elect, in the 
following manner: — 

Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society — 

The duty of introducing my successor, your President elect, devolves on me under very 
happy auspices — your suffrages have fallen on a man, who is worthy of the office, and 
well qualified for it — on one who has served the Society, in various capacities, with fidelity 
and ability, and whom you now reward with the highest honor in your gift. 

Gentlemen, — I rejoice with you in this event, and in the prosperous condition of our 
Association ; in the friendship and unanimity that prevails among us, and especially in an 
opportunity, before taking final leave of the Chair, to thank you once more, most sincerely, 
for the distinction which you have bestowed on me — a distinction for which, at my first 
election, I had not presumed to hope, but which, having been so often conferred, and by 
those whose approbation I highly appreciate, I shall ever regard as above any earthly 
preferment. 

During my administration, it has been my desire and endeavor to discharge the duties 
of my office, with impartiality, and with a view to the best interests of the Society. How 
well I have succeeded, I leave for others to judge ; but whatever success may have 
attended these efforts, for you, my official associates, with whom I have had such long and 
pleasant intercourse, and from whom 1 have received uniform and cordial support, I shall 
ever entertain an affection next to that for family and home. 



116 PROCEEDINGS. 

Gentlemen, — May a kind Providence bless you in your persons, in your families, and in 
all your laudable efforts to extend the usefulness, and to increase the resources, of this 
institution ; and may he, who is now to occupy this chair, prove more worthy of the confi- 
dence and respect, you have so liberally bestowed upon me. 

To which Mr. Walker replied : — 

Gentlemen of the Society — 

The very kind manner in which my friend, Col. Wilder, has introduced me, and his 
determination, if it were possible, to lay me under further obligations, by his courtesy, 
and his avowed approbation of my past services, happily afford me an opportunity to 
state how much I value his friendship — the pleasure it has given me to serve the Society, 
under his administration, and to tender you, Gentlemen, my thanks, for the honor you have 
conferred upon me. 

I cannot plead that I am ignorant of the duties, or the responsibilities, of the office 
to which you have elected me, but, in the same spirit of frankness, permit me to say, 
that I have many misgivings as to my ability to discharge them, in such a manner, as 
may be acceptable to you, Gentlemen, or that I shall be able, in any way, to aid, or 
promote, the progress and prosperity of the Society. 

When I turn to the records of the Society, to read the doings, and remember the 
talents, of those who have heretofore occupied this chair, and more particularly, the 
eminent practical services of my immediate predecessor, I have good reason for fear, 
as regards my own services. But, with you, gentlemen, I have been accustomed to 
labor; it is therefore almost unnecessary for me to say, that, for the future, I shall 
hope and expect to receive the same indulgence, you have so often and so kindly extended 
to me, during a period of nearly twenty years. With these expectations, I enter upon 
the duties assigned to me, with a determination, on my part, to co-operate with you, in as 
liberal an administration of the Society, as may be consistent with strict economy, and its 
future interest. 

I shall take an early opportunity to submit, for your consideration and action, an outline 
of such measures, as shall appear to me calculated to promote the further consolidation 
and usefulness of the Society. 

United as we now are, as members, still encouraged by the co-operation of friends, and 
enjoying the liberal benefactions of our honored donors, I trust our future will be full of 
usefulness, and that our efforts may advance the object for which we are associated. 

Gentlemen, — When the time arrives, that these new relations, which are formed to day 
shall be dissolved, may it find us the same united and prosperous Society, strong in mutual 
friendship and esteem. 

Mr. French presented the following votes, complimentary to the President, which were 
unanimously adopted : — 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be tendered to M. P. Wilder, Esq., for his services 
during the period he was President thereof. 

Voted, That a Committee, of three, be appointed by the chair, to purchase a piece of 
plate, not exceeding in value one hundred and fifty dollars, and cause a suitable inscriptiou 
to be placed thereon, and present the same, with the vote of thanks, to M. P. Wilder, in 
behalf of the Society, as a tribute of regard and esteem of its members. 

Messrs. B. V. French, Newhall and Cabot, were appointed a Committee to carry the 
foregoing into effect. 

The following vote, presented by Mr. C. M. Hovey, was unanimously adopted : — 
Voted, That the Society's gold medal be presented to Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, the first 
President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, for the essential services he rendered 



PROCEEDINGS. 117 

to the science of horticulture, and the interests of the Society, during the period he presided 
over its affairs ] and that a committee, of three, be appointed by the Chair, to carry out the 
above vote. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, C. Newhall, and E. M. Richards were appointed by the Chair, 
as the Committee. 

The following Resolutions were offered by Eben Wight : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be tendered to Mr. J. E. Teschemacher, for his 
valuable services, as Corresponding Secretary, for many years, and as Chairman of the 
Committee of Publications. 

Resolved, That as a token of approbation and respect, and in consideration of these 
services, that a piece of silver plate, of the value of fifty dollars, be presented to Mr. 
Teschemacher ; or such other article of like value, as he may please to designate, and 
that a Committee, of three, be appointed by the Chair, to carry these Resolutions into 
effect. 

Messrs. Wight, Stickney, and Dutton, were appointed a Committee on the foregoing 
Resolutions. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Lovett, P. B. Hovey, Jr., and Otis Johnson, was 
appointed to nominate thirteen persons, as a Committee of Arrangements for the next 
Annual Exhibition, They subsequently reported the names of the following members, 
who were elected : — 

Messrs. Joseph Breck, F. W. Macondray, David Haggerston, Aaron D. Williams, Jr., 
J. S. Cabot, Otis Johnson, P. B. Hovey, Jr., Eben Wight, J. F. Allen, J. Lovett, 2d, W. R. 
Austin, A. D. Weld, H. W. Dutton. 

On motion of Mr. Newhall, 

Voted, That the donation of Mr. Appleton, amounting to two hundred dollars, be placed 
at the disposal of the Library Committee. 

The Committee of Finance, and Committee on the Library, reported in part, and further 
time was granted them. 

The Executive Committee submitted a schedule of Premiums for 1849. Accepted, and 
voted to be published. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 20, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. Stickney, from the Committee of Finance, presented the following Annual Report 
of the Receipts and Expenditures for the year 1848 : — 

Receipts for the Year 1848. 

Balance on hand, ... $47 35 

From Mount Auburn Cemetery, - 4,495 09 

Rent for Store and Hall, - 1 } 927 50 

Dividend on Stock, &c, 384 79 

Transactions sold, ----.--..... 250 00 
Assessments and Fees, - - - - - - - - - - 1,192 27 

Donation of S. Appleton, 200 00 

Donation of Josiah Bradlee, 500 00 

Sundry Receipts, Exhibitions, &c, ...... .. 367 12 

$9,364 12 
30 



118 PROCEEDINGS. 

Payments for the Year 1848. 

Stocks purchased, $1,398 75 

Repairs of Hall, 414 12 

Cost of Transactions and Printing, - 1,819 72 

Annual Festival, 980 99 

Doorkeeper, &c, 476 00 

Premiums, &c, 1,350 00 

Library, 168 35 

Interest on Mortgage, 750 00 

Miscellaneous Expenses, 1,924 49 

Balance in the Treasury, - - - - - - - - - - - 81 70 

$9,364 12 
Property of the Society. 

Building, $36,000 00 

Furniture of Hall, 1,835 00 

Library, 1,468 00 

Stocks, 3,700 00 

Appleton and other Funds, - 3,500 00 

$46,503 00 

The debts of the Society are some few outstanding accounts, and a mortgage of fifteen 
thousand dollars. 

On motion of Mr. Newhall, 

Voted, That the Finance Committee be requested to negotiate for the payment of the 
present mortgage, when it becomes due in May. 

The President suggested the holding a semi-annual show of Roses, &c, in June. The 
subject was referred to the Committee of Arrangements, to report at a future meeting. He 
also proposed that a Catalogue should be published of all the varieties of Fruit which have 
been exhibited at the rooms of the Society, from its organization up to the present time, 
with the names of the exhibitors. Referred to the Fruit Committee. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 3, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. Wilder, from the Committee appointed to settle with the Treasurer of Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, reported that they had attended to that duty, and that the Society's proportion of 
the proceeds, amounting to two thousand five hundred and eighty two dollars and forty three 
cents, had been received, and paid over to the Treasurer. 

Mr. Breck, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, reported that the twentyfirst 
Annual Exhibition should be held on the 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st of September next. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 17, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A letter from the Antiquarian Society was received, requesting copies of the Transactions 
of the Society, &c. 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary forward the same. 

The Committee on Publication submitted a report, recommending the Society to publish 
one more number of its "Transactions, with Plates," to complete the series. Accepted. 



PROCEEDINGS. 119 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 3, 1849. 

The President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee of Arrangements recommended a semi-annual Exhibition of Flowers, 
&c, to be held in June ■ that fifty dollars be appropriated for premiums on the occasion, 
and that gratuities be also awarded for fine specimen plants. 

The President, Recording Secretary, J. Lovett, C. M. Hovey, and D. Haggerston, were 
appointed a Committee to prepare and furnish Tickets to ihe members. 

Messrs. J. S. Cabot, C. Newhall, and E. Wight were appointed a Committee to consider 
the expediency of presenting to Mr. J. Fisk Allen, a testimonial of approbation, and the 
thanks of the Society for his valuable contributions of early Fruits during the Exhibitions 
the past season. 

A letter from Dr. S. P. Hildreth, of Marietta Ohio, accompanied with a large painting, in 
oils, of some Ohio, and other Fruits, was received. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Dr. Hildreth. 



BUSINESS MEETING 



Saturday, April 7, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The sum of two hundred dollars was appropriated for the Committee on the Library, and 
fifty dollars for Premiums lor the semi-annual Exhibition in June. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Macondray, Wight and Copeland, was appointed to 
superintend alterations in the Library Room. 

Two hundred dollars were appropriated for the Committee of Publication, for the purpose 
of completing the Transactions of the Society. 

The Committee appointed on the expediency of giving Mr. J. F. Allen a testimonial of 
approbation of the Society, reported that a piece of plate, of the value of twentyfive dollars, 
be presented to him. 

Thanks of the Society were voted to Dr. W. D. Brinckle. of Philadelphia, and A. H. 
Ernst, of Cincinnati, for contributions of rare scions of fruits. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 21, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. George B. Jones presented to the Society a valuable Chinese Vase, whereupon the 
thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Jones. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 28, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Scions of a new Apple were received from Mr. L. P. Grosvenor, Pomfret, Connecticut, 
and distributed among the members. The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Gros- 
venor. 



120 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 12, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

On motion of Mr. Wilder, it was 

Voted, That the Treasurer, with the advice and consent of the Finance Committee, be 
authorized to make a sale of Stocks, and to borrow a sum of money, not exceeding one 
thousand dollars, to meet a mortgage due 16th of May. 

The President was authorized to execute a mortgage deed of ten thousand dollars, made 
to Josiah Bradlee, Esq. 

M. P. Wilder, late President of the Society, was presented with a piece of plate, and the 
Committee submitted the following correspondence : — 

Boston, May 1, 1849. 
Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 

Dear Sir : — At a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, held in their 
Library room, January 6th, 1849, the following Resolutions were passed : — 
[For Resolutions, see page 116.] 

And now, sir, in compliance with the above Resolutions, we present for your acceptance, 
a Silver Pitcher, which we request you to receive as a token of esteem for the zeal and 
success with which you have served in the cause of Horticulture and Floriculture while a 
member of the Society, and more particularly while acting as President during the term of 
eight years. 

With sincere wishes for your continued usefulness, health and prosperity, we are, 
Sir, most respectfully, your friends, 

BENJ. V. FRENCH, 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
JOSEPH S. CABOT. 

Boston, May 10, 1849. 
To the Hon. Benj. V. French, Cheever Newhall, Esq. and Hon. Joseph S. Cabot, Committee. 

Gentlemen : — The splendid testimonial which accompanied your esteemed favor of 
the 1st instant, has been received, — also, a copy of the Resolutions passed by the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the occasion of my retiring from its Presidency. 

I accept of this rich and beautiful gift with lively emotions of gratitude ; not for its 
intrinsic value, but as an enduring memorial of the confidence and respect so uniformly 
extended to me during the many years of my administration. 

I gratefully acknowledge the kind manner with which you have performed the duty 
assigned to the Committee. Permit me also to tender through you, to the Members of 
the Society, my sincere thanks for this substantial manifestation of their approbation, and to 
assure them, that I shall ever regard it as a lasting record of relations, which to me, have 
been both pleasant and honorable. 

The high appreciation of my humble services, which you have caused to be inscribed 
on the bright tablet of this elegant present, will excite renewed interest for the welfare 
and fame of our noble institution ; and I doubt not, that long after we have passed from 
this earthly scene, it will be preserved by my descendants, as a valuable memento of a 
Society from which I have received distinguished favors, and of endeared friends, with 
whom I have ever felt it an honor to have my name associated. 

Please accept for yourselves, gentlemen, my most grateful thanks, and for the Society 
the assurance of my highest regard. 

MARSHALL P. WILDER. 



PROCEEDINGS. 121 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 19, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A package of Seed, from the Commissioner of Patents, was received through the polite- 
ness of the Hon. John Davis, and they were placed in the hands of the Committee on 
Vegetables for distribution. 

Capt. F. W. Macondray having resigned his office as Treasurer of the Society, a 
Committee was appointed to nominate a person to fill the vacancy, who subsequently 
reported the name of W. R. Austin. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 2, 1849. 

The President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee to fill a vacancy in the Committee on Fruits, reported that S. Downer, jr., 
had been chosen. 

A communication from M. Vattemare, in relation to an exchange of Horticultural works 
of the various Horticultural Societies in France, accompanied with several French publi- 
cations, was received. The thanks of the Society were voted to M. Vattemare, and the 
letter was referred to a Committee. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Owen and Copeland, was appointed to comply with 
the request of the Librarian of Harvard College. 

The following gentlemen were appointed Delegates to attend the North American 
Pomological Convention, at Syracuse, New York : — C. M. Hovey, Josiah Lovett, Benj. V. 
French, A. D. Williams, E. Wight. 

The Society made choice of W. R. Austin, for Treasurer. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 16, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

M. P. Wilder, from the Committee of Finance, reported that Stocks to the amount of 
three thousand five hundred and seventyone dollars and seventyfive cents, had been sold, 
and the same had been paid over to the Treasurer, as part of the fund for paying off the 
mortgage. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 30, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Twentyfive dollars was voted to be paid to D. Haggerston, for superintending the semi- 
annual Exhibition. 

" Treatise on Fruits," by Mr. George Jacques, of Worcester, was presented by the 
Author. The thanks of the Society were voted for the same. 

A letter from Dr. Brinckle", Philadelphia, was received and referred to the Committee on 
Publication. 

31 



122 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 4, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 
The following votes, presented by C. M. Hovey, were unanimously adopted : — 

Voted, That the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society having learned, 
with feelings of the deepest regret, of the death of their respected fellow-citizen, the Hon. 
Theodore Lyman, an honorary member of this association, and the munificent donor of a 
liberal sum for the promotion of the objects of the Society, therefore, 

Voted, That, in the sudden death of Mr. Lyman, the community have sustained a 
severe loss, and the Massachusetts Horticultural Society one of its most ardent and 
enthusiastic friends. Deeply interested in all that pertains to the cultivation of the earth, 
and endowed with a true taste for landscape beauty, his example, as evinced in the 
arrangement of his own elegant grounds, had a high influence in disseminating a love 
for horticultural pursuits. 

Voted f That the Society sympathize with the family of Mr. Lyman, in their afflicting 
bereavement, and respectfully tender their condolence. 

Voted, That the above be placed upon the Society's records, and a copy of the same be 
transmitted to the family of Mr. Lyman, by the Corresponding Secretary. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 18, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A copy of the eighth volume of the Transactions of the New York State Agricultural 
Society, was received from the Secretary, B. P. Johnson, and the thanks of the Society for 
the same were voted. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 25, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Letters were read from the Chester County Horticultural Society, Pennsylvania, and the 
New Haven Horticultural Society, inviting a delegation from this Society to be present at 
their Annual Exhibitions. 

Voted, That a minute of the reception of the letters be made upon the records, and an 
acknowledgment forwarded to the Societies by the Corresponding Secretary. 

Voted, That a delegation, consisting of five members, be appointed by the Chair to 
attend the Annual Exhibition of the New Haven Horticultural Society. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, Joseph Breck, Josiah Lovett, Eben Wight, and Wm. R. Austin, 
were appointed delegates. 

Voted, That the Societies to whom an invitation was extended last season be invited to 
be present at the coming Annual Exhibition. 

The following communication was received from Lawrence Young, Esq., respecting 
the use of lime as a preventive to the ravages of the Curculio upon the Plum, &c. : — 

Springdale, (near Louisville, Ky.) July, 1849. 
Samuel Walker, Esq., President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Dear Sir : — In the course of a conversation held with you in Boston, during the 
autumn of last year, I learned that the Curculio was exceedingly troublesome to the 



PROCEEDINGS. 123 

grower of smooth-skinned fruits in your vicinage, and that the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society was anxious to elicit any information tending to inspire a hope that it is in the 
power of art or science to apply a remedy capable of averting so great a public calamity 
as that which a fruit-relishing community sustains by the repeated yearly losses of its 
apricots, plums and other smooth-skinned fruits. On that occasion, I hinted to you the 
result of an experiment with lime, tried upon the plum crop of 1848, and signified a 
determination at the same time to repeat the experiment before expressing an opinion as to 
the efficacy of lime, used as a protection to glabrous fruits, which are usually preyed 
upon by the Curculio. Having then promised to communicate the result, I now proceed 
to redeem my pledge. 

The severe frost of the 16th of April last destroyed almost entirely the fruit crop of the 
West, in all locations where the fruit trees had bloomed as early as the first of April or 
sooner. This occurrence narrowed the limits of the field of experiment for the current 
year, until its whole area is of very inconsiderable extent — a few individual fruits, only, 
outliving the storm of the 15th and 16th of April. 

I have thought, however, on the other hand, that a shield, capable of protecting and 
saving harmless throughout the whole season of danger, a few individual fruits, enfeebled 
by the severity of the April freeze, and surrounded by a host of enemies more than equal 
to the destruction of the whole crop had it survived the April disaster, could scarcely have 
won for itself higher claims to our confidence, by protecting a full crop under ordinary 
circumstances. The experiment of the current year, therefore, has tended to confirm my 
belief in the proposition that common carbonate of lime, (which is a very cheap and 
accessible article, and of easy application,) applied before smooth-skinned, or short-napped, 
fruits have received the sting of the curculio, and continued until the tender stages of their 
growth have passed away — say four weeks — is a more efficacious remedy against the 
attack of the Curculio than any nostrum now in general use, and, considering its cheapness 
and easy applicability, is deserving of further trial. 

That others might be enabled to judge of the soundness of those conclusions at which I 
have arrived in this communication, a detail of my experiments is appended • and as that 
of 1849 was conducted carefully with a view to throw light upon two not unimportant 
questions connected with this subject, viz. : — 1st. When should the treatment commence'? 
2d. How long should it be continued 1 — I have thought it most instructive to copy what is 
relevant from my Diary. 

With feelings of the sincerest good will towards yourself and that distinguished body of 
cultivators and amateurs over whom you have the honor to preside, I remain your obedient 
servant, L. YOUNG. 

Details of Experiments with Lime, in the Culture of smooth-coated Fruits, during the years 

1848 and 1849. 

I have cultivated the plum since 1828, and in twenty years had two perfect crops ; one, 
a first crop after making a stone pavement around some trees ; for success in the other 
instance I could never account, unless no crop of the kind had ever preceded it in that spot 
to invite the Curculio thither. Certain it is the same tree failed ever after. In the spring 
of 1848, a very abundant crop of handsome young fruits had passed the season of danger 
from frosts, and I determined to make several different efforts to realize a prospect so 
promising. Having the authority of that excellent periodical, the Horticulturist, for fresh 
stable manure, I treated the best of the trees and nearly my whole collection in that way— 
the manure being re-applied as often as it ceased to emit the offensive odor. One tree of 
Cooper's large was fixed upon for the experiment with lime, and fearing a free use of it 
might hazard the life of the tree as well as the fruit, I made choice of one partially blown 



124 PROCEEDINGS. 

down by the winds, deeming it the lesser sacrifice if the experiment proved fatal. After 
the treatment with both lime and manure had been continued a few weeks, the efficacy of 
lime seemed so decidedly superior to that of manure that I introduced lime into my orchard 
of Nectarines, which had now generally been pierced. Result : — In a short time the 
Nectarines dropped, except the Elruges, which were never disturbed, and although no 
further attention was given, they ripened. 

From one-fourth to one-third the crop of Apricots and Plums treated with manure arrived 
to perfection, except two trees of Cooper's large. A like proportion of these — say one- 
third — remained sound until they began to ripen. At this stage they commenced rotting, 
and upon both trees the aggregate that ripened without a blemish, scarcely equalled half a 
dozen. 

The inclined tree of Cooper's large received half a dozen dressings of powdered lime, 
at intervals. But during the season I never saw a punctured fruit — never saw gum upon 
any of its fruits or leaves ; it retained its leaves well, though many were coated with 
lime, and about the 5th of August it furnished specimens of ripe fruit for the tables of the 
Kentucky Horticultural Society. This same tree retained its fruits and for five successive 
meetings furnished weekly contributions. To give some conception of the quantity and 
quality of the crop, it may be stated that they sold readily at 40 to 55 cents per dozen, and 
at such prices a tree whose trunk was not larger than a man's arm, yielded fifteen dollars, 
over and above what were given to visitors as specimens, and what were eaten by the family. 

1849. May 4. Yesterday I first observed the sting of the Curculio upon an Illinois 
Wild Plum, and now resolved upon treating Wild Plums with ground plaster, Drap d'Or 
and Prince's Gage Plums with lime, as a preventive against the attack of the Curculio : 
and desirous thoroughly to test the efficacy of lime, resolved to whitewash the few fruits 
Avhich survived the frost so that the Curculio cannot possibly inflict his wound upon parts 
of the fruit which might accidentally be left uncovered by lime when applied in the 
ordinary way — which is, to syringe the fruits, if not already wet by dew or a shower, and 
then with some elastic implement, as a broad spatula or tin shovel, throw small quantities 
of powdered lime upwards from beneath the fruits. This powder rises a dense cloud, and 
settles upon the fruits. 

May 5. To-day reapplied plaster and lime, which had been removed by a shower. 

May 15. During the last few days there have occurred several rains, which have ren- 
dered necessary the reapplication of plaster to the Illinois Plums, and lime to the others. 
One Illinois fruit pierced since first treated with plaster. 

May 25. Illinois Plum pierced on the 15th inst., has now fallen off. Found now three 
different Elruge Nectarine trees with a single fruit on each — all pierced by the Curculio. 
Whitewashed them with lime. 

June 3. Absent at Lexington five days. One rain while away. Now renewed appli- 
cation of lime and plaster. Limed fruits looking well, except two which have received an 
injury sufficient to paralyze one cheek ; the affected cheeks are rough, and emit gum. 

June 12. Prince's Gage and Drap d'Or Plums begin to swell and assume a rough, 
uneven exterior. No Curculio; no glue, but on injured fruits. 

June 19. No lime since June 3d. Plastered fruits all fallen, being first pierced. 

June 21. Limed plums have a good appearance. No sting of the Curculio as yet ; 
apparently out of danger ; no lime since June 3d. 

Jn e 30. The first of the limed fruits, a Prince's Gage Plum, paralyzed on one cheek, 
ripened about one week since. Every fruit whitewashed has reached maturity, without 
any disposition to rot in ripening — the unblemished ones, attaining good size. 

N. B. The three Elruge Nectarines whitewashed on the 25th of May, after they were 
pierced by the Curculio, fell between the 5th and 10th June, the larva having eaten its 
way in to the embryo cat^ ledons. 



PROCEEDINGS. 125 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 1, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, Eben Wight, and William R. Austin, were appointed, by the 
Chair, Delegates, in addition to those appointed last season, to attend a meeting of the 
Congress of Fruit Growers, to be holden October 2, in the city of New York. 

A Delegation, with power to fill vacancies, consisting of Messrs. M. P. Wilder, Benj. V. 
French, Cheever Newhall, William R. Austin, and Joseph Breck, was appointed by the 
Chair, to attend the Annual Exhibitions of the Pennsylvania and the West Chester Horticul- 
tural Societies. 

The President, C. M. Hovey, William Kingsbury, Eben Wight, and William R. Austin, 
were appointed Delegates to attend the Annual Fair of the American Institute. 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS. 

The Twentyfirst Annual Exhibition of the Society was held on the 18th. 19th, 20th and 
21st, at the Society's Hall, in School Street. 

Owing to the severity of the last winter, and the drought of summer, it was feared that 
the exhibition would be greatly inferior to that of the last year. To a partial degree this 
was the result, but not to any thing like the extent that was anticipated. While the old 
exhibitors of Essex and Norfolk fell short, those of Middlesex came in for new honors, 
and carried off the palm with specimens superior to any ever before exhibited ; and, while 
only a limited number of kinds was shown, the superiority of these few were apparent to 
all. 

The Flowers had been cut greatly short by the dry weather, and the Dahlias had scarcely 
began to bloom, and as the Autumn show depends much on this flower, the display was 
more meager than usual. But if the Flowers were inferior, the Plants nearly made up for 
this defect, for some very fine specimens were exhibited, as will be seen by the report. 
Of ornamental decoration there was but little. The Bouquets, for the Bradlee and Socie- 
ty's Vases, were very fine, but, beyond these there was but little to attract general 
attention : the show was, altogether, one of intrinsic merit. 

Among the Fruits presented, were beautiful specimens of the Beurre Ranee, and Queen 
of the Low Countries, by Mr. Gordon, the Buffum, by Mr. Wilder, the Andrews, and 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, by Mr. Stickney, the Glout Morceau, by Mr. King, the Seckel, 
by Mr. Allen, the Chaumontelle, by Mr. Wilson, and the St. Ghislain, by Mr. Lackay. 
There were but few new Pears upon the tables : the President, and Mr. Washburn exhibited 
the Josephine de Malines, and the same gentlemen and Messrs. Breck & Co., and Messrs. 
Hovey & Co., the Onondaga, the first which have fruited in New England. Apples 
were few, and generally poor. The Seedling Peaches, from Messrs. Pettee, and Gould, 
were superior, as were also those from Mr. Merriam. The Palestine Grapes, by Mr. 
Needham, and the Black Hamburg, by Mr. Emerson, were very fine. 

The Vegetables exceeded any we have ever noticed at previous Exhibitions, both as 
to quality and variety. 

For the Committee, JOSEPH BRECK, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President of the Society, fortyfive varieties of Pears, viz. : — Ananas, Beurre 
d'Aremberg, B. Brown, B. Diel, B. Duval. B. Golden of Bilboa, B. Goubalt, Belle Heloise, 
Catillac, Crassane, (old,) C. Althorp, Colmar d'Ete, Columbia, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 

32 



126 PROCEEDINGS. 

Delices d'Hardenpont, Doyenne* White, D. Gray, D. Dore, Dumas, Dunmore, Eyewood, 
Figue, Flemish Beauty, Belle Lucrative, Fondante Van Mons, Franc Real, (Summer,) 
Glout Morceau, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, Josephine de Malines, (new,) Fortune^, 
Lansac, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Marie Louise, Martin Sec, Monarch, Napoleon, Onon- 
daga, Payency, Passe Colmar, Rousselet de Rheims, Vallee Franche, Van Mons Leon le 
Clerc, Vicar of Winkfield, Long Green of Autumn. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, thirtythree sorts of Pears, viz. : — Beurre Cutter, B. d'Anjou, 
B. Diel, B. Golden of Bilboa, B. d'Elberg, B. Easter, B. Beauchamps, B. Goubalt, Buffum, 
Belle Craonaise, B. Epine Dumas, Bezi de la Motte, Colmar du Lot, Columbia, Cond6, 
Colmar d'Aremberg, Doyenne Boussock, D. Blanc, D. Panache, Figue de Naples, Glout 
Morceau, Girardin, (not the old sort,) Henry IV., Heathcot, Hericart, Jalousie de Fontenay 
Vendee, Jargonelle, (French, second crop,) Louise Bonne de Jersey, Passe Colmar, Sieulle, 
Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, Verte Longue Panache. 

From Otis Johnson, forty varieties of Pears, viz. : — Aston Town, Beurre d'Angleterre, B. 
d'Amalis, B. Van Marum, Belle et Bonne, Bezi de la Motte, Buffum, Bleeker's Meadow, 
Cushing, Calebasse, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Dearborn's Seedling, Flemish Beauty, Franc 
Real d'Hiver, Gilogil, Henry IV., Harvard, Hericart, Johonnot, Jalousie, Louise Bonne de 
Jersey, Long Green, Long Green of Autumn, Marquise, Napoleon, Princesse d'Orange, 
Pope's Russet, Passe Colmar, Rousselet Panache, R. de Rheims, Summer Thorn, Seckel, 
Urbaniste, Vicar of Winkfield, Vallee Franche, White Doyenne. Williams's Bon Chretien, 
three sorts not named. Apples — Canada Reinetle, Porter. Plums — Green Gage, Prince's 
Gage, Purple, (unknown,) Smith's Orleans. Grapes — Black Hamburg, Zinfindal, White 
Chasselas, White Muscat. Figs. Blackberries. Muskmelons. 

From Joseph Breck & Co., fhirtyfour varieties of Pears, viz. : — Beurre Beauchamps, 
B. d'Amalis, B. Bronze, B. Chaptal, B. de Zee, B. Diel, B. Easter, Belle Epine Dumas, B. 
et Bonne, B. Heloise, Colmar Neill, C. d'Aremberg, Comtesse de Lunay, Duchesse of Mars, 
D. d'Angouleme, Figue, Forelle, Glout Morceau, Henry IV., Jalousie de Fontenay Vendue, 
Louis de Boulogne, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Liberale, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Payency, 
Onondaga, Voix aux Petres, Verte Longue, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Vicar of Winkfield, 
Winter Nelis, Williams's Bon Chretien, White Doyenne. 

From H. H. Crapo, New Bedford, thirtynine varieties of Pears, viz. : — Ananas, Belle de 
Bruxelles, B. Epine Dumas, Beurre Bosc, B. Brown, B. Easter, B. d'Amalis, B. d'Anjou, 
B. Capiamont, B. de Beaumont, Colmar d'Aremberg, Delices de Jodoigne, Doyenne Gris, 
D. White, D. Dore, Dearborn's Seedling, Dunmore, Duchesse d'Orleans, D. d'Angouleme, 
Flemish Beauty, Glout Morceau, Julienne, Jean de Witte, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Madotte, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Roi de Wurtem- 
burg, Sieulle, Seckel, Triomphe de Louvain, Vicar of Winkfield, Verte Longue, Winter 
Nelis, Williams's Bon Chretien, four sorts, not named. Grapes — Clinton, (open culture,) 
Black Hamburg, Sweet Water, White Nice. 

From Messrs. Winship, twentyfour varieties of Pears, viz. : — Beurre Dore, B. Gris 
d'Hiver de Lucon, B. St. Nicholas, Bezi de Vendre, Bergamot de Paques, Belle Epine 
Dumas, Colmar d'Aremberg, Delices d'Hardenpont, De Lepine, Dunmore, Fondante de 
Charneuse, F. de Malines, Flemish Beauty, Fortunee, Hessel, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendue, 
Louise Bonne de Jersey, Oregon, Reine d'Hiver, Stone, Triomphe de Louvain, Wilkinson, 
Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From Hovey & Co., forty two varieties of Pears, viz.: — Beurre" d'Anjou, B. Rose, B. 
Quentin, Belle et Bonne, B. Heloise. B. Epine Dumas, Buffum, Crassane, Colmar d'Ete, 
Crassane Althorp, Dearborn's Seedling, Dunmore, Doyenne Musque, D. Boussock, Due de 
Bordeaux, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Esperine, Excellentissima, Forelle, Figue de Naples, 
Glout Morceau, Green Sugar, Henry, IV., Hessel, Johonnot, Jean de Witte, Jalousie de 
Fontenay Vendee, Knight's Monarch, Long Green of Autumn, Marie Louise, Napoleon, 



PROCEEDINGS. 127 

Passe Colmar, Rousselet de Meester, Onondaga, St. Michael Archangel, Styrian, Vicar of 
Winkfield, Van Mori's Leon Le Clerc. Plums — Semiana, Roger's Blue. Grapes — Muscat 
of Alexandria, White Frontignan, Black Hamburg, Tottenham Park Muscat, Black Prince, 
Chaptal, Wilmot's Black Hamburg, Duzetto, St. Peter's, Syrian. Melons — Beechwood, 
Victoria, Nutmeg, Persian, Christiana, Persian Hybrid, Valentia. 

From J. Stickney, Watertown, fortyone varieties of Pears, viz. : — Andrew's, Brougham, 
Bern're" d'Aremberg, B. Brown, B. Bosc, B. Bronze, B. Diel, B. Easter, Broom Park, Belle 
et Bonne, B. Lucrative, Bon Chretien, (Williams's,) Columbia, Colmar d'Automne, Doyenne 
White, D. Gray, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Dunmore, Flemish Beauty, Glout Morceau, 
Green Sugar, Gilogil, Julienne, Louise Bonne de Jersey, MacLaughlin, Madotte d'Hiver, 
Marie Louise, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Paradise d'Automne, Prince's St. Germain, Seckel, 
Thompson's, Uvedale's St. Germain, Urbaniste, Virgalieu, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Winter 
Nelis, two varieties not named. Apples, viz. : — Alexander, Baldwin, Blue Pearmain, 
Gravenstein, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Ribstone Pippin, Rhode Island Greening, Roxbury 
Russet, Spitzenberg, S. Esopus, Yellow Bellflower. 

From E. King, thirty varieties of Pears, viz. : — Ananas, Bon Chretien d'Hiver, Belle et 
Bonne, Beurre Easter, B. Diel, B. Brown, Catillac, Calebasse Bosc, Duchesse d'Angouleme, 
Fortunee, Flemish Bon Chretien, Figue de Naples, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Glout Morceau, 
Heathcot, Long Green, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Napoleon, Fasse Colmar, Poire d'Hiver, 
Queen of the Low Countries, Rousselet de Rheims, St. Germain, Thompson's, Vicar of 
Winkfield, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Williams's Bon Chretien, White Doyenne, four 
varieties unknown. 

From J. Washburn, Plymouth, fortynine varieties of Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Beurre 
d'Amalis, B. Ranee, B. Diel, B. Easter, B. d'Aremberg, B. Gris d'Hiver Nouveau, Bon 
Chretien, (Williams's,) Bell, Clara, Capsheaf, Comtesse de Lunay, Colmar d'Aremberg, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, Doyenne Boussock, Delices d'Hardenpont, Dix, Flemish Beauty, 
Belle Lucrative, Fulton, Glout Morceau, Henry IV., Hericart, Jalousie de Fontenay Vendee, 
Josephine de Malines, Julienne, Lewis, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Maria Louise, Monarch, 
Muscadine, Napoleon, Passe Colmar, Pitts's Maria, Queen of Winter, Stevens's Genesee, 
Onondaga, Sieulle, Soldat Labourer, Seckel, St. Ghislain, Thompson's, Urbaniste, Vicar of 
Winkfield, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Washington, Black Pear of Worcester, Wilkinson. 
Also, Orange Quince, and Denyer's Victoria Plum. 

From F. Burr, Hingham, twentyone varieties of Pears, viz. : — Ananas, Bon Chretien, 
(Summer,) Bell, Charles of Austria, Chelmsford, Crassane, C. Althorp, Culotte de Suisse, 
Flemish Beauty, Fulton, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Harvard, Heathcot, Hinckley, Julienne, 
Pitt's Prolific, Petre, Rousselet de Rhemis, Remington, Williams's Bon Chretien, Warden. 
Apples — Cogswell, Striped Sweet. Plums — Pedrigon. 

From J. Deane, Mansfield, Apples, viz. : — Boxford, Boyden, Gilliflower, Golden Russet, 
Hayboy, Monstrous Pippin, New York Pippin, Orange Sweet, Pumpkin Sweet, Porter, 
Pomwater, Red Lucrative, Russet Pearmain, Sweet Codlin, Seek-no-Further, Spice Sweet, 
Striped Sweet, Superb Sweet, Spitzenberg, Spice Sweet, (Seedling.) 

From W. G. Rayner, Salem, Pears : — Beurre d'Amalis, B. Diel, Dearborn's Seedling, 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Marie Louise, 
Napoleon, St. Germain, Seckel, Stevens's Genesee, Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From A. Lackey, Jr., Marblehead, Pears: — Andrews, Boucquia, Belle Lucrative, Citron, 
Seckel, St. Ghislain, one variety without a name. Plums — Corse's Field Marshal, Green 
Gage, Jefferson, St. Catharine. Filberts. 

From A. Dexter, Pears — Andrews, Bussey, Seckel, Washington, Williams's Bon 
Chretien, and one other without a name. Apples — Baldwin, Deacon, Sweeting. 

From S. Bigelow, by E. Burns, Pears — Duchesse d'Angouleme, Flemish Beauty, 
Williams's Bon Chretien. Orange Quince. 



128 PROCEEDINGS. 

From H. Poor, Northampton, Pears: — Flemish Beauty, White Doyenne*. Apples — 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Porter, Rhode Island Greening. Peaches — Coolidge's Favorite, 
Early Crawford, Melocoton, Yellow Rareripe. 

From L. P. Grosvenor, Pomfret, Connecticut, Apples — Black, Porter, Summer Pear- 
main. Peaches — Cooledge's Favorite, Grosse Mignonne, Royal George, Seedling, Teton 
de Venus. 

From E. S. Rand, Newburyport, Pears — Louise Bonne de Jersey, Williams's Bon Chre- 
tien. * 

From J. Hyde & Son., Pears — Seckel. Watertown, Williams's Bon Chretien. Apples — 
Danvers Winter Sweet, Porter, Roxbury Russet. They also exhibited the fruit of a 
seedless Berberry, and several varieties of native Grapes. 

From R. Nichols, Saco, Maine, Plums — Caledonia, Green Gage, Smith's Orleans. 

From G. J. & A. Parker, Pears — Chelmsford, Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From J. Gammell, East Lexington, Plums — Lombard. Peaches — Early Crawford, and 
Seedling. 

From J. D. W. Williams, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Royal Muscadine, White Fron- 
tignan. 

From J. A. Hall, Raynham, Apples — Baldwin, Boyden Sweet, English Pearmain, 
Good Sour, Honey Greening, Nonesuch, Pearmain, Pomwater, Peck's Pleasant, Roxbury 
Russet, Rhode Island Greening, Seek-no-Further, Tolman Sweet, Tender Sweet, White, 
Wine. 

From N. Durfee, Fall River, Pears — Beurre d'Aremberg, B. d'Amalis, B. Ranee, Cale- 
basse, Crassane Althorp, Rousselet de Rheims, St. Germain, Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From Life Baldwin, Brighton, Pears — Beurre* d'Amalis, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Queen 
of the Low Countries, Roi de Wurtemburg, Vicar of Winkfield. 

From J. Lovett, Pears — Beurre Bosc, Columbia, Hessel, Harvard, Hericart, Marie Louise, 
Napoleon, St. Ghislain, Van Mons Leon le Clerc, Williams's Bon Chretien. 

From H. B. Crooker, by T. Needham, Grapes — Black Frontignan, Black Hamburg, 
Black St. Peter, Cannon Hall, Muscat of Alexandria, Syrian, White Frontignan, Palestine. 
Pears — Bon Chretien. Peaches. 

From W. C. Strong, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Black Muscat, Black Prince, Franken- 
dale, Muscat of Alexandria, Rose Chasselas, Syrian, St. Peters, White Nice. Plums. 
Peaches. Nectarines. 

From J. A. Lowell, by J. Owens, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Muscat of Alexandria, 
Reine de Nice, White Frontignan. 

From J. M. Ives, Pears — Belle Lucrative, Buffum, Bezi de Montigny, Beurre Bosc, 
Flemish Beauty, Glout Morceau, Golden Beurre of Bilboa, Lewis, Vicar of Winkfield, 
Wilkinson, Winter Nelis. Apple — Aunt Hannah, Minister, Swaar. Plums — Damsons, 
Goliath, Late Yellow, Prune, Red Gage, Wilkinson, one specimen not named. Seedling 
Quince. 

From W. R. Austin, Pears — Vicar of Winkfield. 

From J. F. Allen, Pears — Urbaniste, Williams's Bon Chretien. Grapes — Black Ham- 
burg, Golden Chasselas, Portieau Noir, White Nice, Wilmot's New Black Hamburg. 

From A. D. Weld, Pears — Bon Chretien, Chaumontel, Long Green, Marie Louise, St. 
Ghislain, Williams's Bon Chretien, six varieties not named. Apples — Black, Baldwin, 
Fall Pippin, Gordon Sweet, Lady, Nonesuch, Pumpkin Sweet, Porter, Roxbury Russet, 
Spitzenberg. 

From John A. Kenrick, Pears — Duchesse d'Angouleme, Flemish Beauty, Louise Bonne 
de Jersey, Seckel, Vicar of Winkfield. Apples — Baldwin, Cogswell, Hubbardston None- 
such. Plums — Blue Imperatrice, Lombard, Red Gage, Smith's Orleans. Tree Cranberry 
Fruit. 



PROCEEDINGS. 129 

From Otis Pettee, Newton, Upper Falls, thirty varieties of Seedling Peaches. 

From S. W. Cole, Grapes — Buckminster, Coon, Perry's Strawberry, and two Seedlings. 
Melons — Citron, Water. 

From G. Merriam, Pears — Bon Chretien, Catillac. Peaches — Coolidge's Favorite, 
Crawford's Early, George IV., Lemon Rareripe, Old Mixon. 

From G. W. Gage, Methuen, Peaches — George IV., Coolidge's Favorite, Yellow Rare- 
ripe. Nectarines. 

From J. A. Gould, Newton, thirtyfive varieties of Seedling Peaches. 

From G. Phipps, Framingham, Pears — Williams's Bon Chretien. Peaches — Golden 
Purple. 

From S. D. Purdee, New Haven, Pears — Howell's Seedling, and two varieties raised by 
Mr. Howell, not named. 

From J. Gilmore, Newton Corner, Pears — Flemish Beauty, Seckel. 

From Isaac Holden, Billerica, Peaches — Bosworth's Seedling, Early Crawford. 

From Eben Wight, Pears — Beurre Brown, B. Bosc, B. Diel, Colmar d'Aremberg, 
Doyenne* Gray, Dix, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Flemish Beauty, Fulton, Julienne, Louise 
Bonne de Jersey, Marie Louise, Passe Colmar, Van Mons Leon Le Clerc, Williams's Bon 
Chretien, Winter Nelis. Apples — Baldwin, Boxford, Danvers Winter Sweet, Gravenstein, 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Lady, Minister, Porter, Roxbury Russet, Rhode Island Greening, 
Spitzenberg, Yellow Bellefleur. 

From T. 0. Jackson, Plymouth, Pears — Autumn Bergamot, Bon Chretien, (Summer,) 
Dunmore, Julienne, Roi de Wurtemburg, White Doyenne. 

From Peter Nostrand, Long Island, Pears — Hageman. 
. From L. Blodget, Boston, Grapes — White Muscadine, growing in a pot. 

From G. B. Peck, Providence, Pears — Flemish Beauty, Knight's Seedling. 

From B. Guild, Brookline, Pears — Beurre de Beaumont. 

From J. Prentiss, Keene, N. H., Apples — two varieties for a name. 

From R. T. P. Fiske, Hingham, Pears — Cushing. 

From G. Pierce, West Cambridge, Apples — Porter. 

From A. Nettleton, Springfield, Native Grapes. 

From G. Wilson, Marblehead, Pears — Chaumontel, Louise Bonne de Jersey. Plums — 
Green Gage, Imperial Gage, Smith's Orleans, Manning's Long Blue. 

From Mrs. C. Hutchinson, Boston, Grapes — Black Malaga, (open culture.) 

From B. D. Emerson, Jamaica Plains, Grapes — Black Hamburg, Sweetwater. 

From L. Wheeler, Cambridge, Peaches — Coolidge's Favorite. 

From J. B. Moore, Concord, Melons — Black Spanish, Long Caroline, Mountain Sweet, 
one variety unknown. 

From C. Heard, Brighton, Pears — Beurre Diel, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Napoleon, 
Urbaniste. 

From Z. Hosmer, Cambridge, Plums — Denyer's Victoria, Smith's Orleans. 

From D. 0. Kellogg, Troy, New York, Plums — Bleeker's Gage, Ida, Jefferson, Wash- 
ington. 

From Vincent Laforme, South Boston, Seedling Peaches. 

From J. B. Kimball, Boston, Grapes — Sweetwater, (open culture.) 

From H. C. Merriam, Peaches — Crawford. 

From John Nesmith, Lowell, Peaches — Early Crawford. 

From Q. Hersey, Hingham, Melons — Green Persian, (hybrid,) Christiana. 

From D. Carter, Lowell, Seedling Grapes. 

From A. R. Campbell, Chelsea, Pears — Seckel. 

From J. Howland, New Bedford, Pears — Beurre Bosc. 

33 



130 PROCEEDINGS. 

From John W. Foster, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Figs, (open culture.) 

From S. H. Smith, Providence, Rhode Island, Pears — Pratt. 

From Rev. A. R. Baker, Medford, Peaches. 

From W. J. Niles, Boston, Grapes — Black Hamburg, (open culture.) 

From J. Bird, Watertown, Pears — While Doyenne\ 



EXHIBITION OF PLANTS. 

From Marshal P. Wilder, a splendid collection, consisting of Viburnum Tinus, Lagerstrce- 
mia indica, Achimenes, var. longiflora, grandiflora, rosea, Erica, var. Massoni, hyemalis, 
cruenta, Aster Chinensis, grown in pots, (beautiful.) 

From Parker Barnes, Dorchester, Achimenes Liebmanii, and atrosanguinea. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., Cryptomeria japonica, Cedrus Deodara, Psidium Catfleyanum, 
Schubertia graveolens, Clerodendron squamatum and informatum, ten varieties of Fuschias, 
eight sorts of Achimenes, Erica, Amaryllis Belladona, Viburnum Tinus, Thuja filiformis, 
India Rubber Tree, Abelia rupestris. 

From J. W. Brown, beautiful specimens of Balsams, cultivated in pots. 

From A. McLennan, beautiful Coxcombs, grown in pots. 

From James Nugent, Achimenes longiflora, fine Coxcombs, in pots. 



EXHIBITION OF CUT FLOWERS AND BOUQUETS. 

From Joseph Breck and Co., Cut Flowers — Tropeeolum peregrinum, Aster Chinensis, 
Delphinium Breckii, Impatiens Balsamina, and others. Fine Dahlias. 

From J. Nugent, Cut Flowers — Roses, Dahlias, Impatiens Balsamina, Aster Chinensis, 
and other fine sorts. Bouquets — two large Pyramidal and two flat Vase. 

From Marshal P. Wilder, Cut Flowers. Dahlias. 

From Azel Bowditch, Cut Flowers and Bouquets. 

From J. Nesmith, Lowell, Dahlias. 

From Parker Barnes, Dahlias, seedling Verbenas, Cockscombs, Iberis odorata, Scabious, 
Calendula officinalis, Caprifolium sempervirens, Lathyrus odoratus, various annuals, and 
twenty varieties of seedling Phloxes. 

From Mrs. Richardson, and I. Stickney, Bouquets of Grasses. 

From N. Gale, Chelsea, Cut Flowers — Dahlias, Asters, Verbenas, Salvia coccinea, 
Cacalia coccinea, Lathyrus odoratus, Cockscombs. 

From John Quant and J. G. Swan, Bouquets of Indigenous Flowers. 

From T. Needham, Dahlias. 

From John Hovey, Cut Flowers and Bouquets. 

From L. Davenport, Cut Flowers — Dahlias, Roses, Gladiolus natalensis, floribundusj 
Lilium, &c. 

From Hovey & Co., Cut Flowers — Dahlias, Verbenas, Phlox Drummondii, ten sorts of 
Phloxes, (new,) German and Pyramidal Asters, and others. Bouquets — two for Vases, 
two Parlor, and others. 

From J. Needham, Cut Flowers, in variety. Bouquets — two, finely arranged, in Moss 
Vases. 

From Messrs. Winship, Cut Flowers — Verbenas, Roses, Dahlias, &c. Bouquets — two 
flat Vase, finely arranged. 

From D. Crowley, Bouquets — three pyramidal Vase, very fine. 

From J. W. Mandell, Bouquets — two Parlor, and two flat for Vases, well arranged. 

From S. S. Holton, South Reading, Cut Flowers. 

From J. M. Moore, Orr N. Towne, D. Pierce, E. Burns, P. W. Pierce, Otis Pettee, E. 
Allen, Lowell, Miss Kenrick, Misses Needham, Miss Russell, Miss Barnes, Miss Crocker, 
and others, Cut Flowers and Bouquets. 



PROCEEDINGS. 131 

EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From A. D. Williams, Cauliflowers, Carrots, Parsneps, Salsify. Tomatoes, Potatoes, in 
variety, Cabbages, Marrow and Canada Squashes, Sweet and Early White Corn. 

From S. W. Cole, forty standard, and thirtyfive seedling varieties of Potatoes, Winter 
Crookneck Squash, Winter Blood Beet, Turnip Beet, Bassano Beet, Early Horn Carrot, 
Pumpkins, Cabbage Turnip. 

From F. A. Davis, Lima, Seba, Dwarf, White Kidney, and London Horticultural Beans ; 
Savoy, Red Dutch, and Large Scotch Cabbages ; Squashes, Potatoes, Salsify, Maitynia, 
Okra, Cranberries, (upland growth,) Turnip-rooted and Blood Beets, Carrots, Parsneps, Ruta 
Baga. 

From Q. Hersey, Early Frame, Early (Manly's) Egyptian, Shepard's Early, Long Red, 
Philadelphia Red, Seal's Foot, Pink-eye, Chenango, and Early Red Potatoes ; fine speci- 
mens of Corn. 

From Hovey & Co., Corn, (fourteen varieties,) Marrow Squashes, Giant Tomato, Blood 
Beets, Purple Egg Plant, Turnips, Potatoes, Canada Squashes, (three grown in 1848.) 

From F. Alexander, Lynn, two large Squashes, (the largest weighing one hundred and 
eleven pounds.) 

From J. Bumstead, Roxbury, two Squashes, (one weighed eightytwo, and a half, the 
other sixtytwo pounds.) 

From A. E. Belknap, Boston, Yellow Tomatoes, (seed from Cuba.) 

From H. Poor, North Andover, White Flat Winter Wheat, (produced thirty bushels to the 
acre ;) Black Sea Spring Wheat. 

From J. B. Moore, Concord, Blood Beet, Ruta Baga, Canada Squash, Seal's Foot Potatoes, 
Darling's Early Sweet Corn, ripe; (not planted till June 10.) 

From J. Lovett, 2d, Broccoli. 

From J. Stickney, Carrots, Pomeranian Cabbage. 

From F. Moseley, A. McLennan, Orr N. Towne, James Parker, A. D. Weld, J. D. W. 
Williams, G. Pettee, Mrs. L. Spaulding, W. H. Whitney, J. Gammell, George Watson, G. 
& J. A. Parker, and others, Vegetables of various kinds. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 22, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Voted, That the sum of twentyfive dollars be paid by the Treasurer to Mr. D. Haggerston 
for services rendered during the Exhibition. 

Voted, That a Committee, of three, be appointed by the Chair, to nominate a list of 
Officers, Professors, and Committees, for the coming year, and report at the next meeting. 

Messrs. J. Lovett, 2d, D. Haggerston, and E. M. Richards, were appointed that committee. 

Members, and other contributors to the Annual Exhibition, having complained of the 
loss of their contributions, it was 

Voted, That a Committee, of three, be appointed by the Chair, to take into consideration 
what means can be adopted to prevent the occurrence of the loss of contributions for the 
future. 

Messrs. Joseph Breck, David Haggerston, and R. M. Copeland, were appointed as that 
Committee. 

Voted, That the Society loan to the Norfolk Agricultural Society, such of their glassware 
as they may wish to use at their Annual Exhibition, the Norfolk Agricultural Society paying 
all the expense of transportation, labor, breakage, &c. 



132 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 29, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting to nominate Officers, &c., made their 
report, but in consequence of the declination of some of the nominees, it was referred 
back, for the purpose of nominating others to fill the vacancies. 

The Committee appointed to investigate the loss by various Members, and others, at the 
Annual Exhibition, reported that they had not been able to discover the transgressors, and 
recommended the appointment of a Committee to take charge of all contributions for the 
future j the expulsion of any member found guilty of so mean and contemptible an act as 
taking articles not belonging to him, and the discharge of any person in their employ who 
may be found guilty of so doing. 

The following Correspondence was submitted by C. M. Hovey, chairman of the Com- 
mittee appointed to present the Society's Gold Medal to the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, as a 
mark of esteem for his eminent services while President of the Society : — 

To the Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, Roxbury, Mass. 

Dear Sir, — Agreeably to a vote of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, passed at 
the annual meeting, January 6, 1849, a copy of which is enclosed, we now, in accordance 
with that vote, have the pleasure of presenting you with the Society's Gold Medal. 

Many years have passed away since you presided at the head of our association ; when 
your zeal in the cause of horticultural science; — your untiring exertions to render popular 
the pleasing pursuit to which it is especially devoted ; — your arduous labors while guiding 
its affairs in the infancy of its organization, and your extensive correspondence with 
gentlemen of science in every country and clime, gave to the Society a standing 
and position which has since caused it to be looked upon as the parent association of our 
country. 

As a small, but not the less earnest tribute to your labors, as the first President of the 
Society, at a period when, in addition to its horticultural affairs, that noble monument of 
your devotion to its interests, Mount Auburn Cemetery was projected, we now present you 
with the Society's Gold Medal, and beg your acceptance of the same. 

With the assurance of our best wishes for your health and prosperity, we have the 
honor to be, dear sir, respectfully yours, 

C. M. HOVEY, 

CHEEVER NEWHAL; ; ^ < . 

Boston, Sept. 25, 1849. E. M. RICHARDS, 



-1 



Hawthorn Cottage, Roxbury, Sept. 28, 1849. 

Gentlemen, — This afternoon I received, with great pleasure, your very kind 'letter 
and the beautiful gold medal, which the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has so 
generously conferred upon me ; and I request that you will do me the favor of presenting 
my grateful acknowledgments to the members of that important institution for the honor 
they have done me. I deeply regret, however, that my humble efforts to promote one 
of the most interesting branches of rural industry have not been more worthy of such 
distinguished consideration and so precious a reward. 

For the very favorable manner in which you have been pleased to estimate the very 
limited services I have attempted to render my fellow-citizens who are interested in the 
various departments of useful and ornamental cultivation, I offer my sincere thanks. 

With the most ardent aspirations for the prosperity of the Society, and your individual 
happiness, I have the honor of being, gentlemen, your much obliged and most obedient 
servant, H. A. S. DEARBORN. 

C. M. Hovey, Cheever Newhall, E. M. Richards, Esqrs., Committee. 



PROCEEDINGS. 133 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 6, 1849. 
Vice President Cheever Newhall, in the Chair. 

The Committee on Nominations reported the names of the following gentlemen, as 
Officers for the year ensuing, and they were elected : — 

President — Samuel Walker. 

Vice Presidents — B. V. French, Cheever Newhall, E. M. Richards, J. S. Cabot. 

Treasurer — William R. Austin. 

Corresponding Secretary — Eben Wight. 

Recording Secretary — E. C. R. Walker. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology — J. L. Russell. 

Professor of Entomology — T. W. Harris. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry — E. N. Horsford. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On Fruits — J. S. Cabot, Chairman; Eben Wight, Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, R. 
Manning, G. R. Russell, C. M. Hovey. 

On Plants and Flowers — David Haggerston, Chairman ; A. McLennan, William B. 
Richards, E. A. Story, F. L. Winship, E. C. R. Walker, P. Barnes. 

On Vegetables — A. D. Williams. Jr., Chairman; W. B. Kingsbury, J. Nugent, A. Bow- 
ditch, A. D. Weld, S. W. Cole, George Pierce. 

On the Library — C. M. Hovey, Chairman ; H. W. Dutton, J. Breck, J. Owen, R. M. 
Copeland, Librarian. 

On Synonymes of Fruits — M. P. Wilder, Chairman; P. B. Hovey, Jr., R. Manning, 
J. Lovett, J. S. Cabot. 

Executive Committee — S. Walker, Chairman ; W. R. Austin, M. P. Wilder, E. M. 
Richards, 0. Johnson. 

For Establishing Premiums — J. S. Cabot, Chairman; D. Haggerston, A. D. Williams, 
Jr., J. Lovett, P. B. Hovey, Jr. 

On Finance — M. P. Wilder, Chairman ; J. Stickney, O. Johnson. 

On Publication — Eben Wight, Chairman ; J. Lovett, J. Breck, E. C. R. Walker, J. 
S. Cabot, D. Haggerston, A. D. Williams, Jr. 

The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents, was received from Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, and the thanks of the Society were voted for the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 13, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. J. Owen submitted a preamble and resolutions in reference to the formation of an 
Experimental Garden, whereupon, on motion of Cheever Newhall, it was 

Voted. That a Committee, of five, be appointed by the Chair to take the subject into 
consideration and report at a future meeting. 

Messrs. Cheever Newhall, J. Owen, M. P. Wilder, B. V. French, and- J. S. Cabot were 
appointed. 

Voted, That for the future, whenever Exhibitions take place in the Library Room, the 
exhibitors be allowed to remove their contributions at 12 o'clock. 

34 



134 PROCEEDINGS. 

On molion of C. M. Hovey, 

Voted, That a Committee, of five, be appointed to take into consideration what measures, 
if any, should be adopted relative to the Exhibitions of the coming year, and report at the 
Annual Meeting in January, 1850, and that the President be Chairman of that Committee. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, D. Haggerston, J. Breck, and J. Lovett, were appointed on the 
Committee. 



BUSINESS MEETING 



Saturday, November 3, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A List of Premiums on Flowers, awarded during the year, was reported by the Chairman 
of the Committee on Flowers. 

A vote was submitted by Mr. Haggerston, recommending an alteration in the Rules and 
Regulations of the Exhibitions, so as to exclude all but members from competing for premi- 
ums; that no member shall be entitled to a gratuity on Plants, Fruits, &c, unless offered 
in competition for the respective premiums, as advertised by the Society, and the gratuity 
shall in no case exceed the lowest premium, and that the seventeenth rule be amended by 
striking out all after the first clause. 

The whole subject was submitted to the Committee on Exhibitions, appointed at the last 
meeting. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, W. R. Austin, and the Recording Secretary, were appointed a 
Committee for the purpose of corresponding with the leading Horticultural Societies 'of the 
country, respecting the time for holding the Annual Exhibitions of 1850. 

The Committee on Exchanges with M. Vattemare, reported that they had furnished that 
gentleman with duplicate copies of all the Transactions of the Society. 

Mr. E. C. R. Walker, being about to leave this vicinity, tendered his resignation of the 
office of Recording Secretary, whereupon a Committee, consisting of J. S. Cabot, Joseph 
Breck, and Eben Wight, was appointed to nominate and report at the next meeting, a 
suitable person as his successor. 

On motion of Mr. Cabot, it was 

Voted. That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Recording Secretary, and as a 
maik of esteem for his services, a piece of plate, not exceeding in value thirtyfive dollars. 

The President and Treasurer were appointed a Committee on the foregoing vote. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 17, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting to nominate a person to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the resignation of the Recording Secretary, reported the name of the Rev. 
Daniel Leach, and he was elected. 

The vacancy in the Committee on Flowers, occasioned by the resignation of Mr. E. C. 
R. Walker, was filled by the election of Mr. Azel Bowditch. 

Mr. Haggerston presented the following, with a request that it be appended to the Report 
of the Committee on Flowers : — 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the President for his beautiful 
exhibition of Flowers, and for his liberality in not competing for premiums and refusing 
all gratuities. 

Unanimously adopted. 



PROCEEDINGS. 135 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 1, 1849. 

The President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Executive Committee reported the following appropriations for Premiums for the 
year 1850 : — 

Prospective, six hundred and fifty dollars ; Committee on Flowers, six hundred and fifty ; 
Committee on Fruits, four hundred and fifty ; Committee on Vegetables, one hundred and 
fifty. Total, one thousand nine hundred dollars. 

The American Fruit Culturist was received from the author, J. J. Thomas, and the thanks 
of the Society for the same was voted. 

The Report of the Committee on Vegetables was read and accepted. 

The Rev. Daniel Leach signified his acceptance of the office of Recording Secretary. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 22, 1849. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A copy of the " Florist," from Edward Beck, Esq., corresponding member, in London, 
was received. The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Beck, and the Corresponding 
Secretary was directed to communicate the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 29, 1849. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Report of the Committee on Fruits was read and accepted. 

The Committee appointed to alter the Rules and Regulations for the Exhibitions the 
ensuing year, submitted the following Report, which was accepted : — 

1. Gratuities shall not be awarded, for Flowers, Fruits, Plants, or Vegetables, unless 
the same are offered for competition for the respective premiums, as advertised by the 
Society, — except for objects for which no prizes are specified, or which may be new or 
rare, or show superior skill in cultivation ; and in no case shall such gratuity exceed the 
amount of the Society's silver medal. 

2. Any member to whom a prize has been awarded, whether in money or plate, may 
receive either, or like valuation, at his option. 

The Schedule of Premiums for 1850, was submitted by the Executive Committee, and 
accepted. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, Treasurer, and Chairman of the Committee 
of Finance, was appointed to settle with Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, J. Lovett, and Eben Wight, were appointed a Committee to nomi- 
nate a Committee of Arrangements for 1850. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 5, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The President on taking the Chair, remarked, that although it had not been customary to 
address the Members, yet as some suggestions had occurred to him, he should take the 
present opportunity to lay them before the Society, and proceeded as follows : ■ — 



136 PROCEEDINGS. 

Gentlemen of the 3Iassachusetts Horticultural Society : 

Your unanimous suffrages have again placed me in a position that demands my thanks 
for the honor conferred. 

The past, the present, and the anticipations of the future, cheer my path, as I feel 
assured I shall have your hearty co-operation in all my endeavors to promote the interest of 
the science of Horticulture. 

The year which has just closed, has removed from us one of our respected and beloved 
members. His munificent bequest to this Society demands our grateful remembrance, 
and the specimens of his taste for the beautiful, in the highest branch of our science — 
Landscape Gardening — will command the attention and admiration of all who visit the spot 
rendered so lovely by the genius of his own elevated mind. 

Landscape Gardening is a branch of Horticulture, which the wealthy only in other 
countries, can carry out with success, but in our extensive and free domains, every 
industrious and enterprising man, with a love of Nature cherished within his breast, may 
surround himself with the beautiful. 

Improvements in this department may be seen in the grounds of the late Hon. Theodore 
Lyman, the Hon. Thomas H. Perkins, of Brookline, J. P. Cushing, Esq., of Watertown, 
Hon. M. P. Wilder, and Samuel Downer, Jr., Esq., of Dorchester, and Otis Johnson, Esq., 
of Lynn. Nor can I refrain from noticing the great improvements made in the Nurseries 
generally, but more particularly in the respective establishments of Messrs. Winship, of 
Brighton, and Messrs. Hovey, of Cambridge. Before I dismiss this subject, allow me to 
recommend for your consideration, the propriety of so amending the By-Laws, as to 
provide for, and establish a Professorship of Landscape Gardening. 

Persons extensively engaged in the cultivation of Fruit for the market, or for their own 
use, have probably noticed the vast number of insects which prey upon, or otherwise 
destroy the fruit, in all its stages, from the opening of the flower bud to the period of its 
maturity. To counteract these devastations, some people have placed bottles, partly filled 
with sweetened water, among the branches of their trees, thus destroying hundreds of 
thousands of insects without discriminating between friends and foes. This is, in my 
opinion, a subject worthy of consideration, and which might be placed in the hands of our 
Professor of Entomology, for his investigation, and should he consider it a fit subject for a 
public lecture, or lectures, he might be solicited to communicate the result of his research, 
in that, or some other way, to the members of this Society and the public. I would further 
suggest, that the Professor of Botany, and also the Professor of Horticultural Chemistry, be 
consulted as to the expediency of delivering one or more lectures annually, on the 
respective subjects committed to their charge. 

The premiums offered, and the gratuities given by the Society for many years past, 
have- produced a laudable competition among the cultivators of excellent Vegetables, 
beautiful Flowers, and delicious Fruits. As a natural result, corresponding improvements 
have been made in the management of Trees, Shrubs, Plants. &c, in the Orchard, Garden, 
and Conservatory, but not to that extent, probably, that would have been made, had the 
Society offered liberal premiums for the best conducted, most productive, and most econom- 
ically managed establishments. I would, therefore, recommend that premiums be offered, 
and gratuities be given, by the Society, under the direction of a Committee appointed for 
that purpose, whose duty it should be. to visit and examine such places, as the proprietors 
thereof shall invite them so to do, at such times and as often as they may deem proper, 
without any previous notice having been given to the gardener, superintendent or other 
person having charge of the same ; that the Committee may be able to form a correct 
judgment, as to the general management, and state of cultivation on the premises, and to 
report to the Society the most successful cultivators at home, as the other Committees 
report the finest products exhibited in the Hall of the Society. 



PROCEEDINGS. 137 

The Hall of the Society is well located, and in every way adapted for the present weekly 
and minor exhibitions of the Society; but it is already found to be entirely too limited for 
the larger displays. I would, therefore, suggest that an arrangement be made to have the 
Annual Exhibition, in September next, under a tent or tents of ample dimensions, in some 
suitable place as near the centre of the city as possible. Such a show would probably 
give a new impulse to the pursuits of Horticulture, and in some measure meet the increas- 
ing demands of the public for more information on that subject. The eye, the mirror of 
the tablet of memory, will ever be, in my opinion, the pioneer in Horticultural science ; 
it should be first consulted, by being brought in contact with the useful and beautiful ; 
that the impressions made might be contemplated, carried away, and acted upon. For 
this purpose a larger Hall will soon be necessary. Permit me, therefore, to suggest that 
our present resources should be husbanded with as much economy as a liberal and 
progressive management of the affairs of the Society will permit, to enable it, at no distant 
day, to erect a Temple which shall be an ornament to the city, and in every way adapted 
to the wants of the Society and the public. 

When the Society shall be provided with a suitable place for its Exhibitions, then, as 
soon as its funds will permit, the purchase of a piece of land for an Experimental Garden, 
so much needed, will, I have no doubt, occupy the attention of the Society. Such an 
establishment would extend the sphere of our labors, and gratify the members by placing 
at their command further means of usefulness. 

The third number of the Transactions will be published as soon as practicable. This 
number will complete the first volume, and I have the pleasure to state, that a concise His- 
tory of the Society from its commencement to the present time, may be expected in its 
pages, from the pen of its first President, General Dearborn. 

Gentlemen: — It gives me great pleasure to embrace this opportunity, which your 
kindness has given me, to present these suggestions for your consideration and action, and 
to assure you of my wishes to co-operate with you in all your endeavors to promote the 
usefulness of the Society, and the advancement of Horticultural knowledge. 

The Address was referred to a special Committee, consisting of Messrs. J. S. Cabot, C. 
M. Hovey, C. Newhall, J. Breck, W. R. Austin, D. Leach, and S. W. Cole. 

The Committee to nominate a Committee of Arrangements for 1850, reported the follow- 
ing names : — 

Joseph Breck, J. S. Cabot, D. Haggerston, A. D. Williams, Jr., W. R. Austin, J. F. Allen, 
Josiah Lovett, 0. Johnson, C. M. Hovey, James Nugent, A. McLennan, E. A. Story, and 
Eben Wight. Accepted, and the Committee empowered to fill vacancies. 

The Committee on the Library made a partial Report. 

On motion of Mr. Cabot, 

Voted, That ten dollars in money, or a medal of that value, (as he might prefer,) be pre- 
sented to Mr. D. T. Curtis, the gentleman who has charge of the Store in the Horticultural 
Building, for his attention to the Committee on Fruits, as a token of their appreciation of 
his labors in preserving, keeping and ripening Fruit for the Exhibitions of the Society. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 12, 1850. 
Vice President B. V. French, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed to correspond with the various Horticultural Societies, made 
their Report, which was referred to the Committee of Arrangements. 

A letter from the Kentucky Horticultural Society, requesting copies of the Transactions, 
was received, and the Corresponding Secretary was directed to forward the same. 

35 



138 PROCEEDINGS. 

Mr. Stickney, from the Committee of Finance, presented the following Report, which 
was accepted : — 

The Committee of Finance, in accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws, submit 
the following Report of the Financial condition of the Society, as it existed on the first day 
of January, A. D. 1850, as per Treasurer's Accounts, all of which the Committee find to 
be correctly cast and properly vouched : — 

Receipts for the Year 1849. 

Balance of Cash on hand, $81 74 

From Mount Auburn, 2.582 43 

Dividend Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, - - 170 90 

'•' Worcester Railroad, 88 00 

" Old Colony Railroad, 45 00 

Josiah Bradlee, Esq., on Mortgage, 10,000 00 

Treasurer's Note Discounted at Tremont Bank, 980 00 

Donation of En Beck, Esq., 35 00 

Sales of Railroad Stocks, 3,571 75 

Rent for Store, 1,000 00 

One half Taxes paid by Mr. Bowdilch, 97 50 

Rent of Hall, 863 55 

Admission Fees, 130 00 

Receipts at door, semi-Annual Exhibition, 110 75 

Receipts at door, Annual Exhibition, - 210 25 

Assessments collected, 858 00 

$20,824 87 
Payments for the Year 1849. 

Paid Mortgage Note, $15,000 00 

Interest on the same for six months, 375 00 

Taxes on Real Estate, - 195 00 

Treasurer's Note at Tremont Bank, 1.000 00 

Repairs and Alterations, 256 89 

Gold Medals, 110 00 

Priming and Advertising, 450 00 

Drafts on account of Transactions, - -. • - - 193 83 

Expenses for Annual Exhibition, 324 00 

Expenses for semi-Annual Exhibition, 218 00 

Premiums and Gratuities, -- 1,350 00 

Salaries, and care of Hall, 428 00 

Interest on ten thousand dollars Mortgage. 300 00 

Miscellaneous Items, 381 93 

Cash in Treasury, January 1, 1850, 242 22 

$20,824 87 

OCTSTANDING CLAIMS A G A I.N S T THE SOCIETY JANUARY 1, 1850. 

Unpaid Bills, $900 00 

Memorandum Check due Josiah Bradlee, Esq., to pay Note at Tremont Bank, 1,000 00 

For Repairs and Furniture of Library, 400 00 

Premiums and Gratuities for 1849, 1,500 00 

Premiums and Gratuities for 1848, 200 00 

$4,000 00 
Mortgage on Real Estate, $10,000 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 139 

Property of the Society. 

Heal Estate in School street, - $36,000 00 

Furniture, three Chandeliers, ....... $390 00 

Two Bradlee Vases, 150 00 

Two Marble Vases, 90 00 

Jones Vase, ........ -75 00 

Glass Ware, &c, 900 00 

Safe, &c, -...----.. 300 00 

Flower Stands, Tables, &c, 300 00 

$2,205 00 

Library, $1,500 00 

Permanent Funds. 

Appleton Fund, - - 1,000 00 

Lyman Fund, - - 1,000 00 

Lowell Fund, .......... 1,000 00 

Bradlee Fund, -----.---- 500 00 



$3,500 00 



$43,205 00 

Of the donation of Mr. Bradlee, (one thousand dollars), there remains to be invested, as a 
Permanent Fund, Jive hundred dollars. 

In closing this Report, the Committeee have the pleasure to state, that during the past 
year, the original Mortgage on their Real Estate has been reduced from fifteen thousand 
dollars to ten thousand dollars, and that the Society will soon receive a sum equal to the 
last named amount, by the bequest of the late Hon. Theodore Lyman. 

MARSHALL P. WILDER, ) 
JOSIAH STICKNEY, } FlNANCE CoMMITTEE - 

A communication was received from the Executors of the Will of the late Theodore 
Lyman, asking for the appointment of a Committee to receive the Legacy and discharge 
the Executors. 

Voted, That the Finance Committee, Messrs. Marshall P. Wilder, Josiah Stickney, and 
Otis Johnson, have full power to adjust the matter with the aforesaid Executors. 

Voted, That the Committee of Arrangements be required to appoint the day for holding 
the Annual Exhibition in September next, and report at the next meeting. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 26, 1850. 

Vice President B. V. French in the Chair. 

The Treasurer, William R. Austin, was added to the Finance Committee to settle with 
the Executors of the late Hon. Theodore Lyman. 

The Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, Joseph Breck, reported that the next 
Annual Exhibition should be held on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 
17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th of September next. 

A letter from the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, relative to the time of holding their 
next Annual Exhibition, was received. 

The Committee appointed to take into consideration what measures, if any, should be 
adopted relative to the Exhibitions of the coming year, asked to be discharged from the 
further consideration of the subject, and that the unfinished business be referred to the 
Committee on the President's Address. Adopted. 



140 PROCEEDINGS, 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 9, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed to settle with Mount Auburn Cemetery, made the following 
Report : — 

Total amount of sales, $14,568 28 

Expenses deducted, ....----. 1,400 00 

Net amount, $13,168 28 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society's proportion of net proceeds, one quarter, $3,292 07, 
which sum has been paid into the hands of the Treasurer. 

The Report was accepted. 

Packages of Seeds, from C. W. Dabney, of Fayal, and Capt. Page Brewer, of Boston, 
were received and placed in the hands of the Chairman of the Committee on Flowers, for 
distribution. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Messrs. Dabney and Brewer for 
their donations. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 23, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Flowers reported, that the Seeds placed in his 
hands at the last meeting, had been put up in twelve separate lots, for distribution among 
the members. 

Letters from Gen. Z. Taylor, President of the United States, and Rev. George Putnam, 
honorary members, were received ; also from J. J. Thomas, Dr. Wendell, S. B. Parsons, 
Dr. J. A. Kenicott, F. R. Elliot, and C. Downing, corresponding members, acknowledging 
their election. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 9, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee to whom was referred the President's Address, of January 5, made the 
following Report, which was accepted : — 

The special Committee, to whom the anniversary address of the President of the Society 
was referred, for the purpose of considering the several recommendations therein contained, 
in view of the action of the Society in relation thereto beg leave to report, that they have 
attended to the duty imposed on them, as far as time and circumstances would permit, and 
now submit the results of their deliberations and inquiry. 

The suggestions contained in the address alluded to, are entitled to the favorable 
consideration of the Society, not only as the recommendations of high official station, but 
as the conclusions of a sound judgment, active zeal, cultivated taste, and liberal spirit, 
long displayed in promoting its various interests ; and on these accounts, as well as for 
their practical value, commended themselves to your Committee. 

That favorable results have attended the efforts of this Society, in promoting a taste for 
Horticultural Science, and a love for Horticultural pursuits, cannot, with truth, be gainsayed. 
By its weekly exhibition, it has brought to the knowledge of its members and the public, 



PROCEEDINGS. 141 

the gains of a liberal enterprise and intelligent skill, in many new varieties of choice fruits, 
and rare and beautiful flowers; and by its premiums, offered and awarded for superiority 
in each, it has excited a laudable spirit of emulation, and has done somewhat towards 
promoting an improved mode of cultivation in both. But although much may have been 
done, — perhaps all, that, in the infancy of the Society, should have been attempted, — very 
much more remains to do, before the ends for which the Society was instituted can, if they 
ever can, be approximated. Years have brought to the Society an increase in the number 
of its members; and this, assisted by the liberal bequests and donations of its friends, an 
addition to its funds; and this increase in its means of usefulness, authorizes, if it does not 
demand, an attempt in advance, towards attaining the ends for which it was organized. 

An opinion has long been entertained, by some, at least, of the members of the Society, 
that some effort should be made, for their mutual instruction in a more economical and 
scientific cultivation of Trees and Plants, than at present generally prevails. Different 
modes have been suggested, in reference to this result, and one of the recommendations of 
the President seems to have had this end, with others, in view. If a Committee of the 
Society shall occasionally, through the season, visit the gardens of such of the members as 
may desire it, in order to ascertain those which are the neatest kept, best cultivated, and 
most economically managed, — and, at the same time, inform themselves minutely of the 
mode of cultivation pursued in each, the nature of the different soils, and the kinds of 
manure applied, and shall, in their report, detail the extent of their observations and 
inquiries in these particulars, — something may, perhaps, be done towards attaining the 
object last alluded to, and carry out, at the same time, ihe suggestions contained in the 
address. But whether this may be so, or not, your Committee heartily concur with the 
, President, in his recommendation of offering a premium for the neatest kept, most 
economically managed, and best cultivated garden ; and also, for grounds specially 
appropriated to Vegetables, Fruits, or Flowers, distinguished by like characteristics ; and 
they further advise, that a premium should be offered for similar superiority, displayed in 
the cultivation of Grapes or Plants, under glass, in Green-houses or Graperies. The award 
of premiums, as at present offered by the Society, though attended with beneficial results, 
and fairly made, is not always a criterion of merit. Exclusive attention may have been 
bestowed, by the successful competitor for the prize, upon one production, or upon a limited 
number of trees or plan4s, to the exclusion of all others, and thereby bear away the prize 
of superiority, — and justly, too, under the rules of the Society, — from him, whose garden, 
for scientific cultivation, neatness, and economy in management, may be a pattern. 

A regular, scientific course of lectures, upon subjects connected with Horticulture, — as 
upon the nature of the different varieties of soil, the fertilizers and stimulants adapted to 
each, the cultivation best suited to them, the vegetation for which they are best fitted, or 
giving an account of destructive insects, their habits and history, with the modes for their 
destruction, — would, doubtless, be both instructive and entertaining; and the delivery of a 
course of this description, if those qualified for the duty would place their services at the 
disposition of the Society, be desirable and beneficial. But, as the members of the Society 
are scattered abroad over the State, and could improve the opportunity but to a limited 
extent, if such was afforded, and as the information alluded to can readily be obtained from 
books, where it is wished, — the small number of members to enjoy this advantage, if 
provided for them, and the pecuniary circumstances of the Society, do not, in the opinion 
of your Committee, justify an appropriation of money for this purpose. 

The cultivation of a taste for, and instruction in, the art of Landscape Gardening, seems 
one of the legitimate objects of our association, and, for its own sake, is highly worthy of 
encouragement. Nothing contributes so much to the beauty and ornament of a country 
residence, as grounds neatly kept, laid out with taste, upon correct principles of art, 
founded on the teachings of nature ; and any measure that can be adopted, for the 

36 



142 PROCEEDINGS. 

cultivation of this taste, and the improvement of this art, within the means of the Society, 
is \vorth) r of its serious consideration. With all clue deference, however, for the enlightened 
judgment from which it emanates, your Committee cannot feel that the carrying into 
effect of the recommendation of the President, for the establishment of a Professorship of 
Landscape Gardening, would be attended with any practical benefits to the Society, or the 
public ; but believe that any effectual encouragement of the art is, at present, beyond the 
means of the Society, and that it must continue to be dependent, for its cultivation and 
improvement, upon the formation of an improved taste, and sense of its want, on the part 
of the public. 

The production of new varieties of fruits, from seed, is an object especially worthy of the 
attention of the Society; not only because such may be supposed to be better adapted 
to our soil and climate, than such as are of foreign origin, but because, both from past 
experience, as well as upon scientific principles, great improvement, especially in some 
species, may reasonably be expected. With respect to some species of fruits, it is true, so 
great improvements have in this way already been effected, as to leave, indeed, but little 
to be hoped for ; while the improvement and amelioration of others, by raising of seedlings, 
have been almost entirely neglected. While, during all seasons of the year, the choicest 
varieties of Pears and Apples, already approximate to perfection, and Hovey's seedling is 
such an advance, both in size and flavor, beyond the common Strawberry, as to leave but 
little to be desired, and the Diana Grape shows what can be effected by raising of seedlings 
of that species of fruit, the improvement of the Blackberry, the Currant, and the Gooseberry, 
seems almost to have escaped the attention of fruit cultivators in this country. Notwith- 
standing the degree of perfection already attained, liberal premiums are offered by the 
Society, for new pears and apples, of native origin ; and it has appeared to your Committee 
advisable, that a similar encouragement should be extended, for the production of a 
new variety, from seed, superior to any now in cultivation, of those above named as 
comparatively neglected. 

The recommendation, or suggestion, of the President, as to the expediency of holding 
the next Annual Exhibition of the Society under a tent, instead of, as heretofore, in the Hall 
of the Society, or some other larger room, has been with your Committee, a subject 
of serious deliberation, and careful inquiry. It is a matter calculated to give rise to 
considerations of an opposite character, and is one about which opposite opinions will 
probably be entertained, as the considerations suggested may appear, one way or the other, 
to preponderate. The expense attending the holding of the exhibition in any other place 
than the Hall of the Society, is a matter of no small importance ; for, while a niggardly 
parsimony in the management of the affairs of the Society is to be avoided, care should be 
taken, that a liberal economy in expenditure does not run into a wasteful extravagance. 
The removal of the furniture, fixtures, and dishes, — the newly fitting up and arranging 
them, — the hire of the tent, or hall, and the lighting of it, — must necessarily be attended 
with much cost, without taking into view the loss arising from the breakage of, or injury to, 
the furniture: a loss not wholly to be avoided. The increased cost to the Society, of 
having its exhibition at any other place than its own hall, would, then, seem to be a suffi- 
cient objection to the so doing, unless obviated by some expected corresponding increase 
of advantage, to be derived therefrom. And this, those who favor the project confidently 
anticipate, from a greatly increased number of visitors; increased over what it would be, 
if the exhibition was held in the Hall of the Society, to an extent more than sufficient to 
balance any increase of expenditure thereby ; and by a sufficient space obtained to exhibit 
the Fruits and Flowers to advantage ; space, as they say, that cannot be afforded by the 
Hall of the Society. That the few lastAnnual Exhibitions of the Society have, from some 
cause, been less numerously attended than is desirable, is not to be denied. Whether 
the holding the exhibition under a tent, would, from its novelty, be more attractive to the 



PROCEEDINGS. 143 

public, can only be decided by the experiment. Although the Hall of the Society may 
not be sufficiently ample, to allow of a suitable arrangement of Plants and Decorations, it 
room is reserved for all the articles that may be sent to the exhibition, yet if only such 
Fruits are placed upon the table, as are, from their novelty or superiority, objects of interest, 
or worthy of notice, sufficient space can probably be provided therein, and in the Store 
under the Hall, — the use of which, for the occasion, has been most liberally tendered by 
its proprietor, for the purposes of the Society. 

But, independent of the expense attending it, there is another inconvenience, that should 
not be overlooked, or too lightly estimated, that may accompany the having of the Annual 
Exhibition under a tent ; and that is, the exposure to which the Committees, required to be 
in attendance, may be subjected, and the serious risk of injury to health arising therefrom 
at a season of the year to which our autumnal diseases are incident, — particularly if the 
weather should be unpropitious; a contingency, that may, not improbably, occur, and that 
would deprive the Society, should it happen, of the expected advantages arising from an 
increase of visitors. In answer to objections of this character, it is denied that any undue 
exposure need be incurred ; that all proper protection can be afforded, and needed 
accommodations provided ; and that, though storms may occur, they should not be 
anticipated. 

Your Committee learn, from inquiry, that the expense attending the holding of the 
Exhibition in any of the larger halls in the city, would be so great, as to render it wholly 
inexpedient. A lent, as they are informed, is now in process of construction, two hundred 
and fifty feet long, and one hundred and fifty feet wide, for Mr. John Wright, the cost of 
which will be about one thousand five hundred dollars, and that it will be completed in a 
, short time, and that it is the intention of that gentleman, to let it for such purposes as it may 
be required for. The sum to be charged for the use of the tent, is not yet decided on ; but 
would not, probably, for the time the Society would wish it, exceed one hundred and 
twentyfive dollars. The Messrs. Hovey have the charge of the Public Garden, the only 
place adapted to an exhibition of the character referred to ; it has been, heretofore, let by 
them, on an occasion somewhat similar, for one-fourth of the net receipts of the exhibition, 
and could be obtained for the Society, if they desire it, on terms not less favorable. 

As this subject is one about which entire unanimity of opinion does not, at present, exist, 
and as no exigency requires an immediate decision with respect to it, your Committee are 
of opinion, that, with their recommendation of its favorable consideration, it had better be 
referred to the Committee of Arrangements, with authority to take such measures, in 
relation to it, as they may deem expedient. Several months must elapse, before the 
occasion contemplated will arrive; and during that time, that Committee will be able to 
form some opinion, as to the space that will be required to be provided for the Exhibition ; 
will be able to inform themselves, in many particulars, as to the expense attending the 
having it under a tent, of which your Committee are now uninformed ; will probably have 
an opportunity to see the tent when erected, and thus be qualified to form a more correct 
judgment than can now be arrived at, with respect to the expediency of the proposed 
measure. 

One other matter, that, though" foreign to the objects of their original appointment, 
has been referred to them by a vote of the Society, remains to be considered by your 
Committee ; and that is, the frequency and manner of holding the regular Exhibitions of 
the Society for the ensuing seasons. Heretofore, it has been usual to have an Exhibition, 
by the Society, on every Saturday through the year ; these Exhibitions being held, during 
the Summer, in the Hall of the Society, and at other seasons, in the Library Room. To 
these weekly exhibitions, the public were originally admitted without charge ; but as some 
inconvenience was supposed to have resulted from this course, recently, a small admission fee 



144 PROCEEDINGS. 

has been demanded. For a very considerable period, the weekly exhibitions of the Society 
were numerously attended ; but more recently, eilher because a fee has been charged for 
admission, or for some other cause, they seem to have lost their attractions for the public. 
This is much to be regretted by the Society, and should be by those interested in horticul- 
tural pursuits, who may not be enrolled among its members. The principal stimulus to 
contributions to these exhibitions, is the very natural desire, on the part of individuals, 
to bring to the notice of the public, the results of their successful cultivation or active 
enterprise, as exhibited in the production of superior specimens, or the introduction of new 
varieties. If these exhibitions, then, cease to be attractive to visitors, the main incitements 
to contributions will be drawn, and they fail longer to be objects of interest with the 
members of the Society, while the public will no longer be offered an opportunity, should 
it be desired, to form, by personal inspection, an opinion of the novelties or rarities that 
may be produced. Under these circumstances, the adoption of one of two measures has 
been suggested to your Committee, as expedient for the Society ; that is, to attempt the 
rendering of these exhibitions more attractive, by having them less frequently, or to seek 
an increase of visitors, by making them free to the public. The adoption of the course first 
proposed, would be attended with some inconvenience ; the time of holding the exhibitions 
would not be so extensively known as now, when, after long continuance of the custom, 
that they are to be regularly on Saturdays, is generally understood ; and because it is 
difficult, if not impossible, if the exhibitions should be held on stated days, to fix be- 
forehand the time when certain Fruits or Flowers will be most abundant, or in the greatest 
perfection. 

Your Committee, in view of these supposed difficulties, and considering it has been the 
established praciice of the Society, since its organization, unattended with much expense, 
recommend an adherence, for the coming season, to the custom of having exhibitions of 
Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables, regularly on Saturdays, through the year, in the Hall and 
Library Room, as heretofore ; and, because it would seem to have been more acceptable, 
and that, without the attendance of visitors, they are of little value, as well as that the 
charging of an admission fee is not productive of much income, a return to the original 
practice of making the weekly exhibitions of the Society free to the public. And with 
these statements of facts, and explanation of their views, recommend to the Society the 
adoption of the subjoined orders. All which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Committee, 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 

Ordered, That the selection of a place for holding the ensuing Annual Exhibition of the 
Society, and the recommendation of the President of the Society, in his inaugural address, 
at the commencement of the year, in relation thereto, be referred to the Committee of 
Arrangements, with full power and authority to take such measures in relation thereto, as 
they may think proper, and to have such exhibition in the Hall of the Society, or under 
a tent, (if such can be procured on reasonable terms,) as in view of the expenses to be 
incurred, and other circumstances attending it, they shall deem expedient. 

Ordered, That during the ensuing year, there be, as heretofore, weekly exhibitions of 
the Society, for Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables, on Saturdays ; and that the public be 
admitted to such exhibitions, under such regulations as may be now or hereafter established 
by the Society, free of charge for admission. 

Ordered, That in addition to the premiums established by the Society, there be offered 
for 
The most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Garden or 

Grounds, through the season, a premium of $25 00 

For the second best do., 15 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 145 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Fruit 

Garden, for the season, $25 00 

For the second best do., 15 00 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Flower 

Garden, for the season, 25 00 

For the second best do., 15 00 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Vege- 
table Garden, through the season, 25 00 

For the second best do., 15 00 

For the best managed, and most economically conducted, and well kept Green- 
House, through the season, 25 00 

For the second best do., 15 00 

For the best managed, most economically conducted, and well kept Grapery, 

through the season, with or without fire heat, 25 00 

For the second best do., - 15 00 

Ordered, That for the following named seedlings, to be originated after January 1, 1850, 
and which, after a trial of three years, shall be deemed superior in quality and other char- 
ac teristics, to any of the same species now extant, the following named premiums be 
offered, viz. : — 

For the best Seedling Blackberry, a premium of $40 00 

For the best Seedling Currant, red or white, a premium of - - - - - 25 00 
For the best Seedling Gooseberry, a premium of ------ 25 00 

The premiums offered for the same, to be awarded by the Standing Committee on Fruits, 
for the time being. 

Ordered, That the premiums now offered for the best kept grounds, Fruit, Flower, and 
Vegetable Gardens, Greenhouses and Graperies, be awarded by a Special Committee, 
consisting of five members, to be appointed by the Chair for that purpose, whose duty it 
shall be, to visit such grounds, gardens, houses, &c, as may compete for the same, at 
least twice during the season and as much oftener as they may think proper, without giving 
notice of their intention to do so ; and in making their awards for the same, they shall have 
regard, not only to the neatness exhibited, and skill in cultivation displayed, but also to the 
expense and economy with which such have been attended, and that they be and are 
authorized, when they think proper, to require of the owners of the same, a statement, in 
writing, of the management pursued, the expense incurred, the mode of cultivation 
adopted, the manure applied, and such other particulars as they may see fit to require, 
under the penalty of a right to withhold any of said premiums, that would otherwise be 
awarded, if such requirements are not complied with. 

Voted, That the Committee for inspecting the gardens and awarding the premiums be 
appointed by the Chair. 

Voted, That a silver medal be awarded to Alfred W. Haven, of Portsmouth, N. H., for 
five specimens of Pears exhibited last Fall, and overlooked by the Fruit Committee. 

A letter, accompanied by a Report of the Proceedings of the North American Pomo- 
logical Convention, at Syracuse, was received from Dr. H. Wendell, of Albany. 



BUSINESS MEETING 



President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 



Saturday, March 23, 1850. 



A communication was received from Gen. Dearborn, enclosing an account of the rise 
and progress of the Society, since its organization, — prepared for publication in the next 
number of the Society's Transactions. Referred to the Committee on Publications. 

37 



146 PROCEEDINGS. 

The Committee of Arrangements were requested to report on the expediency of hold- 
ing a semi-Annual Exhibition in June. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 6, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A committee, consisting of Josiah Lovett, Eben Wight, G. R. Russell and W. R. Austin, 
was appointed by the Chair, to award the Premiums, in accordance with the report of the 
Committee, March 5. 

On motion, it was 

Voted. That the President be added to the Committee, as chairman. 

Voted, That dollars, agreeably to the Premiums offered in the Report of the Special 

Committee on Gardens, be and the same is hereby appropriated out of the Treasury, for 
that purpose. 

Voted, That fifty copies of the Report on the Annual Address, be placed in the hands of 
the Corresponding Secretary, for distribution. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 4, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A communication on the Curculio, from M. H. Simpson, was received, and referred to 
the Committee on Publication. 

Thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Simpson for his Communication. 

A communication was also laid before the Society from C. W. Dabney, a corresponding 
member at Fayal. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 13, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A communication, accompanied with a present, was received from Monsieur Tougard, 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, President of Central Society of Horticulture of the 
Lower Seine, at Rouen. 

Voted, That the thanks of this Society be presented to Mons. Tougard, for his valuable 
present, and that the Corresponding Secretary communicate the same. 

Voted, That further time be granted to the Committee appointed to select Delegates to 
attend the Pomological Convention, to be held in Cincinnati, in September next. 

Two letters from Dr. J. Kenicott, of the Grove, Illinois, were received, and read by the 
Corresponding Secretary. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 20, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Communications were received from the New York State Agricultural Society, and from 
the Chester County Horticultural Society ; for which the thanks of the Society were voted. 



PROCEEDINGS. 147 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 3, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Agreeably to a vote of the Society, the following gentlemen were appointed delegates, 
(with power to add to their number and to fill vacancies,) to attend the Pomological Con- 
vention, in Cincinnati : — 

Samuel Walker, Marshall P. Wilder, B. V. French, A. D. Weld, J. H. Billings, W. B. 
Kingsbury, Joseph Breck, J. S. Sleeper, Eben Wight, C. M. Hovey, W. R. Austin, Daniel 
Leach. 

A communication, accompanied by a donation of Seedling Cherry buds, was received 
from F. R. Elliot, Cleveland. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Mr. Elliot, and the Corresponding 
Secretary be directed to communicate the same. 

The Corresponding Secretary was directed to transmit the Transactions of the Society to 
Mr. W. P. Allen, Oswego, agreeably to his request. 

The Journal of the New York State Agricultural Society was presented by Dr. Wendell. 

Voted, That the Society meet in future at 12 instead of 11 o'clock. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 17, 1850. 

Vice President E. M. Richards, in the Chair. 

The following delegates were appointed to attend the Exhibitions of the New York State 
Fair and American Institute : — 

To the New York State Fair — Samuel Walker, B. V. French, J. S. Cabot, Marshall P. 
Wilder, Eben Wight, Joseph Breck, C. M. Hovey, Otis Johnson, J. S. Sleeper. 

To American Institute — Marshall P. Wilder, William R. Austin, C. M. Hovey, E. A. 
Story. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 31, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Communications from the West Chester Horticultural Society, the Rhode Island Horticul- 
tural Society and the Essex Institute, inviting delegates to attend their Exhibitions, were 
received. 

The invitations were accepted, and the following gentlemen were named as delegates 
to attend : — 

To the West Chester Horticultural Society — J. S. Cabot. 

To the Rhode Island Horticultural Society — E. M. Richards, B. V. French, Cheever 
Newhall. 

To the Essex Institute — Samuel Walker, Otis Johnson, C. M. Hovey, Josiah Lovett. 

A communication was also received from the Wilmington, Delaware, Horticultural 
Society, notifying that delegates had been chosen to attend the Annual Exhibition of this 
Society. 



148 PROCEEDINGS. 

ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

The Twcntysecond Annual Exhibition of the Society was held at Horticultural Hall, on 
ihe 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th of September, 1850. To accommodate the contributors at 
this Exhibition, it was found advisable to call in requisition the whole of the Society's 
building. The Store occupied by Mr. Bowditch, together with the Library Room, were 
litted up with tables, for the display of Fruits and Vegetables. The exhibition of Fruits far 
excelled that of any previous year. 

One of the really useful parts of the machinery of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, is the labor the Fruit Committee have undertaken, of formally testing new 
varieties of Fruits, either from imported trees, or from native seedlings; and of carefully 
comparing them with varieties already well known and in the hands of most cultivators. 

It is not too much to say, that the character and judgment of the members of this Com- 
mittee stand so high as to give to the public every possible confidence in their decisions. 
Cautious and discriminating, they seldom fail to detect imposition even under the most 
high sounding names, while the true merit of a really excellent fruit cannot be hidden or 
detracted from by the rival competitor. 

The minutes of this Committee, in full, as taken on the spot at the time, would in a few 
years form a most interesting separate volume, particularly if furnished with a good index. 
These decisions, when ripened by the experience of time, would be the strongest possible 
attest of the superior value of native seedlings over imported fruits, if, as is most probable, 
such be truly the case, and would completely test the value of the judgments that were 
formed . 

In reference to the labors of this Committee for the few months they have been in 
session, it is clear the members have gone through considerable labor, and that the prospect 
before them is full of interest to the fruit grower.. If the members of the Society continue 
to proceed with as much truth and circumspection as hitherto, the nomination of this Com- 
mittee will be one of their most important annual acts ; while the office itself must be 
considered as fully equal in honor and interest to any held in the Society, without excep- 
tion. 

In contemplating the work of this Committee, as part of the forward march with the age 
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, it is hardly possible to foresee the amount ol 
silent good it is working in the community, while the evil that can arise from it may be 
fairly calculated at a cipher. 

The labors of the Committees on Flowers and Vegetables are scarcely less valuable, as 
no sooner is the introduction in Europe of a new flower heard of, than it appears in our 
exhibitions, while the astonishing improvement in the vegetables constantly exhibited on the 
tables of the Society testify strongly to the value and importance of the work performed by 
the Committee on Vegetables. 

The Committee have this year omitted publishing the very extensive list of names of 
fruits at their Annual Exhibition, as on former occasions ; the value and interest thereof 
not appearing to them adequate to the enormous expense, and have confined themselves, 
therefore, to the new fruits exhibited by the following gentlemen, who handed in lists, in 
addition to those of the preceding year. 

From the President of the Society, the following Pears, viz. : — Beurr6 Langlier, B. 
Triguer, Bordenave, Bonne de Zees, Broom Park, Charlotte de Brower, Champagne, 
Duchesse d' Orleans, Episcopal, Hobson, Hull, Oliver's Russet, Oswego Beurre, Sabine 
d : Hiver, St. Mesmire, Souverain d'Ete, Wilbur. 

From Joseph S. Cabot, Salem, Pears, viz. : — Bergamot Welbeck, Belle Excellente, 
Beurre de Charneuses, B. Moire, Caen de France, Colmar du Lot, Celestin, Craonaise, 
Doyenne Boussock, Dumortier, Ferdinand de Meister, Groom's Princess Royal, Josephine 



PROCEEDINGS. 149 

de Malines, Las Canas, Locke's Beurre, Moccas, Nouveau Poiteau, Notaire Minot, Poire 
Seigneur, Poire d'Abondance, Poire de Monsieur, Ramillies, Van Mons Leon Le Clerc, 
Vesouziere, Wredau. 

From Robert Manning, Salem, the following Pears, viz. : — Anonymous, Bergamotte 
Zappee, Beurre Goubault, Comstock, Doyenne" Goubault, Dallas, Edwards, Howell, Henri- 
etta, John Monteith, Lawrence, Nouveau Poiteau, Serrurier d'Automne, Swan's Egg, No. 
982 of Van Mons. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, two hundred and ten varieties of Pears. 

From Hovey & Co., one hundred varieties of Pears; eight varieties of Apples; five of 
Plums ; five of Peaches, and eight of Grapes. 

From B. V. French, eightyfive varieties of Pears, and one hundred and fortyone varieties 
of Apples. 

From Breck & Chamberlain, fortyfour varieties of Pears. 

From Josiah Lovett, fortythree varieties of Pears ; also Apples and Plums. 

From Otis Johnson, thirtysix varieties of Pears. 

From John Gordon, thirtysix varieties of Pears ; five varieties of Plums, and two of 
Grapes. 

From Winship & Co., thirtyfive varieties of Pears, and two varieties of Apples. 

From Josiah Stickney, thirtytwo varieties of Pears, and sixteen varieties of Apples. 

From John Washburn, thirtyone varieties of Pears ; three varieties of Apples, and one of 
Plums. 

From Henry Vandine, thirty varieties of Pears ; fifteen kinds of Plums, and Apples, 
Peaches and Persimmons. 

■ From G. R. Russell, twelve varieties of Pears ; twelve varieties of Apples, and eleven 
varieties of Grapes. 

From R. Crooker, twentyseven varieties of Pears. 

From Aaron D. Williams & Son, thirtyfive varieties of Pears, and forty varieties of 
Apples. 

From A. A. Andrews, twenty varieties of Pears, and four varieties of Apples. 

From E. M. Richards, twelve varieties of Pears ; seventeen varieties of Apples ; five 
varieties of Peaches. Also Plums and Melons. 

Froui J. A. Hall, thirteen varieties of Peaches; nine varieties of Apples, and four of 
Pears. 

From Z. L. Raymond, Pears. 

From Dr. N. Durfee, Grapes. 

From W. C. Strong, nine varieties of Grapes ; Nectarines ; Peaches, and Plums. 

From W. S. Lake, twentytwo varieties of Apples ; ten varieties of Peaches ; eighteen 
of Pears ; four of Plums, and two of Grapes. 

From A. Lackay, eight varieties of Pears; seven of Plums, and Apples. 

From N. Stetson, seven varieties of Grapes ; five varieties of Pears. Also Apples and 
Peaches. 

From A. D. Weld, twenty varieties of Apples ; twentyfour varieties of Pears ; seven 
varieties of Plums, and three of Peaches. 

From I. Fay, fifteen varieties of Pears. 

From J. W. Rogers, six varieties of Pears. 

From Messrs. Stone & Co., eleven varieties of Apples; three varieties of Pears, and two 
of Grapes. 

From George Wilson, W. J. Niles, and W. Bacon, Pears in variety. 

From Francis G. Shaw, three varieties of very excellent Grapes. 

From Samuel Downer, Jr., sixteen varieties of Pears. 

From A. Parker, eleven varieties of Apples and two of Pears. 

38 



150 PROCEEDINGS. 

From John Dane, fine Peaches. 

From B. F. Nourse, Bangor, twelve varieties of Plums. 

From B. Hemmenway, J. N. Turner, E. T. Andrews, and G. Merriam, Peaches. 
From J. Allen, J. Hooper, Jr., F. Marsh, and J. Mann, Pears. 
From M. H. Simpson, Grapes. 

From John A. Kenrick, six varieties of Pears; four varieties of Apples, and Peaches. 
From W. A. Crafts, seven varieties of Pears and two of Peaches. 

From J. W. Foster, Apples and Peaches. 1 

From W. B. Kingsbury, Pears and Apples. 
From James Eustis, twentyseven varieties of Apples. 
From J. A. Lowell, Grapes. 

From J. B. Moore, Concord, fifteen varieties of Apples, two of Pears, and fine Water- 
melons. 

From F. Dana, six varieties of Pears, and three of Peaches. 

From H. B. Stanwood, Pears and Apples. 

From S. Driver, C. N. Brackett, and D. H. Richards, Pears. 

From A. D. Webber, Pears and Melons. 

From George Walsh, Pears, Apples and Plums. 

From W. Hewens, Peaches and Pears. 

From H. Vail, Troy, N. Y., Pears. 

From N. Harris, Brookline, Pears, Peaches, and Grapes. 

From E. Tufts, E. Winslow, and A. Pope, Apples. 

From W. Lewis, Nectarines. 

From R. Bartlett, Lynn, Plums and Peaches. 

From E. Bemis, and S. L. Goodale, Saco, Pears. 

From J. W. Gates, Cambridge, B. Wheeler, Framingham, and S. B. Morse, Peaches. 

From W. May, Oranges. 

From Mrs. F. B. Durfee, fine Grapes. 

From E. Sanborn, Andover, Figs, open culture. 

From J. H. Lord, a basket of assorted Fruit. 

From T. Needham, twelve varieties of Grapes, and Pears. 

From J. Hyde & Son, two varieties of Pears, eight varieties of Apples, and Peaches. 

From Samuel Sweetser, eight varieties of Pears, and four of Plums. 

From J. H. Fearing, Plums. 

From Mrs. Dudley, three dishes of Pears. 

From C. E. Grant, six varieties of Pears, and five varieties of Peaches. 

From L. Baldwin, Nectarines, Peaches, and Pears. 



PLANTS, CUT FLOWERS, &c. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, J. A. Lowell, and Messrs. Hovey & Co., large and beautiful 
collections of Plants. 

From Breck & Co., Dahlias, and other Flowers. 

From Hovey & Co., Bouquets, Asters, and twenty varieties of Verbenas. 

From J. Nugent, Bouquets, and Cut Flowers. 

From Orr N. Town, A. Bowditch, Miss Russell, Miss L. A. Kingsley, J. Hovey, J. Black, 
C. A. Hewens, I. Spear, L. Davenport, P. Barnes, Winship & Co., T. Owens, H. Grundel, 
and others, Cut Flowers, Bouquets, &c. 

From Mrs. William Kenrick, two neatly made Lyres. 

From Mrs. E. Augustus Story, a beautiful Floral Grotto. 



PROCEEDINGS. 151 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 21, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the Committee of Arrangements, for the very 
acceptable manner in which they performed their duties. 

Voted, That a Committee be appointed to cause an inventory to be made of the Glass 
Ware, Baskets, &c, belonging to the Society, and that no person be allowed to carry any 
article of Furniture away from the Hall. 

Messrs. Breck, C. M. Hovey, and Josiah Lovett, were appointed as the Committee. 

Voted, That, hereafter, the Society shall not loan any part of its Furni: are, Glass Ware, 
Baskets, &c. 

Messrs. Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, and Eben Wight, were appointed a Committee to 
nominate a list of officers for the ensuing year. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 5, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen, were elected to fill the offices in the Society for the ensuing 
year : — 
President — Samuel Walker. 

Vice Presidents — B. V. French, Cheever Newhall, E. M. Richards, J. S. Cabot. 
Treasurer — William R. Austin. 
Corresponding Secretary — Eben Wight. 
Recording Secretary — Daniel Leach. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology — John Lewis Russell. 
Professor of Entomology — T. W. Harris. 
Professor of Horticultural Chemistry — E. N. Horsford. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On Fruits — J. S. Cabot, Chairman; Eben Wight, Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, C. 
M. Hovey, J. S. Sleeper, W. C. Strong. 

On Plants and Flowers — David Haggerston, Chairman ; A. McLennan, E. A. Story, 
F. L. Winship, P. Barnes, H. W. Dutton, Azell Bowditch. 

On Vegetables — A. D. Williams, Jr., Chairman; James Nugent, S. W. Cole, Augustus 
Parker, J. B. Moore, A. D. Williams, D. T. Curtis. 

On the Library — C. M. Hovey, Chairman ; H. W. Dutton, J. Breck, R. M. Copeland, 
George Wilson. 

On Synonymes of Fruits — M. P. Wilder, Chairman; P. B. Hovey, R. Manning, Josiah 
Lovett, J. S. Cabot. 

Executive Committee — S. Walker, Chairman ; W. R. Austin, M. P. Wilder, E. M. 
Richards, Otis Johnson. 

For Establishing Premiums — J. S. Cabot, Chairman ; D. Haggerston, A. D. Weld, Josiah 
Lovett, P. B. Hovey. 

On Finance — Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman ; Josiah Stickney, Otis Johnson. 

On Publication — Eben Wight, Chairman ; Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, Daniel Leach, 
J. S. Cabot, D. Haggerston, A. D. Weld. 

On Gardens — Joseph S. Cabot, Chairman ; Joseph Breck, W. R. Austin, A. D. Weld, 
Josiah Lovett. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to the American Institute, for a copy of their Jour- 
nal. 



152 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 2, 1850. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. Breck, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, reported that the amount taken 
at the Annual Exhibition was t^even hundred and twentyone dollars and fifty cents ; leaving 
a balance, after settling all expenses, of one hundred and seventyseven dollars and twenty- 
four cents, which amount had been paid to the Treasurer. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 7, 1850. 

President. Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

On motion of C. M. Hovey, it was 

Voted, That a Committee be appointed to consider the expediency of procuring a Bust 
of the late Hon. Theodore Lyman, to be placed in the Library Room or the Hall of the 
Society. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, Joseph Breck, J. S. Cabot, Eben Wight, and Daniel Leach, were 
appointed a Committee for that purpose. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Dr. J. A. Warder, for numbers of the Western 
Horticultural Review ; to Messrs. Baumann, France, for Catalogues, and to P. Windsor, of 
Baltimore, for specimens of Potatoes. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 14, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Executive Committee reported the following appropriations for Premiums for the 
year 1851 : — 

For Prospective Prizes, $750 00 

For Flowers, Plants, &c, 700 00 

For Fruits, 500 00 

For Vegetables, 150 00 

For Gardens and Grounds, 200 00 

$2,300 00 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 21, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A letter from Mr. J. Gordon, was received and referred to the Committee on Gardens. 
The President and M. P. Wilder were appointed to assist the Committee on Publication. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 28, 1850. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The President, Treasurer, and Chairman of the Committee of Finance, were appointed 
a Committee to settle with the Executors of Mr. Lyman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 153 

Documents and Pamphlets were received from the Hon. R. C. Winthrop and J. M. Brown, 
for which the thanks of the Society were voted. 

The following Reports of the Committees on Gardens, Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables, 
were read and accepted : — 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS, AWARDING PREMIUMS 

FOR 1850. 

The Committee on Gardens, in submitting this their first Report, beg leave to state, that 
their duties being entirely new, and without any rules for their government, they have not 
been able to accomplish as much as they could have wished; yet they fully believe a new 
impetus has been given to more thorough and neat home cultivation, and that the objects of 
the Society, in making the prizes, are being fully realized. The Committee would here 
bear testimony to the general apparent improvement and neatness of nearly every place 
visited, and also to the very cordial reception they everywhere met with, making duty 
pleasant, and compensating for the tax upon their time. In making the awards, your 
Committee have felt the difficulty of doing exact justice, but they have acted their best 
judgment, and been unanimous in opinion. They have not felt it imperative to give all 
the Prizes according to the schedule, and have in some instances substituted Gratuities, as 
being better adapted to the particular case, and have endeavored to express briefly the 
general or more prominent merits for which each Gratuity or Prize was made. In conclu- 
sion, the Committee would respectfully recommend the adoption of the following Rules 
and Regulations for the government of the Garden Committee, and which the experience 
of the past season has clearly shown to be expedient and necessary. 

1. All applications for a visit must be made to the Chairman, on or before the 1st of 
May, stating extent of grounds, number of fruit trees, whether offered for a prize, and such 
a general outline as to give to the Committee some sort of idea of the premises. 

2. No fruit garden or grounds, of less than one acre, and this well stocked and under 
fine cultivation, can occupy the time of the Committee. 

3. No Farm will be visited, unless there should be connected with it a fine fruit garden, 
vegetable garden, flower garden, greenhouse, or graperies; in which case, these alone will 
be examined. 

4. It shall be the duty of the Committee to select from the applications those which may 
seem most deserving of notice, and to visit as many places, and as often, as they may deem 
expedient and necessary. 

5. In making all examinations, the utmost regard must be paid to economy and general 
thrift : in cases, however, of pleasure, landscape, or fancy grounds, more allowance must 
be made for taste and design, and a gratuity or complimentary notice may be made, at the 
discretion of the Committee. 

6. No place will be visited officially, and in reference to an award, without a written 
invitation. 

7. All visits must be conducted without previous notice ; and if made out of season, or 
under unfavorable circumstances, due allowance will be made. 

8. No person shall be a competitor for the highest Prize, more than two years out of 
seven. 

9. The Committee may, at their discretion, give Gratuities, or substitute Gratuities for 
Prizes, in any way best to serve the objects of the Society, and meet special cases, (always, 
of course, within the limits of the appropriation.) 

10. Competitors for the Prizes, shall furnish to the Committee, if required, a written 
statement of their mode of cultivation, quantity and kind of manure applied, amount of 
labor including their own, and other particulars called for, under the penalty of a forfeiture 
of such Prize, if withheld. 

39 



154 PROCEEDINGS. 

11. The expenses of the Committee shall be paid by the Society; and a record shall be 
kept by the Chairman, of all places visited. 

Respectfully submitted, for the Committee. WILLIAM R. AUSTIN. 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES VOTED FOR THE PAST SEASON. 

To Olis Johnson, for the neatest, best kept, and most economical Fruit Garden, a 

Prize of $25 00 

To John Gordon, for a productive and economical Fruit Garden, a Prize of - 15 00 

To Messrs. Hovey & Co., for the well kept and thriving condition of their Gardens, 

Grounds, &c, a Prize of 25 00 

To the Gardener of R. C. Hooper, for the general neat appearance of his Greenhouse, 

Garden, and Grounds, a Gratuity of 10 00 

To John Geddes, the Gardener ol G. R. Russell, for a very neat and well kept Vege- 
table Garden, a Gratuity of 10 00 

To the same, for a neat and well managed Grapery, a further Gratuity of - 10 00 

To the Gardener of J. P. Cushing, for the neatly kept and orderly premises under his 

care, a Gratuity of 10 00 

To J. F. Allen, for his extensive Graperies, and great number of varieties, a Gratu- 
ity of 15 00 

To W. C. Strong and T. Needham, for well kept Graperies during the season, a 

Gratuity to each of- 10 00 

To W. R. Austin, for his neatly kept Garden, well managed and promising condition 

of his Fruit Trees, a Gratuity of- - - - - - - - -15 00 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, AWARDING PREMIUMS 

FOR 1850. 

PREMIUMS AT THE OPENING OF THE HALL. 

Pelargoniums. — Class I. — For the best six new and rare varieties, grown in eight- 
inch pots, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - - - - $6 00 
Cut Flowers. — For the best display, to J. Nugent, 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Breck & Co., 2 00 

Fuchsias. — For the best six varieties, to E. Burns, - - 6 00 

For the 2d best, to E. Burns, 4 00 

Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, 3 00 

For the 2d best, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - 2 00 

Heaths. — For the best varieties, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - - 3 00 

For the 2d best, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, ... 2 00 
Various Sorts. — For the best display of various sorts of Green-House Plants, not 

less than twelve pots, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - - 8 00 

For the 2d best, to E. Burns, 5 00 

Hyacinths. — For the best display, not less than twenty varieties, to J. Breck & Co., 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Breck & Co., 3 00 

Tulips. — For the best thirty distinct varieties, to J. Breck & Co., ... 8 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 6 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Breck & Co., 3 00 

Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., - - - 4 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Breck & Co., 2 00 

Hawthorns. — For the best display, to Winship & Co., 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Kenrick, 2 00 

Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display, to Hovey & Co., 5 00 

For the 2d best, to John Kenrick, 3 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 155 

Shrubby Pjeonies. — For the best six varieties, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, $5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. S. Cabot, 4 00 

For the best display, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - - - 3 00 

Herbaceous Peonies. — For the best twelve flowers, having regard to the number 

of varieties, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

For the best display, H Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, ... 3 00 

Pinks. — For the best six distinct varieties, no premium awarded. 
For the 2d best, do. do. 

For the best display, do. do. 

Roses. — Class I. — Hardy Roses. For the best thirty distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., 8 00 

For the 2d best, to H. Grundel, Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - - - - 6 00 

For the third best, to J. Breck & Co., 4 00 

For the best display, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Class II. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Breck & Co., 2 00 

Class III. — Hardy Perpetual Roses. — For the best ten varieties, to H. Grundel, 

Gardener to M. P. Wilder, - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

For the best display, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Prairie Roses. For the best display, not less than six varieties, to J. Breck & Co., 5 00 

For the 2d best, not less than four, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

For the 3d best, not less than four, to Winship & Co., .... 3 00 

Carnation and Picotee Pinks. — For the best ten varieties, to Hovey & Co,, - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

For the best display, to Hovey & Co., --------3 00 

Magnolias. — For the best display through the season, to Winship & Co., - - 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Kenrick, - 2 00 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — Foi the best display of the season, to Hovey & Co., - 5 00 

For the second best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

For the third best, to Hovey & Co., 2 00 

Double Hollyhocks. — For the best display, to Hovey & Co., - - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Breck & Co., 4 00 

Double Balsams. — For the best display, to T. Needham, - - - - - 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Nugent, 2 00 

For the third best, to Hovey & Co. 100 

Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct varieties, to J. Breck & Co., ... 6 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., .-..4 00 

For the 3d best, to Parker Barnes, ---_.... 300 

German Asters. — For the best display, to I. Spear, - -'- - - -4 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Nugent, - - 3 00 

For the 3d best, to L, Davenport, -2 00 

Herbaceous Perennials.— For the best display through the season, the Society's 

Silver Medal, to Joseph Breck & Co., - - - - . . -5 00 

For the 2d best to Parker Barnes, 4 00 

For the third best to Winship & Co., 3 00 

Annuals.— For the best display through the season, the Society's Silver Medal, to 

Parker Barnes, 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Breck & Co., - - 4 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Nugent, . 3 00 



156 PROCEEDINGS. 

Camellias. — For the best twelve varieties of cut flowers, with foliage, to Hovey & Co., $8 00 
Chinese Primrose. — For the best six plants, in not less than four varieties, in pots, 

to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Greenhouse Azaleas. — For the best six varieties, in pots, to Hovey & Co., - 6 00 

For the 2d best to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

Flowering Shrubs. — For the best display during the season, to Winship & Co., 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Kenrick, 4 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Breck & Co., 3 00 

gratuities. 

To Azel Bowditch, for Forced Hyacinths, the Silver Medal, - - - - $5 00 

To T. Needham, for Ceropegia elegans, the Silver Medal, - - - - - 5 00 

To J. Tidd, for Seedling Cactus, 2 00 

To J. Breck & Co., for Iris Susiana, the Silver Medal, 5 00 

To George Johnson, for Seedling Yellow Rose, the Silver Medal, ... 5 00 

To T. Owens, for Orchids, the Silver Medal, - - - - - - - 5 00 

PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 

To Winship & Co., for Bouquets, Cut Flowers, &c, at weekly shows, - - $17 00 

To Hovey & Co., for the same, - - - 11 00 

To J. Breck & Co., for the same, - - - - 24 00 

To A . Bowditch, for the same, 1100 

To H. Grundel, for the same, 8 00 

To Miss Russell, for the same, 14 00 

To J. Nugent, for the same, 16 00 

To Parker Barnes, for the same, - 19 00 

To L. Davenport, for the same, - 11 00 

To Miss Kenrick, for the same, 11 00 

To John Hovey, for the same, .--------- 10 00 

To E. Burns, for the same, - 7 00 

To W. Kenrick, for the same, 2 00 

To W. E. Carter, for the same, 3 00 

To J. A. Kenrick, for the same, 3 00 

To Mrs. E. A. Story, for the same, - - - 2 00 

To Miss Barnes, for the same, - 100 

To T. Needham, for the same, 1 00 

To E. Winslow, for the same, 100 

To J. W. Brown, for the same, 1 00 

For the Committee. 

D. HAGGERSTON, Chairman. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, AWARDING PREMIUMS 
, FOR 1850. 

The Committee cannot but congratulate the Society on the favorable results, in relation 
to that branch of horticultural science with which they are connected, that have thus 
far attended its operations, and of an evidently continued approximation towards the 
attainment of some of the objects for which it was instituted, as manifested by a greater 
superiority, from year to year, in the fruits exhibited, thereby showing a more scientific 
and improved cultivation ; by the greater number of varieties from year to year placed 
upon its tables, thus proving the success of efforts, either by collecting the seedlings 
scattered through our own country, or by importing from Europe its choicest kinds, to 
obtain for the use of its members and the public, all the varieties of every species of fruit 



PROCEEDINGS. 157 

that are worthy of an extended cultivation ; on the continued interest of its members in 
these objects of the Society, and upon its continued favorable consideration with the public 
as evinced by an increased number of competitors for its premiums, and a more general 
attendance at its exhibitions. 

The success that has thus far attended the Society, instead of causing any relaxation, 
should act as a stimulus to greater zeal and more vigorous and skilful efforts, on the part 
of its members, to the promotion, if not to the full attainment, of the ends contemplated by 
its founders. 

An unusual quantity of rain through the Spring and Summer of the past year, followed 
by a remarkably pleasant, dry Autumn — with no " killing frosts" until late in the latter 
season — affording ample opportunities for the trees to ripen their wood and perfect their 
buds, and enabling the grasses to retain their freshest green uninterruptedly from Spring 
till late in Autumn, have been some of its peculiar characteristics. April and May, in this 
vicinity, were cold and wet, accompanied with long-continued east winds and much 
rain at the time the fruit trees were bursting their flower-buds ; whilst the Summer was 
distinguished by less than the usual quantity of heat, and more than the usual supply of 
moisture. As was to be expected, the effects of these causes have not failed to be 
manifested, in the production of our Gardens and Orchards, by a diminution in quantity, or 
deterioration in quality. 

The past season cannot be considered as one propitious to either fruit trees or fruit. For 
both, there was probably too much wet — the vigor and growth of the former, and the 
flavor and richness of the latter, being injuriously affected thereby. Apples and Pears in 
Massachusetts, though in some sections of it abundant, were, on the whole, both as regards 
quantity and quality, below an average. Peaches, in most situations, were in great 
abundance, but inferior in quality. Cherries were inferior, and Plums below a medium 
crop. Grapes generally failed to perfect and ripen their fruit ; those raised in graperies, 
even, being deficient in size, color, or flavor. Of the smallest fruits — the Strawberry, 
Raspberry, &c. — there was an ample supply, with, for the most part, a deficiency in 
richness, sweetness, and flavor. 

A reasonable hope had been indulged, that opportunity would, the past season, have 
been afforded to test the quality of many of the new varieties of Pears that, during the past 
few years, have by importations been added to our collections ; but this expectation, 
though not wholly disappointed, has not been gratified to the extent anticipated. Specimens 
of some of these have been placed on your tables ; and some new varieties, of native 
origin, have also been submitted to the examination of your Committee. Two varieties 
of Seedling Strawberries, raised by him, have been exhibited by the President of the 
Society. One of these varieties was a staminate of a dark red color, very fine flavor, good 
size, hardy, and very productive ; worthy, if any staminate variety is, as your Committee 
think, of an extended culture. The other was a pistillate, of a light red color, possessing 
also many valuable properties. Specimens of twenty varieties of Strawberries were, the 
past season, presented to the Society by Mr. L. E. Eaton, of Providence ; many of them of 
recent importation, and new to your Committee. Unfortunately some of the varieties had 
received injury in the carriage, and their quality could not be so accurately tested as was 
desirable. Some of them were of fine flavor, and — especially one marked General 
Jacquemont — will, it is believed, prove desirable acquisitions. Another opportunity of 
testing Jenney's Seedling Strawberry, has strengthened the Committee in their former 
expressed opinions of this variety. The plants are very hardy and productive ; the berries 
very solid and heavy — when perfectly ripe, losing Iheir acidity, and becoming very fine 
in flavor. In the opinion of your Committee, it is a very estimable variety. 

August 2, 1850, Mr. J. Shed Needham, of Dan vers, exhibited a box of berries, of the 
white high-bush Bramble. These were of a pinkish white or rose color, not of very great 

40 



158 PROCEEDINGS. 

size ; evidently a variety of, or accidental sport from, the common high bush Blackberry, 
and worthy of note rather as a novelty, than as possessing any superior qualities. The 
plant was found in the woods by Mr. Needham, and by him transplanted to his garden. 

Although possessing no claim to novelty, the great beauty and uncommon size of some 
Elton Cherries, probably the finest and largest ever placed on the tables of the Society — 
raised by Mr. J. F. Allen, under glass — rendered them worthy of special notice in this 
Report. For three years in succession, including that now closing, a small red Cherry, 
very sweet, and of pleasant flavor — doubtless a variety of the Mazzard — has been 
exhibited by Mr. Solon Dike. This the Committee have judged worthy of a name, and 
having been requested by the exhibitor to name it, have decided upon calling it Dike's 
Mazzard. But, of all the Seedling Cherries that have been yet brought under the notice of 
your Committee, those produced and repeatedly shown by Mr. George Walsh, are by far 
the best. Of these, there are three varieties, and by Mr. Walsh numbered 1, 2, and 3. 
These Cherries resemble each other, and have probably a similar origin. They are of a 
very dark color, large, sweet, rich flavor, and rivalling, in their beauty, size, and quality, 
that standard variety, the Black Tartarian. They are represented as good bearers, and not 
liable to rot. They have been disseminated, this year, by the distribution of buds, for the 
first time, and will now soon be tested in various different situations.. Should they be found 
to succeed as well in different situations, and with common cultivation, as in the place of 
their origin, they will prove a valuable acquisition. 

Another opportunity has been afforded, the past season, of testing the Reine Claude de 
Bavay Plum — a variety with a reputation for great excellence, imported at high cost from 
Europe, within a few years. It is a Plum of medium size, of yellowish green color, 
and sweet, pleasant flavor — a clingstone, ripening late in the season, and keeping into 
October — and, though thus far hardly maintaining the reputation that preceded its 
introduction, is a good fruit, and one probably worthy of cultivation. A new Plum, called 
De Monlfort, of a most delicious flavor, was presented to the Committee on the 24th of 
August, by Hon. M. P. Wilder. Red Currants, of large size, somewhat later than the 
Red Dutch, called Gondouin, were exhibited, the past season, by Josiah Lovett, 2d. They 
were of good flavor, and said to be productive. 

Your Committee have, this year, had an opportunity, for the first time, of trying the 
quality of some new Pears, and also of further testing some of those more recently 
introduced. Among the former was a Pear, said to be of native origin, presented by 
Messrs. Hovey, on August 31. It is a fruit of medium size, round oblong shape, yellow 
color, with a fine blush in the sun, and with russet at the stem ; skin smooth ; flesh melting, 
juicy, and of a very pleasant flavor; resembling, in its general appearance, the Golden 
Beun-e of Bilboa. 

On August 24, Mr. Francis Dana, who seems to have been very successful in producing 
new Pears from seed, exhibited another Seedling Pear raised by him, that promises to be 
an acquisition to our stock of Summer fruits. It was of medium size, pyriform shape, 
swelled out at the stem, somewhat rough, yet full of a rich, sprightly juice. 

The Swan's Orange, or Onondaga Pear, has, the past year, been produced in greater 
quantities than before, in this vicinity ; arid, accordingly, better means of judging of its 
value for general cultivation have been afforded, though not sufficient, perhaps, to authorize 
the expression of an entirely confident opinion. Although this fruit will probably never 
be placed by connoisseurs in the very first rank for excellence — different specimens 
varying much in quality — yet its general good qualities, its size and beauty — in connection 
with the circumstances that the trees are said to be very productive, of vigorous habit, and 
early bearing — will, it is believed, render it worthy of an extended cultivation. 

Beurre Langelier gives promise of maintaining in this country its European reputation, 
and of justifying, in a measure, at least, the pretensions made for it by its originator. It is 



PROCEEDINGS. 159 

a handsome fruit, of good size, yellow color, with a fine blush in the sun — melting, juicy, 
and of an agreeable taste — whose season is January and February, though some of the 
specimens this year ripened in November. 

The pear Nouveau Poitean — in size large or above a medium, of a dark green color, 
flesh buttery and melting, ripening in November — has fruited for the first time in this 
country, the past season ; but, as only one opportunity has been afforded of testing it, any 
expression of opinion as to its merits would be premature. 

Specimens of the Beurre Sprin have been, the last season, exhibited by Josiah Lovett, 
2d ; and of Beurre Goubault, and of Fondate de Malines, by John Washburn. These 
Pears are of recent origin or introduction, and but few opportunities have as yet been 
afforded for testing their quality : a circumstance that, in the opinion of the Committee, 
renders it expedient for them to delay any statement respecting them for the present. 

Although seven years have elapsed since it was fruited for the first time in this city, the 
Doyenne Boussock, or Boussock Nouvelle, seems in a great measure to have escaped 
notice until recently, when attention was more particularly called to it by the production of 
many fine specimens, and those raised in different situations, and under not particularly 
favorable circumstances. At the last Annual Exhibition of the Society, pears of this 
variety, from William Davis, were among the most attractive objects on the tables. It 
is of very large size, great beauty, good quality, and appears worthy of an extensive 
circulation. These remarks are also in some respects applicable to the Beurre d'Anjou 
and Paradise of Automne — fine pears, that not appear to have received that attention from 
cultivators to which they are justly entitled. 

Northern Spy Apples have been exhibited for the first time, by Dr. Wight, of Dedham. 
From their size, great beauty, and good quality, specimens of this variety, brought from 
and raised in Western New York, have been greatly admired : and strong hopes were 
indulged, as the trees are hardy and grow vigorously, that the variety would succeed well 
with us. The specimens exhibited, thus far, hardly give promise of the fruition of this 
hope. As, however, it is the first year of their production, perhaps they were not a 
criterion of what may be expected, and great improvement in size and quality may 
hereafter be attained. 

Although omitted in perhaps its more appropriate place in this Report, a mention of the 
fact should not be neglected, that Lewis, or Boston Nectarines, remarkable for size and 
beauty, superior to any that as yet have been brought under the notice of your Committee, 
were exhibited at one of the weekly exhibitions of the Society, the past season, by Mr. 
Stephen H. Perkins. 

A strong desire on the part of the Committee to place before the Society all the 
information they possess respecting fruits of recent origin or introduction, and such opinions 
as their opportunities have enabled them to form of the qualities of such, has given rise to 
the preceding notices of some varieties; but, aware that specimens of fruit produced from 
young trees, of the first or even second year of bearing, are not always a true criterion 
of the qualities of the variety — and that, before a reliable judgment can be formed, 
specimens from trees arrived at some degree, at least, of maturity are necessary, and those, 
too, subjected to a variety of soils and situations, and different modes of culture — an 
equally strong desire on their part not to mislead, prompts a caution that implicit confidence 
should not be given to opinions, if not hastily formed, at least not grounded on sufficient 
data. With respect to the qualities of a fruit, especially Winter fruits, much may depend 
upon the mode of ripening. With some, no care whatever is necessary, while others only 
arrive at their perfection under some peculiar process ; and a knowledge of this fact is 
necessary, in order to warrant a perfectly correct conclusion with respect to the merits of a 
variety. Upon the whole, it is believed that it will prove the best and safest course for 
beginners to make their selections from well known and established kinds ; unless in their 



160 PROCEEDINGS. 

estimation, the gratification of a desire for novelties — an interest in watching the progress 
and development of some new varieties, and of contributing from their experience a share 
to the common stock of pomological knowledge — form a sufficient recompense for 
probably repeated and frequent disappointments 

The cultivation of the Pear seems, for many years past, to have occupied the almost 
exclusive attention of horticulturists ; and the interest in this fruit, both in this country 
and Europe, has led to the production from seed of almost countless varieties. While 
it is not intended or desired to underrate this, one of our most valuable fruits, yet it is 
to be regretted that this almost exclusive devotion to its cultivation, and the production 
of its varieties, has caused the almost entire neglect of another species — certainly as 
useful, and, in an economic point of view, more valuable — the Apple. Of this last, 
it is true, we possess numerous varieties, and some of great excellence, but for the 
most part of accidental origin, and without the application to their production of those 
scientific principles that, in the case of the Pear, has conduced to so great perfection. 
Although, as has been said, we have numerous varieties of the Apple, yet there are purposes 
and seasons for which suited varieties are yet to be supplied. We need, among others, an 
Apple suited to our soil, climate, and general cultivation, and of superior quality, to succeed 
the Early Harvest ; a late-keeping Sweet Apple • Apples for the table, as well as those for 
culinary purposes, that shall retain their spirit and flavor until towards that season when 
the fruits of the succeeding year make their appearance. No better field for the exercise 
of the skill and judgment of the pomologist, it is believed, remains open, than attempts, 
conducted upon scientific principles and with a view to the supply of existing wants, to the 
production of Seedling Apples ; and none that will better reward his efforts. 

It should be kept in mind that the Committee, in making their award of prizes, have had 
reference not only to the superiority of the articles competing, but their adaptation to 
general cultivation ; and that they have hesitated or declined to award a prize to a fruit 
that only arrives at perfection under the most favorable circumstances ; that is disposed to 
canker, or from other cause is not suited to general culture, even when the particular 
specimens exhibited might be of a superior excellence — an unwillingness to mislead the 
-inexperienced having induced this kind of. discrimination. 

The Committee would especially notice the many fine specimens of fruit exhibited by 
the President of the Society : and they do so with the greatest pleasure, as he has declined 
taking any premiums. 

With these remarks, your Committee now submit their award of the prizes offered by 
the Society, for the past year : — 

For the best and most interesting exhibition of Fruits during the season, to John F. 

Allen, the Lowell Plate, valued at $20 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 12 00 

Apples. — For the best twelve Summer Apples, on or before the last Saturday in 

August, to Otis Johnson, for the Red Astrachan, 6 00 

For the next best, to Aaron D. Williams, for Williams's Favorite, - - 4 00 
For the best twelve Autumn Apples, on or before the last Saturday in November, 

to John S. Sleeper, for Hubbardston Nonesuch, 6 00 

For the next best to Josiah Lovett, 2d, for the Gravenstein, ... 4 00 
For the best twelve Winter Apples, on or before the last Saturday in December, 

to Otis Johnson, for Baldwin, 6 00 

For the next best, to Joseph S. Cabot, for Rhode Island Greening, - - 4 00 
Blackberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to Josiah Lov- 

e " ; 2d, 5 00 

For the next best, to C. E. Grant, 3 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 161 

Cherries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to Otis Johnson, for 

Black Tartarian, $6 00 

For the next best, to George Walsh, for his Seedling, ----- 4 00 

Currants. — For the best specimens, two boxes, to George Wilson, - - 5 00 

For the next best, to Otis Johnson, 3 00 

Figs. — For the best twelve specimens, to J. F. Allen, - - - - - -5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Gooseberries. — For the best specimens, two boxes, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, - - 5 00 

For the next best, to J. Hovey, 3 00 

A Gratuity, for specimens of fine Gooseberries, to Dr. S. G. Howe, - 3 00 

Grapes. — For the best specimens, grown under glass, on or before the first Saturday 

in July, to E. Burns, ----- 10 00 

For the next best, to T. Needham, 7 00 

For the best specimens, grown under glass, subsequently to the first Saturday 

in July, to Hovey & Co., 10 00 

For the next best to T. Needham, 7 00 

For the best specimens of native Grapes, (Isabella,) to A. W. Stetson, - - 5 00 

For the next best, (Isabella.) to C. E. Grant, 3 00 

Musk Melon. — For the best Musk Melon, in open culture, on or before the last 

Saturday in September, to E. M. Richards, 5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Nectarines. — For the best twelve specimens, to S. H. Perkins, - - - - 5 00 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, ------ 4 00 

For very fine Nectarines, to W. C. Strong, a Gratuity of ... 4 00 

Peaches. — For the best twelve specimens grown under glass, on or before the second 

Saturday in July, to J. F. Allen, 6 00 

For the next best, to Otis Johnson, 4 00 

For the best twelve specimens, in open culture, to G. Merriam, - - - 6 00 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 4 00 

For fine Peaches, to E. King, a Gratuity of 4 00 

For the same, to Hovey & Co., a Gratuity of- - - - - - -4 00 

Pears. — For the best collection, not exhibited before this year, with a written 
description of the same, no prize was awarded. 
For the next best, do. do. 

For the best twelve Summer Pears, on or before the last Saturday in August, 

to Hovey & Co., for a native Pear, unnamed, - - - - - -6 00 

For the next best, to J. Stickney, for the Madeline, 4 00 

For the best twelve Autumn Pears, on or before the last Saturday in November, 

to F. Tudor, for Swan's Orange, or Onondaga, 6 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, for Beurre Bosc, .... 4 00 

For fine Andrews Pears, to F. Dana, a Gratuity of 3 00 

For fine Marie Louise, to H. Vandine, a Gratuity of 3 00 

For fine Beurre Bosc, to S. Driver, a Gratuity of 3 00 

For fine Capiaumont, to E. Cleaves, a Gratuity of 3 00 

For fine Paradise d'Automne, to J. Stickney, a Gratuity of - - - - 3 00 

For the same, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, a Gratuity of - - - - - - 3 00 

For the best twelve Winter Pears, on or before the last Saturday in December, 

to H. Vandine, of Glout Morceau, 10 00 

For the next best, to J. S. Cabot, for Columbia, 6 00 

Plums. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to G. Walsh, for G. Gage, 6 00 

For the next best, to J. Mann, for Green Gage, 3 00 

41 



162 PROCEEDINGS. 

Quinces. — For the best twelve specimens, to S. Downer, Jr., - - - - $5 00 

For the next best, to H. Vandine, 3 00 

Raspberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, 

for Knevet's Giant, 5 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, for Fastolf, 3 00 

Strawberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to Otis Johnson, 

for Hovey's Seedling, ..---6 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Richardson, for do., »..*•«.** 4 00 

For the 3d best, to Hovey & Co., for do., 3 00 

For fine specimens of Jenney's Seedling, to W. P. Jenney, a Gratuity of - 4 00 

As accidentally the offer of prizes for Apricots were omitted, and fine Apricots were 
repeatedly exhibited by Franklin King, the Committee award to him, as a Gratuity, the 
Silver Medal of the Society. 

For the Committee. 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, AWARDING PREMI- 
UMS FOR 1850. 

The Committee on Vegetables, for the year 1850, Report the Premiums awarded by them, 

as follows : — 

Asparagus. — To F. A. Davis, for the earliest and best, S3 00 

To J. Hill, for the 2d best, * 2 00 

Beets.— To A. D.Williams, for the best, 3 00 

Broccoli. — To Josiah Lovett, for the best three heads, 5 00 

Beans. — To John Gordon, for the best Lima Beans, - - - - - 3 00 

Horse Radish. — To A. D. Williams, for the best, 3 00 

Cabbages. — To A. & G. Parker, for the best Drumhead, 5 00 

To A. D. Williams, for the 2d best, - 3 00 

Carrots. — To A. D. Williams, for the best exhibited, - - - - - - 2 00 

Cauliflowers. — To J. A. Keniick, for the best and largest, .... 5 00 

To Lyman Kinsley, for the 2d best, --3 00 

Celery. — To J. Crosby, for the best and largest, blanched, a Gratuity of - - 3 00 

Corn. — To A. D. Williams, for the best and earliest Sweet Corn, - - - - 3 00 

To A. Bowditch, for the 2d best, 2 00 

Cucumbers. — To H. B. Crooker, Thos. Needham, Gardener, for the best Cucumbers 

under glass, - - 5 00 

To S. Bigelow, E. Burns, Gardener, for the 2d best under glass, - 3 00 

To A. D. Williams, for the best in open culture, 3 00 

Egg Plants. — To A. & G. Parker, for the best display, 5 00 

To Joseph Breck, for the 2d best, -2 00 

Lettuce. — To A. & G. Parker, for the best, - 3 00 

To J. Crosby, for the 2d best, a Gratuity of 2 00 

Potatoes. — To D. Peirce, for the best and earliest, 3 00 

To A. D. Williams, for the 2d best, 2 00 

Peas. — To S. Bigelow, E. Burns, Gardener, for the best and earliest, - 3 00 

Rhubarb. — To L. Kinsley, for the largest and best, 5 00 

To J. Lovett, for the 2d best, 3 00 

Squashes. — To A. D. Williams, for the best Canada Squash, - - - 3 00 

To A. & G. Parker, for the greatest variety exhibited, .... 5 00 

Tomatoes. — To A. D. Williams, for the best and earliest, 3 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 163 

Vegetables. — To A. Moore, for the best display and greatest variety at the weekly 

exhibitions, during the season, $5 00 

To A. D. Williams, for the 2d best, - 3 00 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Committee. AZEL BOWDITCH, Chairman. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 4, 1851. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The following very appropriate Address was delivered by the President of the Society, 
in opening the Meeting : — 

Gentlemen — Laboring together, as many of us have done for nearly a quarter of a 
century, under, as we trust, the guidance of that all-wise Providence whose works have 
been our study and delight, we are again called to enter upon the respective duties assigned 
to us by the Society. 

That oneness of purpose and action which has been so characteristic of the members of 
the several Committees, together with their increased knowledge from past experience, and 
the judicious Rules and Regulations that they have from time to time adopted for their 
future action, give assurance that they will be able satisfactory to discharge all the duties 
imposed upon them, notwithstanding the increasing Exhibitions at the Hall, and the more 
frequent application for information respecting new fruits, &c, from abroad. 

It gives me great pleasure, Gentlemen, to state that the purpose for which this Society 
was established has, so far, as it appears to me, accomplished all that its most sanguine 
friends expected • still there remains much to be done. 

The future action of the members will be stimulated by the reminiscence of the past, 
and the recollection of the labors and donations of its founders and benefactors ; these will 
cheer their path, and act as a talisman on their future aspirations, while the History of 
Mount Auburn will be a record, in all coming time, that the members of this Society, some 
of whom are now present, were the founders of that "Garden of Graves;" and that to its 
first President, General H. A. S. Dearborn, are the members of this Society and the public 
indebted for the beautiful and chaste arrangement of this — the last resting-place of so many 
of the great and the good. 

The Committee to visit Gardens, and to ascertain as far as possible the best mode of 
cultivation, in the vicinity of Boston, have had every facility afforded them by the courtesy 
and kindness of the proprietors of all the places they visited. In these examinations they 
found many things worthy of imitation, and much to admire. I would again respectfully 
recommend this interesting branch of our labors to the fostering care of the Society, and 
also call its attention again to that noble and interesting subject — Landscape Gardening. 
For my views more fully on this department, permit me to refer you to the remarks in my 
last Annual Address. 

The increasing taste for Horticultural pursuits requires prompt and corresponding action 
to enable us to keep pace with the times. The question with us now, is, not what can be 
done, but rather what shall be done first to meet the demands of the community and the wants 
of the Society. An Experimental Garden, enlarged and more extended Annual Exhibitions 
under tents, &c, are subjects full of interest, and may well occupy the attention, and 
hereafter require the deliberate consideration of the Society. But, gentlemen, a permanent 
Temple, of ample dimensions to meet all the wants of the Society and the wishes of the 
public, is the first thing that I would suggest for your consideration ■ let us obtain a suitable 
location, a Home ; for this purpose let us economize our resources, tax our time and our 
energies, and, if needs be, our fortunes, for this desirable consummation of the wishes of 



164 PROCEEDINGS. 

our friends, and the founders of this Society ; many of them saw only through the vista 
with the eye of hope ; it is our duty and our privilege to carry out their designs, and to fill 
up the picture as it once presented itself to the vision of the Lowells, the Storeys, the 
Lymans, the Brimmers, the Curtisses, the Bradlees, and the Princes. Without a Hall to 
exhibit, to advantage, all the specimens raised by horticultural efforts, we cannot fully 
accomplish our highest aim — the dissemination of a knowledge of, and a love for, Horti- 
culture. Imbue the public with this, and the emulation that it will create between 
amateurs and the competition among cultivators for the market, will be sufficient to fill, in 
a few years, the largest Hall we could desire to possess. 

Having expressed my views thus frankly on this subject, permit me to touch upon details 
by suggesting whether a Hall, in every way suited for Horticulture, might not be built and 
fitted up with reference to its soul-stirring kindred spirit, Music, where the warbling voice 
and the " Bird Song" might be wafted, like the gentle zephyr, among the trees, the buds, 
the blossoms and the flowers, to ravish the ear, while the eye should be charmed by the 
gems of lovely Spring, or the golden drops and purple hues of gorgeous Autumn. 

The third number of the Transactions and Proceedings of the Society, which will com- 
plete the first volume, will soon be published ; it has been delayed from causes over which 
the Committee of Publication had no control, and which will be set forth in the introduction 
of that number. The History of the Society, by General Dearborn, is a document of great 
interest. The propriety of printing an extra number of copies of this part of the work, for 
the use of the present members, and for future reference, is respectfully submitted. 

The report of the Finance Committee will show the estimated value of the Society's 
property, together with its income and expenditures. The increased appropriations for 
Premiums and Gratuities for the present year, have my cordial approbation. 

I cannot close these brief remarks without again congratulating the members of the 
Society on the success which has followed their united efforts ; a continuance of the same 
spirit of disinterestedness, kindness, and mutual esteem, that has attended their action thus 
far, cannot fail to reward their future labors, and render their ways ways of pleasantness, 
and all their paths paths of peace. 

Messrs. C. M. Hovey, B. V. French, J. S. Cabot, Eben Wight and H. W. Dutton, were 
appointed a Committee to report on the foregoing Address. 

Mr. Cabot, from the Committee for establishing Premiums for 1851, reported a list, 
amounting to twentytwo hundred dollars, which was adopted. 

The following Annual Report of the Committee of Finance was read and accepted : — 

The Committee of Finance, in accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws of said 
Society, submit the following Report of its financial condition, as it exists this day, as per 
Treasurer's accounts, which the Committee find correctly cast and properly vouched : — 

Receipts foe the Year 1850. 

Balance in the Treasury, January 1, $242 02 

Rent for Store, 1,000 00 

Rent of Hall for the year, ---. 561 20 

Assessments of Subscription Members, 837 00 

Interest of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, ... 17500 

Dividend of the Worcester Railroad, 159 00 

Coupons of the Connecticut and Passumpsic Railroad Bonds, ... - 15000 

Gross Receipts of the Annual Exhibition, 721 50 

Receipts from the Treasurer of Mount Auburn Cemetery, .... 3,292 07 

Legacy of the late Theodore Lyman, 10,000 00 

Miscellaneous Receipts, 107 24 

$17,245 03 



PROCEEDINGS. 165 

Expenditures and Investments foe the Year 1850. 

Taxes on Real Estate, - • $204 00 

Painting Hall, and Store repairs, 325 00 

New Drain, and proportion of Common Sewer, 136 00 

Printing and Advertising, --.'..- S07 00 

Drafts of Mr. Prestele for Plates, 203 87 

Expenses for Annual Exhibition, --- - 544 26 

Premiums and Gratuities, . 1^452 00 

Salaries, and care of Hall, - - - - 476 00 

Interest on Mortgage, - 600 06 

Josiah Bradlee, Esq., borrowed Money, 1,000 00 

Furniture. &c, for Library Room, - - - 415 00 

Mechanics' Bills, repairs, job work, &c., 252 00 

Insurance, 140 00 

Purchase of fiftythree shares Worcester Railroad Stock, .... 4,982 00 

Purchase of Bonds of Connecticut and Passumpsic Railroad, .... 4,930 00 

Investment of Bradlee Fund Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company, 500 00 

Lord's Bill of Show Bottles for Exhibition, 87 00 

Miscellaneous Items, 450 91 

Cash on hand December 31st, 1850, - 239 99 

$17,245 03 

Outstanding Claims against the Society January 1, 1851. 

Unpaid Bills, estimated at $600 00 

Premiums and Gratuities for 1850, 1,500 00 

Premiums and Gratuities on former years, .... . - 200 00 
Premiums and Gratuities for Gardens, 150 00 

$2,450 00 
Mortgage on Real Estate, .--....-.. $10,000 00 

Estimate of the Property of the Society. 

Real Estate in School street, $36,000 00 

Furniture, three Chandeliers, $200 00 

Two Bradlee Vases, 150 00 

Two Marble Vases, - 90 00 

Jones Vase, ........ - 75 00 

Glass Ware, &c, - - - - - • - - 800 00 

Safe, &c, 250 00 

Flower Stands, Tables, &c, 250 00 

Library and Furniture, 1,700 00 

Colored Plates for the next number of Transactions, ... 203 87 

$3,718 87 

Permanent Funds. 

Appleton Fund, 1,000 00 

Lyman Fund, (old,) 1,000 00 

Lowell Fund, 1,000 00 

Bradlee Fund, 1,000 00 

Lyman Legacy, invested in Worcester Railroad, and Connecticut and 

Passumpsic Railroad Bonds. 10,000 00 

$14,000 00 



$53,718 87 

42 



166 PROCEEDINGS. 

In conclusion, the Committee beg leave to state, that the Legacy of the late Theodore 
Lyman has been invested, as they believe, in sound interest-paying Stocks, sure to yield 
at least six per cent; and that the Bradlee Fund has been filled and permanently located, 
agreeably to the original design of the donor. In the valuation of the property of the 
Society, the estimates of fixtures, furniture, &c, have been somewhat reduced, but the 
real estate, considering the repairs and improvements of the last year, is probably more 
valuable than at any former period. All of which is respectfully submitted, by 

MARSHALL P. WILDER, ) _ 
JOSIAH STICKNEY, ] FlNANCE CoMMI ™ 

On motion, 

Voted, That the Society confirm the doings of the Finance Committee, in regard to a 
transfer of Stock made by one of said Committee to the Society. 

Voted, That in addition to the appropriations already made, Fifty Dollars, and ten copies 
of Colman's European Agriculture, be granted to the Vegetable Committee for Gratuites, 
for the present year. 

The Chairman of the Committee on the Library, submitted the Annual Report, and 
recommended an appropriation of one hundred and fifty dollars ; which was accepted. 

The names of the following gentlemen were reported as the Committee of Arrangements 
for 1851, and they were unanimously elected : — 

Joseph Breck, D. Haggerston, Josiah Lovett, C. M. Hovey, E. Wight, A. McLennan, P. 
B. Hovey, Jr., E. A. Story, A. Bowditch, W. R. Austin, 0. Johnson, L. Winship, and A. 
Parker. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 18, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Treasurer reported that three thousand dollars had been received from the Mount 
Auburn Cemetery, and that the balance would be paid before the next meeting, when the 
Committee would present their Report. 

The sum of one hundred and fifty dollars was received as a donation from Mr. G. W. 
Smith, to be appropriated to the purchase of Books for the Library. 

Messrs. Dutton, Leach and Cabot were appointed a Committee to report upon the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 1, 1851. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The following Report was received from the Committee appointed to settle with the 
Mount Auburn'Cemetery, which was accepted : — 

Total sales of lots, from January 1, to December 31, 1850, - - $13,598 97 
Less allowance of Expenses, 1,400 00 

$12,198 97 

One payment omitted, $100 00 

Less sundry items, 22 00 

78 00 

$12,276 97 
Proportion of the Society, one-fourth, $3,069 24, which was paid over to the Treasurer. 
Voted, That the Committee on Publication be requested to print two hundred and fifty 
copies of the Schedule of Prizes awarded in 1850. 



PROCEEDINGS. 167 

The Committee appointed to consider the propriety of awarding to Vice President B. 
V. French, some testimonial for his services to the Society, and more especially for his 
zeal in collecting together and exhibiting so many superior varieties of Apples, reported 
that the Society's Gold Medal, or its value in plate, be awarded to Mr. French. 

Mr. Dutton, from the Committee on the Donation of Mr. Smith, submitted a Report, 
proposing the purchase of fine works upon Horticulture, &c. and that the name of the 
donor should be appended to each volume, in such manner as to show it was purchased 
from Mr. Smith's fund. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 15, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Voted, That a Committee of seven, consisting of J. S. Cabot, C. M. Hovey, Josiah Lovett, 
David Haggerston, William H. Austin, D. Leach, and Parker Barnes, be appointed to 
consider the expediency of celebrating the next anniversary by a Triennial Festival, &c, 
and to report upon the same. 

A communication from D. T. Curtis, upon the Preservation of Fruit, was received, and 
referred to the Fruit Committee. 

A communication was received from the Maryland Horticultural Society, requesting 
copies of the publications of the Society. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 1, 1851. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The following Report, made by Mr. Cabot, Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, was 
adopted : — 

The Committee on Gardens, who, by a vote of the Society were directed to report a list 
of Prizes to be awarded for Gardens, Green-Houses, Graperies, &c, beg leave to recom- 
mend, that the Prizes named in the subjoined order, amounting in the aggregate to two 
hundred dollars, — the sum placed by the Society at their disposal for this purpose, — be 
offered for the objects named in such order, to be awarded in 1851, in accordance with the 
Rules established by the Society. The Committee also recommend that a schedule of such 
Prizes, with the Rules under which they will be awarded, be printed for distribution. 
For the Committee. 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 

Ordered, That the following Prizes, to be awarded in 1851, be offered by the Society, 
viz. : — 
For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Garden 

or Grounds, through the season, - $25 00 

For the 2d best do., 15 00 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Fruit 

Garden, through the season, 25 00 

For the 2d best do., 15 00 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Flower 

Garden, through the season, 20 00 

For the 2d best do., 10 00 



168 PROCEEDINGS. 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Vegetable 

Garden, through the season, $20 00 

For the 2d best do., 10 00 

For the best managed, most economically conducted, and well kept Green-House, 

through the season, -----20 00 

For the 2d best do., 10 00 

For the best managed, most economically conducted, and well kept Grapery, through 

the season, with or without fire heat, ..... ---20 00 

For the 2d best do., 10 00 

A copy of Downing's Country Houses was received from the author, and the thanks of 
the Society voted for the same. 

Voted, That the Recording Secretary cause to be printed five hundred copies of the 
By-Laws, together with the Rules and Orders, and the Regulations of the Library. 

Voted, That Tickets for the use of Members be printed, under the direction of the Com- 
mittee of Publication. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, March 8, 1851. 

Vice President B. V. French, in the Chair. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Daniel Ravenel. Esq., of Charleston, S. C, for 
valuable publications, for the Society's Library. 

The thanks of the Society were also voted to F. R. Elliott, of Cleveland, Ohio, for scions 
of Seedling Cherries, which were placed in the hands of the Fruit Committee for distribu- 
tion araon^' the members. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 15, 1851. 

Vice President Cheever Newhall, in the Chair. 

Voted, That the Society's silver medal be awarded to Mr. T. Glover, of Fishkill, N. Y., 
for fine specimens of artificial fruit, modeled in plaster or composition, and exhibited at the 
Society's room. 

Voted, That the Fruit Committee be authorized to forward to Mr. Glover, in their season, 
specimens of choice fruits for the purpose of obtaining models of the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 22, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A letter from Hon. T. H. Perkins, relative to the formation of a cabinet of models of 
fruits, to be executed by Mr. Glover, was received, and referred to the Fruit Committee. 

The following Report on the President's Address, was submitted by C. M. Hovey, Chair- 
man of the Committee for that purpose : — 

The Committee to whom was submitted the Annual Address of the President, with direc- 
tions to report thereon, have attended to that duty, and offer the following as the result of 
their deliberations : — 

They are happy to welcome the custom which the President introduced last year, of 
addressing the Society, at its opening meeting, in regard to its interest, its welfare, its 



PROCEEDINGS. 169 

present usefulness, and future success • and of offering such suggestions as to him seems 
expedient, in relation to its progress towards that high end which it has ever been the hopes 
of its ardent friends to maintain ; and they would express the wish that hereafter, as now, 
at the opening of each year, the members may learn, from the executive, the condition, 
prospects, and wants of the Society, that these may be supplied, so far as its means and the 
efforts of the members can aid in the good work 

The flourishing state of the Society must be viewed with the highest gratification by its 
members and numerous friends. From small beginnings it has, in the brief space of little 
more than twenty years, attained to an eminent position, and exerted an influence in the 
diffusion of horticultural information, which has been felt throughout the State, and, to 
some extent, throughout the country. Its exhibitions, from the meagre show of a hundred 
baskets of fruit, and scarcely half that number of varieties, have increased to thousands, 
and of many hundred different kinds. Hundreds of showy and beautiful plants, unknown 
and unintroduced in the day of its infancy, now ornament its weekly shows, and render the 
Society's Hall one of the most attractive places of resort to all who appreciate beautiful 
flowers and fine fruits. 

To foster this growing taste, to aid in ministering to its dissemination, which your Com- 
mittee believe exerts so important an influence upon the welfare and happiness of society, 
should be one of its principal objects, and in no way can this be effected with more advan- 
tage than in rendering its exhibitions beautiful, attractive, instructing and interesting. 

And here your Committee cannot but view with pleasure the success which has attended 
the change in regard to the admission of the public to its weekly exhibitions/ree, agreeably 
to the report of last year. Whether or not it may have been with any pecuniary loss, — 
and they believe it has not, — to the Society, is a matter of no material consequence, so 
long as the main object of its exhibitions is accomplished. Once more a large and appa- 
rently gratified assemblage of persons has weekly filled the hall, admiring the productions 
of the Garden, the Green-House, and the Orchard ; affording a pleasing recollection to the 
amateur, as well as the professional man. The objects over which they have spent so 
much care and time, are not only seen, but duly appreciated. It is at once the best 
reward and chief incentive to increased effort towards the perfection of their delightful art. 

The Committee are no less pleased at the complimentary manner in which allusion has 
been made to Mount Auburn, and to Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, the first President of the 
Society, to whose untiring zeal in its behalf it was placed upon the right path to secure its 
future success. So long as the memory of this last resting place shall linger in the hearts 
of those whose friends lie beneath its verdant turf, so long will the early efforts and the 
early labors of Gen. Dearborn, in securing this burial spot, — and his subsequent exertions 
in laying out and arranging the grounds in the tasteful style so creditable to his talents, — 
remain fresh in the memory of every member of this association. 

But while we accord so much merit to those who have personally been with us, who 
have shared in the duties of officers and members, there are others who, though making 
no display of their taste and skill, have not been the less friends of the Society and the 
science it was intended to promote, and who have manifested the most substantial tokens of 
their interest in its behalf. How great, indeed, is our debt of gratitude to those who have 
so liberally and nobly contributed to further its objects, and secure its highest success. 
More especially, how deeply are we indebted to one who has bequeathed a fund so muni- 
ficent, for purposes so general, and from which so much good will undoubtedly result. 

The establishment of a series of Premiums for Gardens, from the Lyman Fund, to 
encourage home cultivation, and increase the attractions of the grounds of every amateur, 
professional man, or lover of landscape beauty, which was first, though somewhat imper- 
fectly commenced last year, has been attended with the happiest results. The occasional 
visits which the Committee, appointed for that purpose, have made to the Gardens of the 

43 



170 PROCEEDINGS. 

Society, have brought them to a more intimate acquaintance with the condition and state 
of horticultural science among us, and enabled them to form a more correct opinion of the 
value of the many fruits, flowers, plants and vegetables under cultivation, which must lead 
to improved modes of cultivation. Your Committee see no material alteration to make 
from the conditions of last year in relation to the Premiums for Gardens, and they would 
recommend, with the President, " this interesting branch of our labors to the fostering care 
of the Society." 

Upon the subject of Landscape Gardening, your Committee would refer to the Report of 
last year, as containing their views in regard to this department of horticultural labor. 

In regard to an Experimental Garden, to which a passing allusion has been made by the 
President, your Committee have now but little to say. If at any future time the Society 
should seriously contemplate any such important work, then will be the opportunity to 
discuss it. Your Committee now would merely state that, in their opinion, it is much better 
to encourage individual effort, and incite individual exertion, lhan for the Society to enter 
into the accomplishment of what can be as well, or better done, in that way. 

The holding of the Annual Exhibitions of the Society under tents receives a notice, and 
as your Committee deem this a subject of some importance to the interest and pecuniary 
condition of the Society, they trust it will have due attention from the Committee of 
Arrangements for the intended Annual Exhibition in September next. 

The erection of a new Hall, or Temple, is mentioned with more than ordinary interest. 
Your Committee are well aware that the Annual Exhibitions of the Society, provided they 
are to be held in the Hall, cannot be accommodated in its present building ; and with the 
increasing interest manifested in the culture of flowers and fruits, and the immense number 
of the new varieties of both, as well as new vegetables, it is doubtful whether any ordinary 
hall would be suitable for the accommodation of the Society at its Annual Exhibition. For 
all the ordinary purposes of the Society, however, its present Hall is ample. Still, your 
Committee would propose that the funds, after a liberal annual appropriation, should be 
carefully husbanded, that, at a future day, should it be deemed expedient, a large, more 
commodious, and elegant building, in every way suited for horticulture, may be erected ; 
" where," in the language of the President, " it may be fitted up with reference to its soul- 
stirring kindred spirit, Music, where the warbling voice and the ' Bird Song,' might be 
wafted like the gentle zephyr among the trees, the buds, the blossoms and the flowers;" 
a building, indeed, every way w T orthy of the standing of the Society, and of being denom- 
inated a Temple of Flora and Pomona. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

C. M. HOVEY, Chairman. 

The Report was accepted, and ordered to be printed with the President's Address. 

A package of Seeds was received from Mr. T. Ewbank, the Commissioner of Patents, 
and placed in the hands of the Flower Committee for distribution. The thanks of the 
Society were voted to Mr. Ewbank, for the same. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 5, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Report of the Committee, made at a former meeting, awarding the Society's Medal 
to the Hon. B. V. French, was taken up and accepted. 

Messrs. J. S. Cabot, Josiah Lovett, and W. R. Austin, were appointed a Committee to 
carry the above into effect. 



PROCEEDINGS. 171 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 31, 1851. 
President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Chairman of the Fruit Committee presented the following Report, which was 
accepted and ordered to be printed : — 

The Fruit Committee, to whom a communication from Mr. Daniel T. Curtis, in respect 
to a method discovered by him for ripening and preserving fruits has been referred, ask 
leave to report at this time but in part, upon the subject committed to them. 

Specimens of fruit, consisting mainly of pears, have repeatedly, during the past year, 
been placed upon the tables of the Society, by Mr. Curtis, that had been preserved by him 
for a long time after their usual period of maturity, that were found on examination to be 
perfectly sound, and, in some instances, to have retained unimpaired their juice and flavor. 
Among these pears were specimens of the Seckel, Louise Bonne de Jersey, Duchesse 
d'Angouleme, and Easter Beurre. The Seckels, though a kind peculiarly subject to early 
decay, were perfectly sound, and retained in perfection the peculiar flavor of that variety. 
Of the other varieties, the specimens exhibited were generally, though sound, insipid and 
tasteless, arising from the circumstance, as Mr. Curtis stated, and as their appearance indi- 
cated, that they were, when packed and subjected to his process, immature and imper- 
fect. 

These pears were exhibited by Mr. Curtis as late as January and February, months after 
their usual season of ripening, thus proving, as no signs of decay were visible, that their 
season could be almost indefinitely prolonged. 

Mr. Curtis has sent pears preserved and packed in his peculiar method, to the Havana, to 
London, and to San Francisco, California, thus subjecting his method to the most severe trials. 

The following extract from a letter from his correspondent at Havana, shows the result of 
the experiment, so far as the shipment to that city is concerned : — " The Pears arrived in 
perfect order ; they were delicious. I never thought they could be eaten in so perfect a 
state, except in the conntry where they grow." 

The . Gardeners' Chronicle, of April 5th, states, that at the Exhibition of the London 
Horticultural Society, April 1st, a box of fifteen Easter Beurre Pears, received from Mr. 
Curtis, of Boston, were exhibited ; that cases containing seven of these pears were opened, 
and of them, four were found to be decayed and three good : and then states, "These pears 
were stated to have been ripened by a method peculiar to Mr. Curtis, the nature of which 
was not explained. They were, for the most part, melting, sweet, and perfectly ripe, a 
condition which this fruit with difficulty attains with us in England." The Society awarded 
Mr. Curtis its Knightian medal. 

The California Daily Courier, of April 9th, acknowledges the receipt, through Mr. D. H. 
Haskell, of Adams's Express, of a " magnificent Pear, as sound as when packed at Boston." 
The Pacific News, Alta Califomian, and other San Francisco papers, make similar acknow- 
ledgments, and all concur in stating that the pears were perfectly sound, and that as they 
were sent for the purpose of testing the practicability of sending fruit to California, across 
the Isthmus, speak of the experiment as successful. These pears were shipped at Boston, 
January 27, and after a detention of seventy days, arrived in California in April. The 
papers referred to state, that the pears, though sound, were deficient in flavor, a circum- 
stance to be imputed, as with those exhibited to the Society, perhaps to the immature and 
imperfect state of the fruit when shipped, and not to the effect of the passage, or a differ- 
ence of climate. 

From the facts now detailed, as well as from their own observation, your Committee feel 
justified in expressing a confident opinion, that after many unsuccessful trials of various 
processes and different methods, Mr. Curtis has succeeded in discovering a method of pre- 



172 PROCEEDINGS. 

serving fruit for a very long, if not for any desired period, and that this method is capable 
of a practical application. 

Although Mr. Curtis has, as he states, preserved other varieties of fruit besides pears, yet 
so far as the personal knowledge of the Committee extends, the fruit subjected to his pro- 
cess has thus far been mainly of the latter description, and they feel, before arriving at a 
conclusive opinion respecting the value of this discovery to the Society, experiments with 
other species of fruit, as peaches, plums, &c, &c, should be made, and opportunity be 
offered for their examination, after being subjected to the process. With a view to the 
gratification of the Committee in this particular, Mr. Curtis is about commencing, under 
their inspection, some experiments with the early and soft fruits, to be continued with other 
kinds, as they come into season. 

la addition to the discovery of a mode of preserving fruit, Mr. Curtis seems also to have 
succeeded in finding out a process by which such varieties as are difficult to ripen, may be 
brought to perfection, — a discovery of almost as much interest to cultivators, as that by 
which the season of all varieties is so greatly prolonged and their safe transmission to distant 
places secured. 

That the discoveries of Mr. Curtis are important, and that he is justly entitled to an hon- 
orary and pecuniary recompense at the hands of the Society, as well as that a knowledge 
of the process should be, if possible, procured for the use of its members, your Committee 
entertain no doubt, and they believe that it will be but fulfilling some of the objects for 
which it was instituted, in testifying by such recompence, a proper appreciation of the 
merits and discoveries of Mr. Curtis, and in procuring for the public the means of availing 
itself of the advantages to be derived therefrom. 

Under existing circumstances, however, while they wish now to place on record such 
evidence of the claims of Mr. Curtis as is afforded by this expression of their opinions and 
statement of facts, your Committee are of opinion that the final action of the Society, in 
relation to this matter, should be yet delayed until the result of the experiments referred to 
are ascertained, and such further information with respect to the expense attending the 
process and mode of practising it procured, as will enable them, in view of the beneficial 
results of which it is capable, the better to recommend, and the Society to adopt, such 
measures in relation to these discoveries, as Mr. Curtis seems to deserve and its own interest 
to demand. 

With these views, your Committee ask that the whole subject may yet be left in their 
hands, and that further time be allowed them to consider what action it is proper that the 
Society should take in reference thereto. 

JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 

Mr. Wilder, in behalf of the Finance Committee, reported that they had purchased 
twenty shares of the Portsmouth and Saco Railroad Company, amounting to the sum of one 
thousand nine hundred and ninety dollars, and that the certificate had been transferred over 
to the Treasurer. 

Mr. Haggerston reported, that the specimens of dried plants, presented to the Society by 
Mr. Monachine, had been preserved in the finest condition and put up in the best manner. 
The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Monachine for his donation. 

Accompanying the foregoing was a list of the Native Plants of the Island of Crete. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 



Saturday, June 14, 1851. 



President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A communication from Mons. Tougard, of Rouen, France, was received, for which the 
Society's thanks were voted. 



PROCEEDINGS. 173 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 19, 1851. 

Vice President B. V. French, in the Chair. 

A letter from Dr. J. V. C. Smith, accompanying a package of Seeds, was received. 
The Seeds were placed in the hands of the Vegetable Committee, for distribution, and the 
thanks of the Society voted to Dr. Smith. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 26, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements reported that they had voted to hold 
the Annual Exhibition on the 17th, 18th, and 19th of September, commencing on Wednes- 
day the 17th, at 12 o'clock. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 9, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Voted, That a Committee be appointed to prepare suitable Resolutions on the decease of 
the first President of the Society, Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn. 

Messrs. B. V. French, D. Leach, and J. S. Cabot, were appointed as the Committee. 

Beautiful specimens of Pressed Flowers and Grasses were presented by a Lady of Rox- 
bury, for which the thanks of the Society were voted. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 23, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed to prepare suitable Resolutions on the death of Gen. H. A. S. 
Dearborn, the first President of the Society, made the following Report, which was adopt- 
ed:— 

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God to remove by death the Hon. Henry Alexander 
Scammel Dearborn, the first President of this Society, therefore 

Resolved, That we would cherish with profound respect the memory of the departed, and 
would seek to impress upon our hearts his many eminent and noble virtues. 

Resolved, That we acknowledge with gratitude the many obligations of this Society to the 
late Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, for his untiring zeal in promoting its best interests, and for his 
exhibition of classic taste in all that adorns and refines social life. 

Resolved, That we tender to the family of the deceased, our warmest sympathies in their 
bereavements. 

On motion of B. V. French, it was 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary transmit a copy of the foregoing Resolutions, 
signed by the President and Recording Secretary, to the afflicted family. 

Voted, That the thanks of this Society be presented to the Hon. Samuel A. Eliot, for his 
valuable donation of Books to the Society. 

44 



174 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 6, 185 1. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Voted, That three or more Delegates be appointed to attend the New York Stale Fair, the 
Exhibition of the American Institute, the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, and the 
Rhode Island Horticultural Society. 

The following gentlemen were chosen Delegates : — 

To the Rhode Island Horticultural Society, Messrs. Newhall, Hovey and French ; to the 
New York State Fair, Messrs. Cabot, Weld, and Breck; to the American Institute, Messrs. 
Walker, Leach, and Austin; to the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Messrs. Wilder, 
C. M. Hovey, and Lovett. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 13, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Breck, Richards, and Wight, were appointed to 
attend the meeting of the New Haven Horticultural Society. 

A letter from the widow of Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn, was received, and it was voted to 
enter the same upon the records of the Society. 

Messrs. Wight, Richards, and Lovett, were appointed a Committee to nominate Officers 
for the year ensuing. 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

The Twentythird Annual Exhibition of the Society was held on the 17th, 18th, and 19th 
of September, in the Society's Hal], in School street, and on this occasion as on the last 
Annual Exhibition, to accommodate the exhibitors, the Committee were under the neces- 
sity of calling in requisition the Store occupied by Mr. Bowditch, as well as the room 
occupied by the Society for their Library. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

From the President of the Society, fiftyfive varieties of Pears, among which were the 
Colmar Van Mons, Figue, Van Mons Leon Leclerc, Knight's Monarch, Inconnue Van 
Mons, Lawrence, Oliver's Russet, Oswego Beurre, B. Langelier, B. Duval, Hull. Charlotte 
de Brower, Josephine de Malines, Beurre Goubalt, &c. 

From Marshall P. Wilder, two hundred and ten varieties of Pears, embracing with 
the older kinds the following : — Beurre Goubault, B. d'Anjou, B. Esperine, B. Sprin, 
B. Langelier, Brougham, Barronne de Mello, Smith's Bordenave, Bonne des Zees, Belle 
Apres Noel, Beurre Richosstier, B. Navez, B. Sterkman, Bezi des Veterans, Bezi d'Esperine, 
Rameaux, Chas. Van Hooghten, Corail, Colmar Invalides, Charlotte de Brower, Comte de 
Paris, Cent Couronnes, Doyenne Sterkman, Doyenne d'EfTais, D'Alencon Excellentissima, 
Elize d'Heyst, Francis (Edwards's,) Princess Royal, Gris Rouchard, Grand Soleil, Howell, 
Josephine de Malines, Knight's Monarch, Lawrence, La Marie, Millot de Nancy, Nouveau 
Poiteau, New Haven Beauty, Rondelet, St. Francois, Soldat Laboureur, St. Germain de 
Pepin, Tea, Triumph de Jodoigne, Vessouziere, Westcott, William Prince, &c. 

From Hovey & Co., one hundred and forty six varieties of Pears, among which were 
Swan's Orange, Doyenne Boussock, Beurre Langelier, Bamadiston, Lawrence, Rameaux, 
Nouveau Poiteau, Coter, Calhoun, Bergamotte Esperine, Bergamotte Boussiere, Beurre 



PROCEEDINGS. 175 

Goubault, Sabine, Jean de Witte, Sanspariel Vessouziere, Charlotte de Brower, Oliver's 
Russett, Adele St. Denis, Poire d'Albret, Beurre d'Anjou, Figue, Whitfield, Knight's Mon- 
arch, Beurre St. Quentin, Jersey Gratioli, Dunmore, Stone, Dumortier. Caennais, Rondelet, 
Bergamotte, Verte d'Automne, Bezid'Esperine, Duchesse d'Angouleme panache, Serrurier, 
Graslin, Princess Marianne, Poire Ronde, Poire Cire, Poire des Ridelles, Poire de Gros- 
eille, Parmentier, Dauphin d'hiver, New Spring Beurre, Beurre Benoits, Guernsey Beurre, 
B. Gens, Cross. Van Mons Late, Las Canas, Rousseletde Meester, &c. ; thirteen varieties of 
Apples, among which were the Hormead Pearmain, White Doctor, Hunt's Pearmain, 
Pleasant Valley Pippin, Porter, &c. ; seven varieties of Grapes, viz. : Cannon Hall Muscat 
Muscat of Alexandria, Black Hamburg, White Frontignan, Zinfindal. Black Prince, and 
Tottenham Park Muscat; Beechwood, Trentham Hall, Bromham Hall, and Early Cassabar 
Melons ; St. Michael Figs ; twenty varieties of Peaches, among which were Stetson's Seed- 
ling, White Ball, Cambridge Belle, Grosse Mignonne, Ives's Orange, Free, &c. 

From J. S. Cabot, sixty varieties of Pears, among which were the St. Nicholas, Smith's 
Pennsylvania, Poire Neill, Poire Carisie, Tarquin de Pyrenees, Triomphe de Jodoigne, 
Rameaux, Beurre Judes, Poire Rigoleau, Soldat Laboureur, Doyenne gris jaune d'hiver, 
Belle Excellente, Las Canas, Seedlings Nos. 1 and 2, &c. 

From B. V. French, fortyfive varieties of Pears, among them the Beurre gris d'hiver 
nouveau, Doyenne Goubault, Suzette de Bavay, Oswego Beurre, Beurre d'Anjou, B. Gou- 
bault, Duchesse d'Orleans, St. Germain d'Ete, Sec. ; ninetytwo varieties of Apples, some 
of which were as follows : — Williams, Vermont Sweet, Esopus Spitzenberg, Jonathan, 
Mother, Holmes, Twenty Ounce, Jewell's fine Red, Hartford Sweet, Lyscom, Melvin Sweet, 
Loring Sweet, Mexico, Fameuse, Minister, St. Lawrence, Chandler, Lucomb's Seedling, 
&c. 

From John Gordon, fifty varieties of Pears, among which were the Queen of the Low 
Countries, Beurre Langelier, Stevens's Genesee, Bonne des Zees, Dunmore, Dix, Jalousie 
de Fontenay Vendee, St. Ghislain, Beurre Bosc, &c. Also, Coe's Golden Drop, Jefferson, 
Orange, Green Gage, and six other kinds of Plums ; nine varieties of Apples, and Water- 
melons. 

From Winship & Co., fifty varieties of Pears, among them the following : — Beurre de 
Waterloo, Colmar d'Aremberg, St. Michael Archange. Bezi de Vindre, De Lepine. Reine 
d'hiver, Oregon, Dunmore, Vicompte de Spoelberch, &c. Also, twelve varieties of Apples, 
and five varieties of Plums. 

From Josiah Lovett, 2d, fortytwo varieties of Pears, among which were the Boucquia, 
Oliver's Russet, Edward's Elizabeth, Garnons, Soldat Laboureur, Beurre de Rhine, B. Sprin, 
B. Goubault, Washington, Cranston Seedling, &c. Also, ten varieties of Apples, among 
them Minister, Drap d'Or, Twenty Ounce, Benoni, and Gravenstein ; Green Gage, and 
Smith's Orleans Plums. 

From A. D. Williams & Son, forty varieties of Pears, among them were Beurre d'Anjou, 
Buffum, Knight's Monarch, Belle Lucrative, and Andrews. Also, twentyseven varieties of 
Apples. 

From R. Manning, thirtyeight varieties of Pears, consisting of the Dunmore, Walker, 
Coter, Lawrence, Mollett's Guernsey Chaumontelle, Figue, Dr. Jacob, Calhoun, Dallas, 
1295 and 1325 Van Mons, Beurre d'Estrapa, Bergamotte Zappe, Miel de Waterloo, &c. 

From Josiah Suckney, thirty varieties of Pears, viz. : — Andrews, Belle Lucrative, Colmar 
d'Aremberg, Columbia, Dix, Dunmore, Fondante de Malines, &c. Also, seventeen varie- 
ties of Apples, among them, Minister, Twenty Ounce, Fameuse, Maiden's Blush, Porter, 
Gravenstein, and Hubbardston Nonesuch. 

From J. Washburn, twentyfive varieties of Pears, among them, Figue, Moyamensing, 
Swan's Orange, Bezi Tardif, Lawrence, Stevens's Genesee, Beurre Goubault, Belle Lucra- 
tive, Soldat Laboureur, and McLaughlin. Also, Peck's Pleasant and Gravenstein Apples. 



176 PROCEEDINGS. 

From William Schimming, gardener to J. P. Cushing, twentyfive varieties of Pears 
among them, Gansell's Bergamot, Muscadine, Las Canas, St. Andre, Lawrence, Doyenne" 
Gris, St. Ghislain, Moyamensing, and Belle Lucrative ; Black Hamburg and other Grapes ; 
Boston, White, and other Nectarines : Early Crawford and other Peaches. 

From F. & M. Burr, twenty varieties of Pears, among which were Henry IV., Heathcot, 
Buffum, Harvard, Frederick of Wurtemburg, Van Mons Leon Leclerc, Bartlett, and Brown 
Beurre. Also, thirteen varieties of Apples ; seven varieties of Plums, and five varieties of 
Peaches. 

From H. Vandine, twentyfour varieties of Pears, among which were Beurre d'Aremberg, 
Dix, Marie Louise, Lawrence, St. Ghislain, McLaughlin, Dunmore, Collins, Paradise of 
Autumn, and Stevens's Genesee. Also, ten kinds of Plums, among which were the 
Huling's Superb, Corses Admiral, and Coe's Golden Drop ; two kinds of Apples. 

From S. Downer, Jr., eighteen varieties of Pears, among which were Napoleon, Van 
Mons Leon Leclerc, Chaumontelle, Columbia, Andrews, White Doyenne, Urbaniste, 
Le Cure, Belle Lucrative, Duchess d'Angouleme, Beurre Diel, Louise Bonne deJersey, 
and Passe Colmar. 

From J. Breck, seven varieties of Grapes, viz. : Black Hamburg, Frankendale, White 
Chasselas, White Frontignan, Grizzly do., Black Prince, De la Palestine. Also, thirteen 
varieties of Pears. 

From J. F. Allen, eighteen varieties of Grapes, viz. : Black Hamburg, B. Hamburg 
No. 16, Wilmot's B. Hamburg, Golden Chasselas, White Nice, Red Chasselas, White 
Chasselas, Rose Chasselas, White Tokay, Bishop, Bowker, Josling's St. Albans, White and 
Grizzly Frontignan, De Candolle, Reigne de Nice, Poiteau Noir, and Chasselas Bar sur 
Aube. Also, seven varieties of Pears ; Elruge Nectarines, and Lombard Plums. 

From W. C. Strong, eleven varieties of Grapes, viz. : Black Hamburg, Muscat of Alex- 
andria, Lombardy, Black Muscat, Rose Chasselas, White do., White and Black Frontignan, 
Syrian, White Nice, and Chasselas Musque ; Snow Peaches ; Golden and Roman Necta- 
rines ; three varieties of Pears, and one large dish of assorted Fruit. 

From Cheever Newhall, ten varieties of Pears : Andrews, Heathcot, Belle Lucrative, 
Dix, Fulton, Frederick of Wurtemburg, Urbaniste, &c. Also, six varieties of Apples ; 
Coe's Golden Drop, Purple Gage, and Drap d'Or Plums, and Old Mixon Peaches. 

From Messrs. Stone & Co., Newton, seven varieties of Pears, and eighteen varieties of 
Apples, among which were Golden Russet, Pumpkin Sweet, Orange Sweeting, Garden 
Sweet, and Hubbardston Nonesuch. 

From J. B. Moore, four varieties of Pears, and eight varieties of Apples, viz. : — Porter, 
Hubbardston Nonesuch, Orange Sweet, Hawthorndean, Pomme Royal, Minister, Melvin 
Sweet, and Fall Harvey. Also, Orange Quinces, and Seedling Peaches. 

From E. M. Richards, Bartlett, Cushing, and Colmar d'Aremberg Pears; twelve varieties 
of Apples, among them Minister, Porter, Dyer, Fameuse, Lyscom, and Ortley. Also, 
Peaches and Nectarines. 

From J. C. Pratt, eleven varieties of Pears, and seven varieties of Apples. 

From B. Wheeler, three varieties of Plums; White Doyenne Pears; Porter Apples, and 
four varieties of Peaches. 

From A. D. Webber, Bartlett Pears ; Rhode Island Greening Apples, and Beechwood, 
Christiana, and Nutmeg Melons. 

From C. E. Grant, Black Hamburg, White and Grizzly Frontignan Grapes ; four varieties 
of Peaches ; Alpine Strawberries, and improved High-bush Blackberries. 

From Josiah Richardson, six varieties of Pears, among them were Flemish Beauty, Col- 
mar d'Aremberg, and Beurre Diel. 

From Mrs. E. Wolcott, Roman Nectarines. 

From R. Choate, Peachs from a tree imported from Shanghai. 



PROCEEDINGS. 177 

From. H. B. Stan wood, Green Gage Plums; Bartlett Pears, and two varieties of Apples. 

From S. Philbrick, Andrews Pears. 

From B. Bradlee, Crab and Dutch Codlin Apples. 

From W. Bacon, eight varieties of Pears ; Early Crawford Peaches, and six varieties of 
Plums. 

From S. Sweetser, seven varieties of Pears, among which were the Glout Morceau, 
White Doyenne, and Passe Colmar. 

From A. Dexter, four varieties of Pears, and four varieties of Apples. 

From Miss Parsons, Gloucester, Apples. 

From J. W. Gates, Cambridge, Early Crawford Peaches, and four varieties of Plums. 

From A. W. Stetson, Louise Bonne de Jersey Pears ; Vinson Peaches, and Sweetwater 
and Black Hamburg Grapes. 

From A. Lackey, Marblehead, Urbaniste, St. Ghislain, Henry IV., and Citron of Bohemia 
Pears ; seven varieties of Plums, and Prolific and Spanish Filberts. 

From George Walsh, Bartlett and White Doyenne Pears ; Green Gage Plums, and two 
varieties of Apples. 

From W. R. Austin, Duchesse d'Angouleme, Le Cure, Bartlett and White Doyenne 
Pears. 

From J. Hyde & Son, Bartlett and Seckel Pears, and eleven varieties of Apples. 

From George Wilson, Jersey Gratioli, Paradise d'Autumne, Buerre Bosc, Chaumontelle, 
and three other varieties of Pears. 

From R. Morse, Groton, Foundling Apples. 

From Mrs. Sarah Greene, Portsmouth, Washington Plums. 

From T. Waterman, Diana Grapes. 

From B. Harrington, Porter and River Apples, and Buffum and Fulton Pears. 

From J. C. Blaisdell, Lexington, Golden Drop and Diapree Rouge Plums, and two varie- 
ties of Pears. 

From P. W. Pierce, Seckel, Andrews, and Bartlett Pears. 

From William A. Crufts, Andrews, St. Ghislain, Urbaniste, and five other kinds of Pears. 

From H. Bradlee, three varieties of Pears, and Imperial Yellow and Persian Melons. 

From Miss Parker, Peaches, unnamed. 

From Jonathan Mann, Jr., Beurre - Bosc, Flemish Beauty, and White Doyenne Pears; 
Seedling Peaches, and Green Gage, Purple Gage, Coe's Golden Drop, and Purple Egg- 
Plums. 

From A. D. Weld, seven varieties of Apples, among them the Porter, Pumpkin Sweet, 
Esopus Spitzenberg, and Seaver Sweet ; also Bartlett Pears. 

From F. Dana, Andrews, Seckel, Winter Nelis, White Doyenne, and Louise Bonne de 
Jersey Pears. 

From N. Stetson, Beurre Die! and White Doyenne" Pears, and Early Crawford Peaches. 

From G. Merriam, Bartlett Pears, and Early Crawford, Bergen's Yellow, and Morris 
White Peaches. 

From Lewis Wheeler, Bartlett, Dunmore, and Louise Bonne de Jersey Pears, and Early 
Crawford Peaches. 

From Henry Poor, Andover, Porter, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Roxbury Russet, and Rhode 
Island Greening Apples. 

From S. B. Pierce, Peaches. 

From L. Pierce, Lincoln, Porter Apples. 

From William M'Intosh, Lincoln, Baldwin, Porter, Wine, Maiden's Blush, and Winter 
Sweet Apples, and Early Crawford Peaches. 

From W. R. Gregory, Marblehead, four varieties of Pears, and Coe's Golden Drop Plums. 

45 



178 PROCEEDINGS. 

EXHIBITION OF PLANTS, DESIGNS, CUT FLOWERS, &c. 

From the President of the Society, fine Dahlias and Phloxes. 

From Messrs. Hovey & Co., a collection of twenty plants, among which were Maurandya 
alba and rosea, ; Stephanotus floribundus, Schubertia graveolens, Ixora rosea, Rondeletia 
speciosa, Cuphea platycentra, three or four kinds of Achimenes, Fuschias, German Asters, 
and a seedling white Verbena. 

From Messrs. Winship, and James Nugent, collections of twenty Plants each. 

From H. Bradlee and Alexander McLennan, very fine Cockscombs. 

From J. Mann, Jr., a Floral Temple, containing a basket of rich Fruit. 

From Miss Russell, and from C. Byrnes, gardener to F. Webster, Floral Baskets. 

From J. Nugent, two large Bouquets for the Society's vases. 

From H. Schimming, gardener to J. P. Cushing, two Bouquets for the Bradlee vase. 

From Mrs. William Kenrick, a handsome Guitar and Harp, composed of evergreens and 
flowers. 

From J. Nugent, Miss Mary M. Kenrick, Winship & Co., C. Copeland, N. Durfee, Mrs. 
J. Walsh, Thomas Page, W. E. Carter, and F. Webster, fine Bouquets. 

From J. Breck & Son, J. Mann, Jr., J. Nugent, P. Barnes, A. McLennan, A. F. Page, 
Mrs. M. B. Rumney, J. Hyde & Son, and W. E. Carter, a variety of cut Flowers. 



EXHIBITION OF VEGETABLES. 

From J. B. Moore, Chenango aud Sealsfoot Potatoes; Okra; five varieties of Turnips; 
Tomatoes j Darling's Early Sweet Corn; three kinds of Onions; two kinds of Carrots; four 
kinds of Beets ; Marrow Squashes ; Salsify, and Pumpkins. 

From F. Marsh, Custard Squashes. 

From C. Byrnes, gardener to F. Webster, Celery ; Purple Egg Plant ; Cauliflower; two 
varieties of Tomato ; Salsify ; Marrow Squashes, and four varieties of Corn. 

From S. W. Cole, thirtysix varieties of Potatoes, (twentyfive of which were seedlings,) 
and Connecticut Pie Squashes. 

From J. C. Blaisdell, Marrow Squashes. 

From Messrs. Stone & Co., Turnips. 

From Josiah Lovett, Cauliflowers. 

From A. R. Pope, new hybrid Sweet Corn. 

From J. Crosby, and A. D. Williams, Marrow Squashes ; Drumhead Cabbages ; Lettuce ; 
Tomatoes, and Cauliflowers. 

From A. Bowditch, J. Mann, Jr., J. Gordon, E. M. Richards, and J. Davis, Vegetables 
of various kinds. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 27, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Committee appointed to nominate a list of Officers for the ensuing year, made a 
Report, and submitted a printed list of the nominations, but at the request of the Chairman, 
it was recommitted for alteration. 

On motion of W. S. King, it was 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the Committee of Arrangements 
for the last Annual Exhibition, for the able and satisfactory manner in which they dis- 
charged their arduous duties. 



PROCEEDINGS. 179 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 4, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

The Chairman of the Committee to nominate Officers for the ensuing year, after stating 
that Mr. Walker peremptorily declined being a candidate for re-election, submitted their 
Report, and the meeting proceeded to ballot. The following gentlemen were elected : — 

President — Joseph S. Cabot. 

Vice Presidents — B. V. French, Cheever Newhall, E. M. Richards, Josiah Stickney. 

Treasurer — William R. Austin. 

Corresponding Secretary — Eben Wight. 

Recording Secretary — W. C. Strong. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology — John Lewis Russell. 

Professor of Entomology — T. W. Harris. 

Professor of Horticultural Chemistry — E. N. Horsford. 

STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On Fruits — Eben Wight, Chairman; Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, C. M. Hovey, W. 
R. Austin, F. Lyman Winship, J. S. Sleeper. 

On Plants and Flowers — David Haggerston, Chairman ■ A. McLennan, E. A. Story, 
P. Barnes, Azell Bowditch, L. Davenport, J. Nugent. 

On Vegetables — Henry Bradlee, Chairman ; A. D. Williams, J. Mann, Jr. A. C. Bowditch. 

On the Library — C. M. Hovey, Chairman ; H. W. Dutton, R. M. Copeland, Daniel T. 
Curtis, W. S. King. 

On Synonyms of Fruits — M. P. Wilder, Chairman; P. B. Hovey, R. Manning, E. M. 
Richards, Eben Wight. 

Executive Committee — J. S. Cabot, Chairman; W. R. Austin, M. P. Wilder, Samuel 
Walker, Otis Johnson. 

For Establishing Premiums — Eben Wight, Chairman; D. Haggerston, H. Bradlee, Josiah 
Lovett, P. B. Hovey, Jr. 

On Finance — Marshall P. Wilder, Chairman ; Josiah Stickney, Otis Johnson. 

On Publications — Eben Wight, Chairman ; Josiah Lovett, Joseph Breck, W. C. Strong, 
D. Haggerston, H. Bradlee. 

On Gardens — Joseph S. Cabot, Chairman ; Joseph Breck, A. D. Weld, Josiah Lovett, 
W. R. Austin. 

Pamphlets from L. A. H. Latour, of Montreal, Canada, were received, and the Society's 
thanks were voted for the same. 

Catalogues from A. Vattemare, Paris, were received. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to H. B. Stanwood, for the loan of a beautiful 
Lepergne, at the Annual Exhibition. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 29, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Voted, That the President, with Messrs. Wilder and Breck, be a Cnmmittee, to propose 
some mode by which the Reports of the several Committees Awarding Premiums, shall be 
made to the Treasurer. 

The Executive Committee, by the President, reported, that the same amount of money 
as appropriated last year, for premiums, be appropriated for the year 1852, and that it be 
distributed among the several Committees in the same manner. 

Messrs. Cabot, Wilder, and Breck, were appointed a Committee to consider the expedi- 
ency of awarding a Premium or Gratuity to Capt. Lovett, for the Christiana Melon. 



180 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 13, 1851. 

Vice President Joseph S. Cabot, in the Chair. 

Voted, That the Society's Silver Medal be presented to A. Leroy, of Angers, France, for 
the fine collection of Fruit sent by him to the Society, and that the Corresponding Secretary 
be authorized to forward the same with a vote of thanks. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 20, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

Mr. Cabot, from the Committee appointed for that purpose, reported, that a Medal, of the 
value of fifty dollars, be presented to Capt. Lovett for the production of the Christiana 
Melon. 

A Committee, consisting of the President, Treasurer, and Finance Committee, were 
chosen to settle with Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

Messrs. Lovett, Breck, and Haggerston were appointed a Committee to nominate a Com- 
mittee of Arrangements for 1852. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 27, 1851. 

President, Samuel Walker, in the Chair. 

A package of Books was received from M. Vattemare, which was placed in the hands 
of the Committee on the Library. 

The Committee for establishing Premiums for 1852, submitted a Schedule of Prizes, 
which was placed in the hands of the Executive Committee. 

The Committees on Gardens, Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables, presented the following 
Reports : — 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS, AWARDING PRE- 
MIUMS FOR 1851. 

The Committee on Gardens herewith submit their Report for 1851. The Committee 
regret that the Prizes offered by the Society in this department of its administration seem 
to excite but little interest. The whole number of Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Gardens 
entered with the Committee the past year was but five ; while for the Prizes offered for 
Greenhouses and Graperies not a single competitor appeared. These Prizes have, how- 
ever, been but recently established, and although none of the effects intended to be 
produced thereby, are as yet apparent, yet with the hope, that as these offerings become 
more generally known and better appreciated, more interest in them will be excited, and 
the ends designed in their establishment be in some measure attained, a discontinuance of 
them would not, in the opinion of your Committee, be advisable. Although perhaps not 
coming strictly within the requisitions intended to be exacted, yet desiring to cherish the 
interest manifested in those objects intended to be promoted by the Society, your Committee 
have awarded the following Prizes to the persons named. Competitors should remember 
that the Committee are precluded by the rules from visiting any Gardens, Greenhouses, 
&c, unless notice is given to the chairman, previous to May 1st, of the intention of the 
owner thereof to be a candidate for the Prizes offered. 

Your Committee have awarded — 



PROCEEDINGS. 181 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Fruit 

Garden, through the season, to Hovey & Co. ; $25 00 

For the second best, to William R. Austin, - 15 00 

For the most economically managed, best cultivated, and most neatly kept Flower 

Garden, through the season, to J. Mann, Jr., 20 00 

And they have awarded no other Prizes. 

For the Committee. JOSEPH S. CABOT, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, AWARDING PREMIUMS 

FOR 1851. 

The Committee submit the following Report of Premiums for 1851 : — 

PREMIUMS AT THE OPENING OF THE HALL. 

Pelargoniums. — For the six best new and rare varieties, grown in eight-inch pots, 

to Hovey & Co., $6 00 

Roses. — For the best six varieties of Tea, Bourbon, Noisette, or Bengal, in pots, to 

Hovey & Co., 6 00 

Cactus. — For the best six varieties, to Hovey & Co., ------ 3 00 

Calceolarias. — For the best six varieties, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Greenhouse Plants. — For the best display, of not less than twenty pots, regard 
being had to new and rare varieties, and well grown specimens, to Hovey & 

Co., 25 00 

Hyacinths. — For the best display, not less than twenty varieties, to A. Bowditch, - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Joseph Breck, - -"- 3 00 

Tulips. — For the best thirty distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., - - - - 8 00 

For the 2d best, to Joseph Breck, 6 00 

For the 3d best, to Joseph Breck, -- 3 00 

Pansies. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, to A. Bowditch, - - - 4 00 

For the 2d best, to Dr. C. F. Chaplin, 3 00 

For the 3d best, to Parker Barnes, 2 00 

Hawthorns. — For the best display, to Winship & Co., 3 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 2 00 

Hardy Azaleas. — For the best display, to Hovey & Co., - - - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Winship & Co., 3 00 

Shrubby Peonies. — For the best six varieties, to M. P. Wilder, - - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to M. P. Wilder, 4 

For the best display, to M. P. Wilder, 3 00 

Herbaceous Peonies. — For the best ten varieties, having regard to the number of 

varieties, to M. P. Wilder, 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., - » . - -4 00 

For the best display, to M. P. Wilder, 3 00 

Pinks. — For the best six distinct varieties, to A. Bowditch, 4 00 

Roses. — Class I. — Hardy Roses. For the best thirty distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., 8 00 

For the 2d best, to M. P. Wilder, 6 00 

For the 3d best, to Joseph Breck, 4 00 

For the best display, to M. P. Wilder, 3 00 

Class II. — For the best twelve distinct varieties, to M. P. Wilder, - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to M. P. Wilder, 3 

For the 3d best, to Joseph Breck, 2 00 

Class III.— Hardy Perpetual Roses. For the best ten varieties, to M. P. Wilder, 5 00 

For the 2d best, to M. P. Wilder, 4 00 

For the best display, to Joseph Breck, 3 00 

46 



182 PROCEEDINGS. 

Prairie Roses. — For the best display, not less than six varieties, to Hovey & Co., $5 00 

For the 2d best, not less than four do., to Joseph Breck, .... 4 00 

For the 3d best, not less than four do., to Winship & Co., - - - 3 00 

Carnation and Picotke Pinks. — For the best ten varieties, to Hovey & Co., - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Dr. C. F. Chaplin, 4 00 

For the best display, to Hovey & Co., ....... 3 00 

Hardy Rhododendrons. — For the best display of the season, to Hovey & Co., - 5 00 

Double Hollyhocks. — For the best display, to Joseph Breck, - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

Double Balsams. — For the best display, to J. Nugent, ..... 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Breck, 2 00 

For the 3d best, J. Mann, Jr., 1 00 

Phloxes. — For the best ten distinct varieties, to Hovey & Co., - - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to Joseph Breck, 4 00 

For the 3d best, to M. P. Wilder, - - - - - - - - - 3 00 

German Asters. — For the best display, to Hove)' & Co., - 4 00 

For the 2d best, to Parker Barnes, - - - 3 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Nugent, - - - - - - - - - 2 00 

Delphiniums. — For the best six varieties, to Parker Barnes, 6 00 

For the 2d best, to Joseph Breck, - - 4 00 

For the 3d best, to Winship & Co., - - 3 00 

Herbaceous Perennials. — For the best display through the season, to Joseph Breck, 10 00 

For. the 2d best, to Parker Barnes, ---6 00 

For the 3d best, to Winship & Co., 4 00 

Annuals. — For the best display of the season, to J. Mann, Jr., - - - - 10 00 

For the 2d best, to Parker Barnes, ........ 6 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Nugent, 4 00 

Camellias. — For the best twelve varieties, to A. Bowditch, .... 8 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 5 00 

Flowering Shrubs. — For the best display of the season, to Winship & Co., - 10 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 6 00 

For the 3d best, to John A. Kenrick, 4 00 

premiums and gratuities at the annual exhibition. 

Plants in Pots. — For the best display, of not less than twenty plants, to Hovey & 

Co., $12 00 

For the 2d best, to Winship & Co., 10 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Nugent, 8 00 

Vase Bouquets. — For the best pair, for the Bradlee "Vases, to J. Nugent, - - 10 00 

For the best pair for the Society's Vases, to H. Schimming, - - - - 10 00 

For the 2d best, to F. Webster, 6 00 

Parlor Bouquets. — For the best pair, to J. Nugent, - 8 00 

For the next best, to Dr. N. Durfee, 6 00 

For the 3d best, to Winship & Co., 5 00 

For the next best, to Miss Mary Kenrick, 3 00 

Cut Flowers. — For the best display during the Exhibition, to J. Mann, Jr., - 8 00 

For the 2d best, to C. Copeland, 6 00 

For the 3d best, to Winship & Co., 4 00 

Cockscombs.— For the best six plants, in pots, to H. Bradlee, .... 3 00 

For the 2d best, to A, McLennan, 2 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 183 

GRATUITIES. 

To J. Mann, Jr., for a Floral Temple, $10 00 

To Miss S. A. Russell, for Flower Vase and Basket, 5 00 

To Mrs. W. Kenrick, for Harp and Guitar, -------- 5 00 

To A. Bowditch, for Orange Plants, - 5 00 

To Mrs. J. Walsh, for Grass Bouquets, 3 00 

To H. Schimming, for six Vases of Flowers, 6 00 

To S. H. Jenks, for a dozen of Cotton Grass, 3 00 

To A. W. Stetson, for Oleanders, 2 00 

To W. E. Carter, for Bouquets, ----. 100 

To Parker Barnes, for fine Cyclamen, ---..... 2 00 

To R. M. Copeland, for Hyacinths, 5 00 

To R. E. Bell, fer Hollyhocks, - 4 00 

To C. Copeland, for Dahlias, 5 00 

To Hovey & Co., for New Plants, 5 00 

To R. E. Bell, for Antirrhinums, 3 00 

To M. P. Wilder, for Japan Lilies, 5 00 

To Parker Barnes, for Dielytra, 3 00 

To D. T. Curtis, for Snowdrops, 3 00 

To A. C. Bowditch, for Hyacinths, 3 00 

To J. W. Edmands, for Littsea geminifiora, 500 

PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AT THE WEEKLY EXHIBITIONS. 

To Winship & Co., for Bouquets, Cut Flowers, &c, at weekly shows, - - - $21 00 

To Joseph Breck, for the same, - ... 22 00 

To J. Nugent, for the same, -19 00 

To A. Bowditch, for the same, - - - - - - - - -. 25 00 

To M. P. Wilder, for the same, --------». 4 00 

To Parker Barnes, for the same, --------- 22 00 

To Hovey & Co.. for the same, -------.-. 4 qo 

To Miss Russell, for the same, - - - - - - - - - . 16 00 

To L. Davenport, for the same, -7 00 

To J. A. Kenrick, for the same, - - - - - . - . . . 13 00 

To A. Aspinwall, for the same, ----2 00 

To J. Mann, Jr., for the same, 15 00' 

To J. Hovey, for the same, 11 00 

To W. E. Carter, for the same, 100 

To J. Duncklee, for the same, 100 

To E. M. Richards, for the same, 9 00 

To Col. B. Loring, for the same, -- = .-.. - - - 1 00 

To J. C. Pratt, for the same, ------.... 3 00 

To Miss Sargent, for the same, 100 

To Miss Kenrick, for the same, 100 

To Mrs. G. W. Allen, for the same, 100 

To Mrs. Daggett, for the same, -- 100 

To J. Frothingham, for the same, 2 00 

To B. Harrington, for the same, 300 



184 PROCEEDINGS. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Hovey & Co., $134 00 

Joseph Breck, 72 00 

Winship & Co., 65 00 

M. P. Wilder, 59 00 

A. Bowditch, 57 00 

James Nugent, 53 00 

Parker Barnes, -49 00 

Jonathan Mann, Jr., - 43 00 

Miss Russell, 20 00 

John A. Kenrick, 19 00 

H. Schimming, 16 00 

C. Copeland, 11 00 

John Hovey, 10 00 

E. M. Richards, 8 00 

Lewis Davenport, 700 

R. G. Bell, 7 00 

Fletcher Webster, 6 00 

Dr. Durfee, 6 00 

Mrs. William Kenrick, 500 

R. M. Copeland, 5 00 

J. W. Edmands, 5 00 

C. F. Chaplin, 4 00 

J. C. Pratt, 3 00 

Bowen Harrington, 3 00 

Mrs. J. Walsh, 3 00 

S. H. Jenks, 3 00 

Henry Bradlee, 3 00 

A. C. Bowditch, 3 00 

J. C. Chaplin, 3 00 

D. T. Curtis, 3 00 

A. Aspinwall, 2 00 

A. W. Stetson, - 2 00 

Alexander McLennan, 2 00 

J. Frothingham, 2 00 

Benjamin Loring, 100 

Miss Sargent, 1 00 

Mrs G. W. Allen, - - -. - ' 1 00 

Miss Kenrick, ■ 1 00 

Mrs. Daggett, 1 00 

W. E. Carter, 1 00 

John Duncklee, 100 

Total, $700 00 

For the Committee. 

DAVID HAGGERSTON, Chairman. 



PROCEEDINGS. 185 

REPORTOF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, AWARDING PRE- 
MIUMS FOR 1851. 

The Committee on Fruits now submit herewith their award of Prizes for the year 
1851. 

Before announcing their awards, your Committee cannot refrain from congratulating 
the Society that, from the attendance of the public, the number of exhibitors, and the 
quality of specimens placed upon its tables, it is evident that there is no diminution of 
interest, either in the exhibitions of the Society, so far as this department is concerned, or 
in the objects for which the Society was instituted. Indeed, your Committee are of opinion 
that instead of diminishing, the interest taken in horticultural pursuits is constantly in- 
creasing, and that while its processes have become subjects for scientific investigation in 
order to ascertain the best mode of conducting them, the principles indicated by such 
investigations are constantly being submitted to the test of experiment by the best and 
most judicious cultivators. That the reducing of the principles established by science 
to practice, is having a beneficial effect upon the products of the horticultural art, is in a 
measure established, by the fact of specimens of these products, from year to year, of a 
superior quality to any preceding exhibition of the same product. When, for instance, 
fruit of the same species, and even of the same variety, is placed upon your tables supe- 
rior in size, beauty and quality, to any specimens of the same species or variety before 
exhibited, and this happening not once only, but constantly year after year, — the last 
always excelling its predecessors, — it is to be presumed that this continued increase in 
excellence is rather to be imputed to a constantly improving mode of cultivation, than to 
the accidental circumstance of a peculiarly favorable season, soil or position. 

This is not the proper occasion, neither is it the design of your Committee, to enter upon 
the discussion of the subject of " specific or special manures," but it is a fact, that can 
hardly he disputed, that some particular mode of cultivation, the application of some 
particular agent of fertility, either in respect of kind, composition or quality, — a soil 
consisting of some particular component parts must be best adapted to the different species 
if not varieties of fruits, — exercising a beneficial influence under some circumstances 
upon the growth and vigor of the tree or plant, and under others exercising an influence 
upon the fruit, and the continually improving quality of the different species of fruits 
induces a hope that experiments are in progress that will lead to a solution of these and 
other interesting problems. In this connection, the expression of a wish that the mode of 
cultivation, manures applied, soils used, &c, by the most judicious and most successful 
cultivators, may be obtained for the use of the members of the Society and through them 
for the public, relating as this does to a subject of much importance and about which, all 
are in some measure interested, may not be considered improper. The cultivation of fruit 
is yearly growing in importance not merely as an article for domestic use and consumption, 
but for the supply of the market, and perhaps even for foreign export. Subject by the 
facilities for intercommunication afforded by railroads and canals to the competition of 
more congenial climates and fertile soils, the common products of horticulture as well as 
agriculture are yielding at best but a scanty remuneration to the cultivator for his labor and 
capital, with a prospect of a diminution rather than an increase of this remuneration, and it 
is therefore, if this is true, becoming daily more and more incumbent upon them to bestow 
their attention upon those products that will most probably yield the best returns. Consid- 
ering then that the vicinity of Boston, and perhaps a considerable portion of the State, is 
particularly well adapted to the growing of fruit,— some species, as Pears, for instance, 
raised here having it is believed an acknowledged superiority, — no product of cultivation 
seems to offer a better chance for profit than the raising of fruits, it being to be remem- 
bered, that having now frequent opportunities of tasting those of superior excellence, the 
taste of the public is becoming more and more fastidious, and thence that it is becoming 

47 



186 PROCEEDINGS. 

more and more important for the attainment of this object to raise those of the best quality 
only. 

So numerous and so excellent have been the specimens exhibited in competition for the 
prizes, that the Committee have, in some instances, been embarrassed in making their 
awards; where so many are nearly equal in size, quality and beauty, it is not always easy 
to decide which are the best. The Committee have strenuously endeavored in all cases to 
do exact justice to the different competitors, and if they have failed in this respect it has 
been through an error of judgment. Having made minute and careful examinations, and 
a record of these examinations, from week to week, a judgment in opposition to their 
awards, though fairly formed, from recollection merely, without such record, might at 
least as properly as theirs be subject to the imputation of error. The fact of a particular 
variety of fruit being or not being well adapted to general cultivation, as well as its 
quality, has influenced the Committee in their conclusions. They have felt that they 
should not be justified, through danger of misapprehension, in awarding a Prize to a fruit 
generally of an inferior quality, or one not suited to general cultivation, even when the 
particular specimens exhibited were of superior excellence. 

Stone fruits, as Cherries, Plums and Peaches, have the past year been very superior in 
quality and very abundant in quantity. Pears have varied very much in quantity if not in 
quality, the crop in some places being scanty and in others abundant, showing, most 
probably, the effect of the preceding Winter on the trees in different places, while of 
Apples, almost every where the product has been small. 

Opportunity has been afforded the past year of tasting of several new varieties of fruits, 
and as the numerous introductions of the last few years are now coming into bearing, 
constantly increasing opportunities for testing the quality, bearing properties and adaptation 
to general cultivation of these introductions may be reasonably expected. As, however, 
no conclusive judgment can properly be formed of the quality of a fruit the first year, or 
from a few specimens only, but little more than a partial enumeration of these new 
varieties will here be attempted. Although much disappointment should be anticipated, 
yet it is not unreasonable to hope that among the many varieties imported during the few 
past years some may be found of great excellence. That what is now beginning to be 
regarded by cultivators as one of our best Winter Pears, and well adapted to general 
cultivation, the Glout Morceau, was but a few years since almost condemned as nearly 
worthless, should be a warning against hasty conclusions or a premature judgment respect- 
ing the quality of a fruit, and although, as has been remarked on a similar previous occasion, 
it is best for beginners to content themselves with those varieties whose qualities have been 
long and thoroughly tested, those who have new varieties should be cautious not to reject 
after one or two trials only, but permit their trees to arrive at maturity before coming to a 
decision respecting the value of their fruit. 

Through the kindness of J. P. Cushing, Esq., your Committee had the past year an 
opportunity to taste thirty two varieties of the Strawberry, raised by that gentleman at his 
seat in Watertown, for the purpose of testing their quality and value for cultivation. Many 
of these varieties are American seedlings of recent origin. Among these Strawberries, 
the New Pine, and Burr's New Pine, were thought to be of high flavor and very fine quality, 
and the Cornucopia, though acid, to be well flavored and good. As none of the others, 
with the exception of a few well known sorts, were considered above a medium quality, 
an enumeration of their names is felt to be unnecessary. Of Strawberries, the Early 
Virginia, Hovey's Seedling and Jenney's Seedling are thus far, taking all circumstances 
into consideration, probably the most profitable and best for general cultivation in this 
vicinity. There are, however, other varieties worthy of trial. The President of the Society 
has a Seedling, raised by him, that gives indication of being worthy of a place with the 
foregoing, though the fact of its being a staminate plant somewhat deteriorates from its 



PROCEEDINGS. 187 

value, and the qualities of the two first above named are such as to entitle them to a place 
in a collection. On June 21st ; a Seedling Strawberry was exhibited for the first time by 
Isaac Fay, called by him Jenny Lind, that seemed of good promise. 

There have been some new Cherries upon the tables the past year. The Hon. M. P. 
Wilder presented on 21st June a box of the Belle d'Orleans Cherries, that for its earliness, 
if for no other reason, promises to be of value. It was in color of a light red, of good size 
sweet, but somewhat deficient in flavor. The same gentleman exhibited on July 5th, the 
Bigarreau Gabaulis or Monstreuse de Mezel, a very large Cherry, resembling in appearance 
the Black Tartarean ; also on the same day, the Cerise de Xavier, the Lemercier and De 
Spa : these were all acid Fruits of a red color, not unlike the Morellos, and probably 
better suited to the kitchen than the desert; and on July 12th, the Bigarreau Noir Tardif. 
of a very dark color, sweet and good, and the Downton, a late red cherry of a superior 
quality. 

On July 12th, Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited a Seedling Cherry that was a very large 
fruit, very dark in color, firm in flesh and very fine in quality ; and the Messrs. Hyde, a 
Seedling of moderate size, dark colored, that seemed to be of the Mazard family. On the 
previous exhibition, July 5th, there was a Seedling fiom Seth Davis, of West Newbury, 
stated to be remarkable for its bearing properties. It was a mottled flesh-colored Cherry of 
not more than common quality. On August 2d, the Committee had an opportunity of 
tasting another Seedling Cherry from Messrs. Hovey & Co. that was of the largest size, firm 
flesh, amber color, mottled with a red cheek, sweet, high flavored and very fine. 

For much of the interest attending their weekly exhibitions, especially in the earlier 
part of the season, the Society is under obligations to Messrs. J. F. Allen, Hovey & Co., 
W. C. Strong, and J. Breck & Son, for the exhibition by these gentlemen of Grapes grown 
under glass, in large quantities and great variety; other exhibitors have occasionally 
placed upon its tables specimens of this fruit of very superior quality ; among those to 
whom the Society is so indebted may be named J. P. Cushing, Esq., Dr. Nathan Durfee, 
Mrs. Durfee, M. H. Simpson, Esq., S. Bigelow, A. Bowditch, James Nugent, Cheever 
Newhall, A. W. Stetson, and others. 

On August 9th, specimens of several varieties of Grapes were received from Roswell L. 
Colt, Esq., of Patterson, N. J. They were forwarded to the Society by Mr. Colt, for the 
purpose, among others, of furnishing specimens of his mode of culture, having been 
raised on " Hoare's Plan," in a house facing the east, with the roots of the vines inside the 
house, but to which Mr. C. last year added an outside border with openings to it from the 
inside. The house in which these grapes were raised is stated to be a very cold house, 
and that there had been fire in it but nine times. Mr. C. thinks his " finest flavored grapes 
are raised under glass without fire heat." These grapes had been so injured by the 
carriage that no very correct estimate could be formed of their quality ; so far as an opinion 
could be formed they appeared to have been well ripened and of good flavor. As a mark 
of his interest in the Society this attention and courtesy is highly appreciated by the 
Committee. 

On July 5th, Mr. Allen, who, on January 4th, had placed on the tables of the Society 
Grapes cut from the vines on the morning of that day, and on April 26th those of the new 
crop, exhibited a new dark colored Grape, with small berries, called Partridge Foot, — it 
was sweet but probably not worthy of cultivation ; and at a subsequent period the Raisin 
de Calabre, a rather small white Grape of a very rich sweet Muscat flavor, that he thinks 
may be Josling's St. Albans. Also a Grape called Caillaba, with small oval transparent 
berries, sweet but without much flavor. 

The Grape exhibited by Mr. Allen, under the name of Lachmere's Seedling, and by Mr. 
Strong under that of Blanche Vyron, proves to be Mcready's early white, a grape probably 
well suited to out-door culture. 



188 PROCEEDINGS. 

Mr. Strong has the past season exhibited Grapes called Black Muscat or Damascus, with 
large berries and very handsome j it was a very good grape, though not of very first quality, 
and on account of its size, beauty, and goodness worthy of cultivation. It was new to the 
Committee. 

Messrs. Hovey & Co. exhibited on June 14th, and subsequently, a very fine and beautiful 
Grape called Gros Bleu, that strongly resembled in appearance Wilmot's No. 16, but that 
is said to be a distinct variety. 

Bromham Hall and Beechwood Melons, both of superior flavor and quality, but probably 
not suited to out-door culture, have been exhibited the past season. For general out-door 
cultivation the Seedling Melon of Capt. Lovett, called the " Christiana," raised by him 
from a green Malta Melon, impregnated with a very early variety, it is believed has not 
yet been equalled. In order to mark their appreciation of its merits and as their recom- 
mendation of it to growers of this fruit, the Society have awarded Capt. L. a piece of plate 
of the value of $50. 

No new Raspberry, Blackberry, Currant, or Gooseberry, especially worthy of notice has 
been exhibited the past year. The Blackberry known as the cultivated High Bush 
Blackberry, was the past season remarkable for size and beauty, and is thought to be well 
worthy of cultivation ; and that these, with the Knevet's Giant Raspberry as well as the 
Franconia. and perhaps Fastolf Raspberry, are worthy of a place in every garden. 

August 9th, Mr. Amos W. Stetson presented to your Committee a box of very early 
Plums, that for one ripening so early, may be pronounced of very fine quality. Mr. 
Stetson stated that this Plum was a seedling raised by John Trask, of Lynn • it was a small 
oblong purple Plum of good flavor, a freestone. Aug. 16, the Myrobalan, a small round 
red Plum, of pretty good quality, resembling in appearance the Golden Cherry, was 
exhibited by Dr. Eben Wight. Although the past season was very prolific in Plums, and 
these too produced in great perfection, but few opportunities have been afforded of testing 
any new varieties of either foreign or native origin. 

This last remark is, however, in no ways applicable to Pears, of which fruit many new 
varieties, fruited for the first or second time, have this year been exhibited. Among those 
of native origin, may be mentioned a Pear from D. Marcellus Wheeler, said to a Seedling 
from the St. Michael, resembling that variety in size, color and form, that was a juicy fruit 
of pleasant flavor, and seemed to be of good promise ; also the Muskingum, from G. 
Greene, of Norwich, Ct., a high flavoied, juicy, melting Pear, of medium size, roundish 
form and yellow color, — both exhibited August 30. On October 4, Mr. John Hill exhibited 
a Seedling Pear, small, of yellow color, with a red cheek, and some russet both at stem 
and calyx, that was handsome and sweet ; it has been sometimes known as the Burrill 
Pear. The Collins, or Watertown Pear, is a Seedling Pear, raised by Mr. Collins, of 
Watertown, many years since, and has been now repeatedly tested by your Committee. 
It is in size above a medium, of a roundish obovate form, with a short thick stem : when 
ripe, of a yellowish color, blotched and striped with red in the sun, with a little russet about 
the stem; the flesh is white, melting, juicy, a little subacid, of very pleasant flavor; its 
season is early in October. This Pear is believed to be well worthy the attention of 
cultivators. Ripening at about the same season, October 1, is another Seedling Pear, raised 
by Mr. Tudor, at Nahant. This also is a Pear of medium size, rather flattened, obovate 
form, of a yellowish green color, tinged with blush, of a pleasant flavor, sweet and good, 
subject, however, to the serious drawback of a liability to rot at the core. In addition to 
the preceding, some few other Seedling Pears have been exhibited the past season, but as 
no memoranda respecting them was preserved no attempt at a description of them can now 
be made. The notice of the foregoing Pears, of native origin, has been somewhat detailed, 
because, as such may yet prove better adapted to our climate and general cultivation than 
those of foreign introduction, cultivators may desire early information of their quality. 



PROCEEDINGS. 189 

With respect to the new Pears of foreign origin that, for the -first or even second time, 
have been exhibited the past year, an enumeration of their names can alone be here 
made, because, that, in some instances, only a single specimen, and that immature, picked 
before ripe, was exhibited, and in others, for other reasons, no decided estimate of their 
quality would have been justifiable. Neither is it to be pretended that the list given is 
complete, only that it embraces those that, on account of some particular circumstance 
attending their exhibition, particularly attracted the attention of the Committee. Among 
the new Pears then exhibited, were Beurre Dremont, Beurre Benoist, Princess Marianne, 
Poire Ridelle, Charlotte de Brower, Adele de St. Denis, Poire d'Albret, Poire Cire, Bezi 
d'Esperin, Belle Apres Noel, Fondante Millot, Beurre Navez, Millot de Nancy, Louise de 
Prusse, Bergamot Picquet, Conseilleur Ramiez, Charles Van Hooghten, Compte de Paris, 
Baronne de Mello, Grand Soliel, Souverain d'Ete, Graine de Coraile, Delices d'Alost, La 
Marie, Bezi Tardif, Vessouziere, Colmar du Lot, Poire Caiesie, Poire Serruiier, Poire Neil, 
Leon le Clerc, Buchanan's New Spring Beurre, Duchesse de Berry, Poire His, Gloire de 
Cambron, Poire Gerando, Rondelet, Poire de Mons, Bosmelle, and others. 

To designate merely the particular varieties of Pears, of which superior specimens were 
exhibited, would probably subserve no valuable purpose. A statement of any particular 
mode of culture that conduced to this superiority might impart useful information • but of 
this, if such there was in the case, your Committee have no knowledge. In some instan- 
ces this excellence may have been the result of accidental causes, as a peculiarly favorable 
soil ; in others, of a better cultivation. The rules of the Society require no statement from 
the exhibitors ; the awards of the Committee are made from an examination of the speci- 
mens presented. 

But few new Apples worthy of particular attention have been exhibited the past season. 
Among those that should not be past by unnoticed, was an Apple presented by Mrs. N. A. 
Haven, of Portsmouth, on the 26th of April. It was a large Apple, of a greenish yellow 
color, with fine red in the sun ; sweet, fine flavored, firm fleshed, and, in the opinion of 
your Committee, to be ranked with the very best late keeping sweet Apples. The history 
of this Apple is not known to your Committee, but it is presumed to have originated at 
Portsmouth. The MacCartny Apple, a seedling from West Cambridge, of a red color and 
very handsome, was exhibited as late as June 7th ; it is rather acid but brisk, and valuable 
for its late keeping properties. 

Baldwin, Roxbury Russet, and other Apples, were exhibited as late as June 14, by Mr. 
Bowen Harrington, in a fine state of preservation. These Apples had been kept by being 
merely placed, from the time of being gathered, upon boards in a cellar. The Summer 
Apples of last year, placed upon the tables of the Society, were, in some instances, partic- 
ularly fine. This remark applies especially to the Williams Favorite ; so fine specimens 
of this variety, and in large quantities too, were probably never before exhibited. This is 
a very fine and very handsome Apple when well grown, but requires high culture to bring 
it to perfection. A few specimens of the Northern Spy have been exhibited for the second 
time, the produce of the same tree from which those first exhibited on the last year were 
gathered ; although the specimens of this were somewhat superior to those of last year, 
yet, thus far, your Committee see no reason to alter the opinion they have before expressed, 
of the unsuitableness of this variety to general cultivation in this vicinity. As, however, 
the tree is an upright, vigorous growing tree, ripening its wood well, it may be well for 
those who have them to make further trials of its quality before condemning it as worth- 
less. 

The Society are under obligations to the Champlain Valley Horticultural Society, for a 
fine collection of Fruits, consisting of Apples, Pears, &c, in numerous varieties, presented 
by Mr. Battey. the specimens fine and well grown — many of them superior. 

The collection was one of much interest and its receipt was highly gratifying to the 

48 



190 PROCEEDINGS. 

Committee, not only in affording it ample proof of the successful attempts of that Society 
to improve the Horticulture of the Valley of Lake Champlain, to which its efforts are 
principally limited, but in furnishing an opportunity for testing the quality of the Fruits of 
that region, and thus the better enabling a decision of the question of the adaptation of 
particular varieties to general cultivation. If local Societies would hereafter generally 
follow the example of the C. V. Society and send specimens of different varieties of Fruits, 
to this Society, thereby enabling cultivators to make themselves acquainted with those 
different and distnat localities it might become a means of much useful information. 

As the Apple is one of the most, if not the most, valuable fruits of New England, a 
repetition of the remark made last year on a like occasion may not be out of place, that it 
is particularly worthy of the attention of cultivators and that endeavors to produce from 
seed new varieties of superior quality, with properties, in some respects, different from such 
as we now possess, as ripening at different times, keeping in perfection till later in the sea- 
son, &c, are worthy of encouragement. 

Your Committee would not omit to mention here the very large and fine collection of 
specimens of Fruits, sent to the Society by A. Leroy, of Angers, France. Many of them 
came to hand in fine order, and your Committee had the opportunity of inspecting several 
new Pears, which they think will prove valuable additions to this fine fruit. 

With these remarks, your Committee now submit their award of the Prizes offered by 
the Society the past year : — 

For the best and most interesting exhibition of Fruits during the season, to John F. 

Allen, the Lowell Plate, valued at $20 00 

For the 2d best, to Hovey & Co., 12 00 

A Gratuity to William C. Strong, of - 10 00 

Apples. — For the best twelve Summer Apples, on or before the last Saturday in 

August, to Charles Stone, for Williams' Favorite, - - - - - 6 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, for Red Astrachan, - - - 4 00 

For the best twelve Autumn Apples, on or before last Saturday in November, 

to J. B. Moore, for Hubbardston Nonesuch, 6 00 

For the next best, to Josiah Lovett, 2d, for Drap d'Or, .... 4 00 
For the best twelve Winter Apples, on or before the third Saturday in Decem- 
ber, to J. B. Moore, for Baldwin, 6 00 

For the next best, to John Gordon, for R. I. Greenings, - - - - 4 00 

The Committee have also awarded a Gratuity equal to the second Prize ($4 00,) 
to Cheever Newhall and Joseph Barret, and the Society's Silver Medal to 
Cheever Newhall, for Ladies' Sweeting Apples, and Mrs. N. A. Haven, for 
very fine sweet Apples, presented by her on April 20th ; also, the Society's 
Bronze Medal to Bowen Harrington, A. D. Williams & Son, A. D. Weld, and 

S. R. Johnson, for Apples exhibited by them, 24 00 

Apricots. — For best twelve, on or before the last Saturday in August, no Prize 
awarded. 
For the next best, no Prize awarded. 
Blackberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. Lovett, 2d, 5 00 

For the next best, to G. Merriam, ---3 00 

To C. E. Grant, the Bronze Medal of the Society, 1 50 

Cherries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. F. Allen, for Elton, 

(forced,) 6 00 

For the next best, to Otis Johnson, for Black Eagle, 4 00 

The Committee also award to George Walsh, Galen Merriam, M. P. Wilder, 
Hyde & Son, J. Lovett, 2d, Hovey & Co., H. Vandine, F. Blake, A. D. Will- 



PROCEEDINGS. 191 

iams & Son, Anson Dexter, and W. Batchelder, the Bronze Medal of the 

Society, as Gratuities, - - - - - - - - - -$16 50 

Currants. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to George Wilson, 5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey& Co., 3 00 

And a Gratuity of the Bronze Medal, to J. Lovett, 2d, for specimens of the Gon- 

douin Currant, and to Otis Johnson, for those of the White Dutch, - - 3 00 

Figs. — For the best twelve specimens, to J. F. Allen, 5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 3 00 

Gooseberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. Lovett, 2d, for 

Roaring Lion, -- 500 

Grapes. — For the best specimens grown under glass, on or before the first Saturday 

in July, to Dr. N. Durfee, ......... 10 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., - - - -7 00 

Also a Gratuity of $7 00 to J. F. Allen, and of the Society's Silver Medal to 

Augustus Evers and W. C. Strong, - - - - _- - - 17 00 

For the best specimens grown under glass subsequently to the first Saturday in 

July, to W. C. Strong, - 10 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., - - - 7 00 

The Society's Silver Medal to M. H. Simpson, 5 00 

For the best specimens of Isabella Grapes, to C. E. Grant, - - - 5 00 

For the next best to Hovey & Co., - - - - - - - -3 00 

For the best specimens of Diana Grapes, to Hovey & Co., .... 5 00 

For the next best, to E. C. Hitchings, 3 00 

To Kendall Baily and J. Lovett, 2d, the Bronze Medal of the Society, for fine 

specimens of Isabella Grapes, - 3 00 

Mtjsk Melon. — For the best in open culture, on or before the last Saturday in Sep- 
tember, to J. Lovett, 2d, for Christiana, - - - - - - -5 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., for Beechwood, ... 3 00 

Nectarines. — For the best twelve specimens, to Stephen H. Perkins, for Lewis, - 6 00 

For the next best, to J. F. Allen, 4 00 

Peaches. — For the best twelve specimens grown under glass, on or before the second 

Saturday in July, to J. F. Allen, - 6 00 

For the next best, to Otis Johnson, - * - - - - - - - 4 00 

A Gratuity to W. C. Strong, of 4 00 

For the best twelve specimens of open culture, to J. F. Allen, - - - 6 00 

For the next best, to C. E. Grant, - - - * 4 00 

And a Gratuity of $4 00 to John Hill, and the Bronze Medal of the Society to 

J. P. Wyman, both for fine specimens of Crawford's Late, - - - 5 50 

Pears. — For the best collection not exhibited before this year, with a written descrip- 
tion of the same. For this there was no competitor who came within the 

rules, neither for the 2d Prize offered for the same. 
For the best twelve Summer Pears, on or before the last Saturday in August, to 

Josiah Lovett, 2d, for Rostiezer, .--6 00 

For the next best, to M. P. Wilder, for Bloodgood, 4 00 

For the best twelve Autumn Pears, on or before the last Saturday in November, 

to Emery Bemis, for Louise Bonne de Jersey, - - - - - -6 00 

For the next best, to Samuel Leeds, for Duchess d'Angouleme, - -■"-'- 4 00 

The Silver Medal of the Society to S. Downer, Jr., J. F. Allen, M. P. Wilder, 

and Henry Vandine ; and the Bronze Medal to E. Cleaves, J. Dane, W. R. 

Austin, J. Stickney, and S. Driver, - -27 50 



192 PROCEEDINGS. 

For the best twelve Winter Pears, on or before the third Saturday in December, 

to J. Lovett, 2d, for Beurre" Diel, $8 00 

For the next best, to Henry Vandine, for Glout Morceau, - - - 6 00 

For the next best, to S. Downer, Jr., for Glout Morceau, .... 4 00 
Plums. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. Lovett, 2d, for Green 

Gages, - 6 00 

For the next best, to H. Vandine, for Peach Plum, 3 00 

To Otis Johnson, for Green Gage, to J. F. Allen, for Washington, and to J. 

Mann, for Peach Plums, the Bronze Medal of the Society, - - - 4 50 

Quinces. — For the best twelve specimens, to Jonathan Mann, - - - - 5 00 

For the next best, to Waldo Maynard, 3 00 

Raspberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to J. Lovett, 2d, for 

Knevet's Giant, 5 00 

For the next best, to Cheever Newhall, for Knevet's Giant, ---. 3 00 

To S. Sweetser, the Bronze Medal of the Society, 150 

Strawberries. — For the best specimens, not less than two boxes, to S. Downer, Jr., 

for Jenney's Seedling, 6 00 

For the next best, to Otis Johnson, for Hovey's Seedling, - - - - 4 00 

For the next best, to T. Rice, for Hovey's Seedling, 3 00 

A Gratuity of $>3 00 to S. Walker, for specimens of his Seedling, and to G. 

Ivers, for a display of thirtytwo varieties, - -6 00 

PRIZES AWARDED AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

Apples. — For the best twelve varieties, of twelve specimens each, to B. V. French, 

the Society's Plate, valued at - . - - • ', 20 00 

For the 2d best, to J. B. Moore, - - - ... - . . 15 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Stickney, - -- -12 00 

For the 4th best, to John Gordon, 8 00 

For the best dish of twelve specimens of one variety, to Silas Peirce, - - 6 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Stickney, 5 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Lovett, 2d, - - 4 00 

For the 4th best, to J. B. Moore, 3 00 

Pears. — For the best twelve varieties of twelve specimens, of one variety each, to 

J. Stickney, Lyman Plate, valued at - - - 20 00 

For the 2d best, to S. Downer, Jr., 15 00 

For the 3d best, to M. P. Wilder, - - - - - - - - - 12 00 

For the 4th best, to G. Ivers, ......... 8 00 

And a Gratuity of $8 00, for twelve fine varieties, to Hovey & Co., - 8 00 

For the best dish of twelve specimens each, of one variety, to W. R. Austin, 6 00 

For the 2d best, to J. F. Allen, - - - - 5 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Richardson, - - - - 4 00 

For the 4th best, to A. W. Stetson, - - 3 00 

And the following Gratuities for collections of Pears, of $8 00 each to M. P. 
Wilder, Hovey & Co., John Gordon, Samuel Walker, J. Lovett, 2d, J. S. 
Cabot, Winship& Co., and R. Manning ■ and $4 00 each to F. Burr, C. New- 
hall, A. D. Williams & Son, and J. F. Allen, 80 00 

Assorted Fruit. — For the best basket of Fruit, of various kinds, to Hovey & Co., 10 00 

For the next best, to W. C. Strong, 7 00 

Grapes. — For the best five varieties of two bunches each, to W. C. Strong, the 

Lyman Plate, valued at 15 00 

For the next best, to N. Durfee, the Bradlee Plate, valued at - - - 10 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 193 

For the best two varieties, of two bunches each, to J. F. Allen, - - - $6 00 

For the next best, to Hovey & Co., 4 00 

Peaches. — For the best dish, of not less than twelve, to H. Shimming, gardener to 

J. P. Cushing, 6"00 

For the 2d best, to N. Stetson, 4 00 

And a Gratuity of $4 00 to W. Bacon, for a fine dish of Peaches, - - - 4 00 
Plums. — A Gratuity of the Bronze Medal of the Society, to J. Lovett, 2d, H. Van- 
dine, and J. W. Gates ; and to Francis Marsh, a Silver Medal of the Society, 
for Tomato Figs, ------ 10 50 

For the Committee. JOSEPH S. CABOT. Chairman. 



REPORTOF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, AWARDING 

PREMIUMS FOR 1851. 

In submitting the following Report, your Committee have the pleasure to say, that the 
Vegetables exhibited through the season have been in quality fully equal to any previous 
year. The quantity, perhaps, has not been quite so extensive as at some former seasons. 

The Committee wish to refer the Seedling Potatoes, Nos. 14, 15, and 23, exhibited by S. 
W. Cole, and the Seedling Potatoes exhibited by Martin Davis, of Sterling, to the future 
Committee for the Society's Gold Medal, as offered in the Society's Prospective Premiums 
subsequently to the year 1846. 

The Committee beg also to report, that, in their opinion, the value of the new Seedling 
Potatoes does not depend so much on the size or appearance, as on the quality for mealiness 
and solidity, which, in this latter, means freedom from water ; smaller potatoes being often 
of better quality, in this respect, than those of larger size and fair appearance. 

Asparagus. — For the earliest and best, not less than three bunches, to J. Crosby, $3 00 
Beets. — For the best, (pure Blood Beet,) during the season, not less than twelve 

roots, to J. B. Moore, 3 00 

Broccoli. — For the best three heads, to J. Lovett, 2d, ..... 5 00 

Beans. — For the best and earliest peck of String Beans, to J. Nugent, - - - 3 00 

For the best and earliest Lima Beans, not less than two quarts, to J. Gordon, 3 00 

For the best and earliest variety of Shell Beans, to J. Crosby, - - - 3 00 

Cabbage. — For the best Drumhead Cabbage, during the season, not less than three 

heads, to A. D. Williams & Son, 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Mann, Jr., - - - - " 3 00 

For the best Savoy Cabbage during the season, not less than three heads, to J. 

Mann, Jr., 3 00 

Carrots. — For the best exhibited, to J. Mann, Jr., 2 00 

Cauliflowers. — For the best and largest during the season, not less than three 

heads, to J. A. Keniick, -5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Crosby, 3 00 

Celery. — For the best, not less than six roots, to J. Crosby, 5 00 

Corn. — For the best, and earliest Sweet Corn, not less than twelve ears, to J. Crosby, 3 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Mann. Jr., 2 00 

Cucumbers.— For the best brace under glass, previous to the first Saturday of June, 

to T. Needham, 5 00 

For the best and earliest of open culture, to J. Crosby, .... 3 00 

Egg Plants. — For the best display through the season, to F. Webster, - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Mann, Jr., 2 00 

49 



194 PROCEEDINGS. 

Lettuce. — For the best six heads, before the first Saturday in July, to J. Crosby, $3 00 

Potatoes. — For the best and earliest peck, previous to August 1, to J. Crosby, - 3 00 

For the 2d best, to A. D.Williams & Son, 2 00 

Peas. — For the best and earliest peck in June, to J. Mann, Jr., - 3 00 
Rhubarb. — For the largest and best, previous to the first Saturday in July, not less 

than twelve stalks, to J. Lovett, 2d, - - 5 00 

For the 2d best, to A. W. Stetson, 3 00 

Tomatoes. — For the best and earliest, not less than one dozen, to J. Crosby, - - 3 00 
Vegetables. — For the best display and greatest variety at the weekly exhibitions, 

during the season, to J. Crosby, 5 00 

For the 2d best, to J. Mann, Jr., 3 00 

PREMIUMS AND GRATUITIES AT THE ANNUAL EXHIBITIONS. 

Vegetables. — For the best display and greatest variety, to J. B. Moore, - - $10 00 

For the 2d best, to F. Webster, 8 00 

For the 3d best, to J. Crosby, - 6 00 

For the the 4th best, to A. D. Williams & Son, 4 00 

New Vegetables. — For a new variety of Sweet Corn, to A. R. Pope, - - 5 00 
Gratuities. — To J. B. Moore, for the best variety of Turnips, the Society's Silver 

Medal, 5 00 

For Blood Beets, the best, 5 00 

For Squash Peppers, 3 00 

To A. McLennan, foi Egg Plants, 3 00 

To A. R. Pope, for Old Colony Sweet Corn, (a new hybrid,) the Society's Silver 

Medal, 5 00 

To J. Lovett, 2d, a special Gratuity for Winter Crook-neck Squash, raised in 1850, 

weighing 70 pounds, a Silver Cup, -------- 10 00 

To J. Mann, for Drumhead Cabbages, - 4 00 

To Joseph Davis, for Celery, 3 00 

To A. Bowditch, for display of Vegetables, - - - - - - -4 00 

For Lima Beans, 3 00 

To T. Page, for Snake Cucumbers, - - -. 2 00 

To J. W. Brown, for Carolina Sweet Potatoes, 2 00 

To N. Stetson, for Tomatoes, 3 00 

To J. Lovett, 2d, for Cauliflowers and Broccoli, the Society's Silver Medal, 5 00 

To E. M. Richards, for Squashes kept from 1850, in fine condition, - - 2 00 

To F. Marsh, for Custard Squashes, the Society's Silver Medal, - - - 5 00 

To Messrs. Stone & Co., for Beets and Turnips, 100 

To S. W. Cole, for display of Seedling and other Potatoes, - - - - 10 00 

For Connecticut Pie Squash, --------- 5 00 

To J. Gordon, for display, ---. 4 00 

For large Lima and Saba Beans, -- 3 00 

To A. Hatch, for Seedling Potatoes, 3 00 

To J. Crosby, for Squashes, ...-.-.-- 3 00 

To B. V. French, for Tomatoes, 3 00 

To F. Webster, for Cauliflowers, - - - 2 00 

gratuities at the weekly exhibitions. 

To J. Mann, Jr., for Early Turnip Beets, 3 00 

To J. Crosby, for large Blood Beets, 3 00 

To E. P. Champney, for specimens of the first Cucumbers, grown under glass, - 2 00 



PROCEEDINGS. 195 

To W. F. Walsh, for the first Early China Beans grown under glass, - - - $3 00 

To Winship & Co., for fine Rhubarb, 3 00 

To J. A. Kenrick, for Rhubarb, ---------- 2 00 

To J. B. Moore, for Champion of England Peas, - - - - - - -3 00 

To S. W. Cole, for Seedling Potatoes, Nos. 14, 15, and 23, 4 00 

To J. Mann, Jr., for Skilling's fine Queen Cabbage, a copy of Colman's European 

Agriculture. 
To W. J. Walch, for three varieties of fine Early Cucumbers, a copy of the same. 
To J. Gordon, for two varieties of Cucumbers, a copy of the same. 
To C. M. Furbush, for specimens of Peach Blow Potatoes, a copy of the same. 
To M. P. Wilder, for Myatt's Linnaeus Rhubarb, a copy of the same. 
To M. Davis, Seedling Potatoes, from a Nova Scotia variety, a copy of the same. 
To S. B. Morse, for Mammoth Squashes, exhibited in 1850, a copy of the same. 
To A. Bowditch, for Champion of England Peas, a copy of the same. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

AARON D. WELD, Chairman. 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A * DENOTES THE MEMBER AS DECEASED. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 
Allen, John Fisk, Salem. 
Amory, Charles, Boston. 
Amory, James S., do. 
Appleton, Nathan, do. 
Appleton, Robert, do. 
*Armstrong, Samuel T., do. 
Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 
Austin, William R., Dorchester. 

Barnard, Rev. C. F., Boston. 
Bartlett, E., Newburyport. 
Barrows. Thomas, Dedham. 
Bemis, Amory, Cambridge. 
Blake, George B., Boston. 
Bond, George W., Roxbury. 
Bowditch, J. Ingersoll, Boston. 
Bowditch, Azell, Roxbury. 
Bowditch, Azell C, do. 
Bradford, Samuel D., W. Roxbury. 
*Bradlee, Joseph P., Boston. 
Breed, Andrew, Lynn. 
Breed, Henry A., do. 
Brewer, Otis, Boston. 
*Brewer, Eliab Stone, Roxbury. 
Brown, Ebenezer, Lynn. 

Cadness, John, Brighton. 
Carruth, Nathan, Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
Cleveland, Ira, Dedham. 
*Codman, John, D. D., Dorchester. 
Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 
Cummings, John, Jr., Boston. 
Crocker, Uriel, do. 
Crowninshield, George C, Boston. 



Daggett, H. L., Boston. 
Denny, Daniel, do. 
*Denny, George, Westboro'. 
Denny, R. S., Dorchester. 
Downer, Samuel, Jr., do. 
Dunklee, John, Brighton. 
Durfee, Nathan, Fall River. 

*Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Elliot, Samuel A., Boston. 

Fairbanks, Stephen, Boston. 
Fairbanks, H. P., do. 
Fearing, Albert, do. 
Fenno, John, Chelsea. 
Fisher, Warren, Roxbury. 
*Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 
French, Benjamin V., Braintree. 
French, Jonathan, Roxbury. 

Gardner, W. F., Salem. 
Gibson, Kimball, Boston. 
^Gilmore, Addison, do. 
Grinnell, Joseph, New Bedford. 
Groom, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Hall. Adin, Boston. 
Harris, William T., Cambridge. 
Hastings, Edmund T., Boston. 
Haven, A. W., Portsmouth, N. H. 
*Hedge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 
Hezeltine, H., Boston. 
Holbrook, C. J., East Rridgewater. 
Hooper," John, Jr., Marblehead. 
Hooper, Robert C, Boston. 
Hovey, C. M., Cambridgeport 



198 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Hovey, P. B., Jr., Cambridge. 
Howe, Jabez C, Boston. 
*Howe, Hall J., South Boston. 
Howe, John, Brookline. 
Howe, George, Roxbury. 
Howland, John, Jr., New Bedford. 
Huckins, James W., Roxbury. 

Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 
Jones, Thomas, Boston. 

Kendall, D. S., Boston. 
Kimball, A. P., do. 
King, Franklin, Dorchester. 
Kingsbury, W. B., Roxbury. 
Kinsley, Lyman, Canton. 

Leavens, S. Davis, Boston. 
Lee, George, Watertown. 
Lewis, A. S., Roxbury. 
Lewis, W. G., do. 
Leland, George. 
Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
*Lincoln, William, do. 
Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 



*Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
*Parsons, William, Boston. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis, N. S. 

Reynoso, Bernard de, South Boston. 
Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 
Richards, William B., do. 
Robinson, J., Dorchester. 
Rotch, William, New Bedford. 
Russell, George R., Roxbury. 

*"Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Sever, J. W., Dorchester. 
Shaw, Robert G., Boston. 
*Silsby, Enoch, Bradford. 
Smith, Stephen H., Providence. 
Springer, John, Sterling. 
Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 
Stevens, Paron, Boston. 
Stickney, Josiah, do. 
Story, F. H., Salem. 
*Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 
Story, E. Augustus, Brighton. 
Sturgis, William, Woburn. 



Mann, Jonathan, South Boston. 

March, Andrew S., Roxbury. 

Marland, J., Andover. 

Merriam, Charles, West Newton. 

Mixter, Charles, Boston. 

Morse, Samuel F., do. 

Morse, S. B., do. 

Motley, Thomas, Jr., West Roxbury. 

Mudge, E. R., Lynn. 

Mudge, George W., do. 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Newhall, George, do. 
Newhall, John M., do. 
Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
Nuttall, Thomas, England. 

Paige, James W., Boston. 
Paine, Robert T., do. 
*Parker, Daniel P., do. 
Parker, William A., do. 
Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Parkman, Rev. Francis, Boston. 



Tappan, Charles, Boston. 
Teschemacher, J. E., do. 
*Thomdike, Israel, do. 
Towle, Lyman, do. 
Tremlett, Thomas, Dorchester. 

Wainwright, Peter, Roxbury. 
*Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
Walker, Edward C. R., California. 
Walker, Samuel A., Brookline. 
Warren, G. W., Boston. 
Webster, Joshua, Lynn. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
West, Thomas, do. 
White, B. C, Boston. 
Whiting, Nathaniel, Brookline. 
Wight, Eben, Dedham. 
Wilder, Marshall P., Dorchester. 
Williams, Aaron D., Roxbury. 
Williams, Aaron D., Jr., do. 
Winship, Lyman F., Brighton. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
Worthington, William, Dorchester. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
Adams, Charles F., Quincy. 
Adams, Joseph. H., Boston. 
Adams, Z. B., do. 
Adams, Charles Frederick, do. 
Adams, George E., Medford. 
Allen, E., Dracut. 
Ames, R. W., Roxbury. 
Amory, Charles, Dorchester. 
*Andrew, John H., Salem. 
Andrews, Alfred A., Roxbury. 
*Andrews, Ebenezer T., Boston. 
Appleton, S. A., Boston. 
Arnold, John, Dorchester. 

Bachelder, Samuel, Cambridge. 
Bacon, William, Roxbury. 
Bacon Robert, Medford. 
*Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
Baker, Walter, Dorchester. 
*Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Ballister, Joseph, Dorchester. 
Banks, Thomas S., Roxbury. 
Barker, D. C, Lynn. 
^Barnard, Samuel, Watertown. 
Barnes, Parker, Dorchester. 
Barnes, D. W., Boston. 
*Barrett, George C. do. 
Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 
Bartlett, Levi, Boston. 
Barton, Jabez W. ; Boston. 
*"Bates, Thomas, do. 
Beecher, Laban S., Roxbury, 
Belknap, A. E., Boston. 
Bell. Robert G., Lowell. 
Bigelow, George T., Boston. 
Billings, Joseph H., West Roxbury. 
*Bingham, Daniel, Dedham. 
Blainey, J. M., Boston. 
Blaisdell, J., Lexington. 
Blake, George T., Boston. 
Blanchard, John A., do. 
Bliss, B. K., Springfield. 



Bogle, William, North Maiden. 
Boot, William, Boston. 
Bowman, Francis, Cambridge. 
Boyd, Francis, Boston. 
Bracket, C. N., Brighton. 
Bradbury, Charles, Boston. 
Bradford, Charles F., Roxbury. 
Bradlee, Henry, Boston. 
Bradlee, J. B., Boston. 
*Bradlee, Joseph P., do. 
Bradshaw, E. Edes, Charlestown. 
Breck, Joseph, Brighton. 
*Bridge, Nathan, Charlestown. 
*Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 
Bright, Jonathan B., Waltham. 
Brines, Charles, Roxbury. 
Brooks, Hiram, Cambridgeport. 
Brown, Frederick, Boston. 
Brown, James, Cambridge. 
Brown, J. W., Beverly. 
Buckman, Bower, Woburn. 
Bufford, J. H., Roxbury. 
Bullard, Calvin, Boston. 
Bullard, Lewis, Dedham. 
Burns, Edward, Brighton. 
Burnett, Joseph, Boston. 
*Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 

Cabot, Joseph S., Salem. ■ 
Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 
Cadness, John, New York. 
Caines, William, South Boston. 
*Cairnes, William, New York. 
*Carter, Richard B., Boston. 
Carter, William E., Cambridge. 
Chamberlain, Edward, Jr., Boston. 
*Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Chapen, C. F., Cambridge. 
Chickering, Jonas, Boston. 
Chickering, Horatio, Dedham. 
Child, L. C, East Lexington. 
Clapp, W. W., Boston. 
Clark, E. D., do. 



200 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Clark, Peter, Andover. 

Clark, J. J., Koxbury. 

Clarke, Joseph W-, Dedham. 

Cobb, Elijah, Boston. 

Cobb, Jonathan H., Dedham. 

*Cole, S. W., Boston. 

Collaraore, John, Jr., Boston. 

Corains, Linus B., Roxbury. 

Copeland, R. M., Boston. 

Copeland, Charles, do. 

Cordwell, G. B., Roxbury. 

Crafts, W. A., Roxbury. 

*Crane, Joshua, Boston. 

Crocker, H. B., Brighton. 

Crocker, F. W., Barnstable. 

Crosby, Josiah, West Cambridge. 

Crowley, Daniel, Roxbury. 

*Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Boston. 

*Crowninshield, George C, do. 

Cunningham, F., Milton. 

Curtis, Edward, Pepperell. 

Curtis, William, Newton. 

Curtis, Daniel T., Boston. 

Dana, Francis, Roxbury. 
Dane, John, Boston, 
*Daniell, Josiah, do. 
Darracott, Geo., do. 
Davenport, Lewis, Milton. 
Davis, Barnabas, Boston. 
Davis, Isaac P., do. 
Davis, William A., Dorchester. 
Davis, F. A., Milton. 
Davis, Adolphus, Boston. 
Davis, W. H., Milton. 
*Davis, N. M,, Plymouth. 
Deane, John, Jr., Boston. 
*Dearborn, Henry, Roxbury. 
Decker, Louis, Boston. 
Dennison, J. N., do. 
*Derby, E. H., Salem. 
*Derby, John, do. 
Dexter, Anson, Roxbury. 
Dickerman, George H.. Stoughton. 
Dillaway, Charles K., Roxbury. 
Dixwell, J. J., Boston. 
Dodge, Pickering, Salem. 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dowse, Thomas, Cambridgeport. 
Driver, Stephen, Salem. 
^Dudley, David, Roxbury. 



*Duncan, James H., Haverhill. 
Dutton, Henry W., Boston. 
Dyke, John, Stoneham. 

Eastbum, John H., Boston. 
Eaton, William, do. 
Eddy, Caleb, do. 
Edmands, J. W., do. 
Edwards, Henry, do. 
Edwards, Thomas, do. 
Elbridge, J. S., do. 
*Eldridge, Charles H., do. 
Ellis, Jonathan, do. 
Ellis, G. W., do. 

Emerson, Benjamin D., Roxbury. 
Emerson, E. C, Boston. 
Emmons, N. H., Lowell. 
Evans, Gustavus, Watertown. 

Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Fay, Isaac, Cambridge. 
*Fessenden, Thomas G., Boston. 
Fisher, Eben S., Dedham. 
Fisk, R. T. P., Hingham. 
*Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
*Flynt, William N., Monson. 
Foord, Enos, Dedham. 
Foster, John H., Boston. 
Frazer, A. H., Dorchester. 
Frothingham, Samuel, Boston. 
Fussell, John, Roxbury. 

*Gaffield, James, Gloucester. 
Gardner, John, Dedham. 
Gay, Arthur 0., Hingham. 
Gibbs, W. P., Lexington. 
Gilmore, George L., Newton. 
Goddard, John P., Boston. 
Gordon, George W., do. 
Gordon, John, Brighton. 
Grant, Charles E., Roxbury. 
*Gray John, Boston. 
Gray, John C, do. 
Gray, Horace, do. 
Green, John, Worcester. 
*Green, Matthew, West Roxbury. 
Greenough, D. S., Roxbury. 
*Greenough, David S., do. 
*Grosvenor, L. P., Pomfret, Conn. 
Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



201 



Haggerston, David, Dorchester. 
Hall, Dudley, Medford. 
Hall, Jesse, Cambridge. 
*Hallett, George, Boston. 
Hanson, Moses P., South Reading. 
Harrington, Brown, Lexington. 
*Harris, Richard D., Boston. 
Harris, VV. A., Dorchester. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P., Boston. 
Hastings, Thomas, East Cambridge. 
Hatch, Anthony, Saugus. 
Haven, H. P., New London, Conn. 
*Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Hayes, Joseph H., Boston. 
Hayward, George, do. 
*Heard, John, do. 
Heard, Charles, Brighton. 
Healey, Mark, Lynn. 
Hendee, Charles J., Boston. 
Hemmenway, Benjamin, Dorchester. 
Henshaw, John, Cambridge. 
Henshaw, Samuel, Boston. 
Hewins, Whiting, Roxbury, 
Hewins, Charles A., do. 
*Higginson, Henry, Boston. 
Hill, Jeremiah, do. 
Hill, James, Somerville. 
Hill, John, Boston. 
Hill, Samuel, South Boston. 
*Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Hooper, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Horton, Henry K., do. 
Hosmer, H., Watertown. 
Hosmer, Z., Cambridge. 
Hovey, John, Roxbury. 
Hovey, Joseph F. ; Charlestown. 
*Howard, John C, Brookline. 
Howe, Rufus, Mount Auburn. 
House, Timothy, Dorchester. 
Howe, George C, West Newton. 
Howe, Joseph N., East Cambridge. 
Howe, S. G., South Boston. 
Hubbard, G. G., West Needham. 
Hyde, George, Newton. 
Hyde, J. F., do. 
*Hysop, David, Brookline. 



Jenks, John H., Boston. 
Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 
Johnston, J. K., Boston. 
Johnston, W. B., Cohasset. 
Jones, James L., Chelsea. 
Jones, Cyrus W., California. 
*Joy ; Joseph G., Boston. 
Judson, Chester, West Newton. 

Kelt, James, Jr., Boston. 
Kenrick, William, Newton. 
Kenrick, John A., do. 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown, 
King, W. C, Boston. 
Kittredge, Alvah, Roxbury. 
Kittredge, Henry, Medfield. 
Kneeland, Samuel, Jr., Boston. 

Lackey, Andrew, Marblehead. 

*Lamb, John A. W., Boston. 

Lawrence, Amos, do. 

Lawrence, Abbott, do. 

Lawrence, H. K., Lawrence. 

Leach, Daniel, Roxbury. 

Lee, Thomas, Brookline. 

Lee, John C, Salem. 

Leeds, Samuel, South Boston. 

*Leighton, Thomas, East Cambridge. 

Leighton, Thomas, Jr., do. 

Leighton, William, do. 

*Lemist, John, Roxbury. 

Lincoln, F. W., Canton. 

Little, C. C, Boston. 

Livermore, Aaron, do. 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridgeport. 

*Liversage, Henry, Milton. 

Liversage, Thomas, do. 

Loring, Benjamin, Boston. 

Loring, C. G., do. 

*Loring, William J., do. 

*Lord, Rev. Daniel M., New York. 

Lothrop, D. W., Roxbury. 

Lovitt, Josiah, 2d, Beverly. 

Low, John J., Boston. 

*Lowell, John, Roxbury. 

*Lowell, William B., Newton. 



*Ingersoll, James, Boston. 

Jackson, James, Boston. 
Jarvis, Deming, Sandwich. 



50 



Macintosh, William M., Roxbury. 
*Macay, John, Boston. 
Macondry, F. W., California. 
Macrea, W., Boston. 



202 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 



Mann, Samuel C, Dedham. 
♦Maiming, Robert, Salem. 
*Mandall, J. S., Roxbury. 

Marsh, Francis, Dedham. 

Martin, Nathaniel, Brighton. 

Marvin, T. R., Boston. 

Mclntire, Daniel, Framingham. 

McLellan, Alexander, Watertown. 

McMullen, William L.. Cambridge. 

♦Meller, William, Roxbury. 

Merriam, Galen, West Newton. 

Merrill, W. W., Boston. 

Miller, John L., Boston. 

Miller, David, South Boston. 

♦Miller, Edward, Boston, 

Mills, Lewis, do. 

♦Minns, Thomas, do. 

Minot, G. R., Roxbury. 

*Moore, Abel, Concord.' 

Moore, H. K., Chelsea. 

♦Moore, J. B., Concord. 

Morgan, Thomas, Boston. 

Morse, Robert M., do. 

Morton, W. T. G., West Needham. 

Mudge, George W., Lynn. 

Munroe, James, Jr., Roxbury. 

Needham, Thomas, Brighton. 
♦Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown. 
Nichols, W. S.. Roxbury. 
♦Nicholson, Com., (U. S. N.) 
Nickerson, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Norton, Joshua, Boston. 
Nugent, James, Jamaica Plain. 

♦Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oliver, J. P., Lynn. 
Oliver, H. K.. Lawrence. 
Olmstead, E. Holton, Boston. 
Osgood, Peter, Andover. 
*Otis, Harrison G., Boston. 
Owen, John, Cambridge. 

Page, Thomas, Boston. 
Palmer, John P., do. 
Parker, Harvey D., do. 
Parker, Isaac, do. 
Parker, William H., do. 
Parker, James, do. 
Parker, M. S., do. 
♦Parris, Alexander, Pembroke. 



Parsons, Theophilus, Boston. 
Payson, Samuel R., Roxbury. 
♦Penniman, Elisha, Brookline. 
Perkins, Thomas H.. Boston. 
♦Perry, Rev. G. B., East Bradford. 
Peltee, Otis, Newton. 
Phillips, Stephen C, Salem. 
Phipps, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Pierce, Dana, Somerville. 
Pierce, S. B., Dorchester. 
Pierce, George, West Cambridge. 
Plympton, C. H. P., California. 
♦Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
Poor, Henry, Boston. 
Pope, A. R., Somerville. 
Porter, Z. B., Cambridge. 
Power, Thomas, Boston. 
♦Pratt, William, Jr. ; Watertown. 
♦Prescott, William, Boston. 
Preston, John, Dorchester. 
*Priest, John F., Boston. 
♦Prince, John, Roxbury. 
Prouty, Lorenzo, Boston. 

Quant, William, California. 
Quant, John, Brighton. 
Quincy, Josiah, Jr., Boston. 

Rand, Edward S., Newburyport. 
♦Randall, George, New Bedford. 
Reed, Charles M., California. 
Rice, Henry, Boston. 
Rice, Edward E., Dorchester. 
Rice, Thomas, Jr., Newton. 
Richardson, Josiah, Cambridge. 
♦Richardson, Joseph, Braintree. 
Richardson, W. H., Dorchester. 
Robbins, Charles, South Boston. 
♦Bobbins, Edward H., Boston. 
Robbins, P. G., Roxbury. 
♦Rodman, Benjamin, New Bedford. 
*Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 
Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 
♦Ruggles, Micah H-, Fall River. 

Sampson, E. W., Dedham. 
Savage, William, Boston. 
Sawyer, M. P., do. 
Schimming, H., Watertown. 
♦Seabury, Pardon E., New Bedford. 
Seaver, Benjamin, Boston. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



203 



Seaver, William, Roxbury. 
Shaw, Charles B., Dedham. 
Shaw, Lemuel, Boston. 
Sheafe, Henry, Portsmouth, N. H. 
Sheehan, Jeremiah, Springfield. 
*Sigoumey, Henry, Boston. 
Simmons, D. A , Roxbury. 
Simpson, Michael H., Boston. 
Simpson, Paul, do. 
Skinner, John, Charlestown. 
Sleeper, J. S., Roxbury. 
Smally, D. S., do. 
Smallwood, Thomas, Newton. 
Smith, Edmund. Brighton. 
Smith, Melancthon, Roxbury. 
Spencer, William, Lowell. 
*Spofford, George, Georgetown. 
Spring, Charles S., Brighton. 
Stan wood, Henry B., Boston. 
*Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 
Stearns, William G., Boston. 
Stetson, A. W., Bridgewater. 
*Stevens, Isaac, Boston. 
Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, G. F., Newton. 
Strong, W. C, Brighton. 
Sturtevant, Noah, Boston. 
Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Swan, W. D., Dorchester. 
Sweetser, Samuel, Woburn. 

*Tappan, John G., Boston. 
*Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 
Thaxter, Levi, Watertown. 
Thayer, Gideon F., South Boston. 
Thomas, William H., Boston. 
Thomas, John M., New Orleans. 
*Thresher, Rev. Ebenezer, Dayton, Ohio. 
Ticknor, William D., Boston. 
*Tidd, Marshall. Woburn. 
Towne, Orr N., Somerville. 
Tucker, Nathaniel, Louisville, Ky. 
Tudor, Frederick, Boston. 
Tuttle, Hugh H., do. 
Tyler, John, do. 



Vandine, Henry, Cambridgeport. 
Vila, James, Boston. 
Vose, Elijah, do. 

Wakefield, E. H., Chelsea. 
Waldo, Henry S., Boston. 
*Waldron, R. R., (U. S. N.) 
Wales, William, Dorchester. 
Walley, Samuel H., Jr., Roxbury. 
Walsh, George, Charlestown. 
Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
*Ward, Samuel, do. 
Warren, J. L. L. F., California. 
Warren, A. C, Boston. 
Washburn, John, Plymouth. 
Watson, B. M., do. 
Webber, A. D.. Boston. 
Weld, Aaron D., Roxbury. 
Weld, Stephen M., do. 
Weld, Wiliam F., Boston. 
*Wellington, Andrew E., Lexington. 
*Wentworlh, James, Boston. 
*Wheeler, A. B., do. 
* Wheel wright, William W., do. 
Whitcomb. Levi, do. 
*White, Stephen, do. 
White, George E., do. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, Boston. 
Whitney, William F., do. 
Wilkins, John H., do. 
*Williams, Francis L., Roxbury. 
Williams, Nehemiah D., do. 
Wilson, George, Marblehead. 
Wilson, W. S., Boston. 
*Wincheste'r, William P., Boston. 
*Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 
Wood, E., Dighton. 
Worcester, Joseph E., Cambridge. 
Wyath, Jonas, 2d, do. 
*Wyatt, Robert, Boston. 

Yendall, George, Boston. 
Young, Will wood, New Bedford. 
Young, Calvin, Roxbury. 



Underwood, William, Boston. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

♦Hon. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, late President of the United States. 

WILLIAM T. AITON, Esq., Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

JOHN ABBOTT, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

*BENJAMIN ABBOTT, LL. D., Exeter, N. H. 

Hon. SAMUEL APPLETON, Boston. 

Hon. JAMES ARNOLD, New Bedford. 

L'Abbe BERLESE, Paris. 

♦Le Chevalier SOULANGE BODIN, Secretaire-General de la Societe" d'Horticulture, Paris. 

EDWARD N. BANCROFT, M. D., President of the Horticultural and Agricultural Society 

of Jamaica. 
JAMES BEEKMAN, Esq., New York. 

♦J. BUEL, Esq., President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 
♦ROBERT BARCLAY, Esq. 
*PHILIP P. BARBOUR, Esq., Virginia. 
*NICHOLAS BIDDLE, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Mrs. BIGELOW, Medford. 
JOSIAH BRADLEE, Esq., Boston. 
Hon. HENRY CLAY, Kentucky. 
♦AUGUSTIN PYRAMUS DE CANDOLLE, Geneva. 
♦ZACCHEUS COLLINS, Esq., Philadelphia. 
♦Admiral Sir ISAAC COFFIN, Bart., England. 
♦WILLIAM COXE, Esq., Burlington. 

♦ISAAC CHAUNCY, Esq., U. S. Navy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
♦LEWIS CHAP1ER, Esq., Philadelphia. 

J. P. CUSHING, Esq., Watertown, Mass. 

CALEB COPE, Esq., Pennsylvania. 

ROWELL S. COLT, Paterson, N. J. 

♦Gen. H. A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbury. 

CHARLES W. DABNEY, Esq., Fayal/ 

JAMES DICKSON, Esq., Vice President of the London Horticultural Society. 

Don RAMON DE LA SAGRA, Cuba. 

♦Sir HUMPHREY DAVY, London. 

♦Mrs. DOROTHY DIX, Boston. 

♦Hon. JOHN DAVIS, LL. D., Boston. 

Hon. EDWARD EVERETT, Cambridge, Mass. 

Hon. HORACE EVERETT, Vermont. 

CHARLES A. EVANSON, Esq., St. John's, N. B. 

♦Hon. STEPHEN ELLIOT, Charleston, S. C. 

♦Capt. JESSE D. ELLIOT, U. S. Navy. 

F. FALDERMANN, Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Petersburg. 

Dr. E. F. FISCHER, Professor of Botany of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Petersburg. 

Hon. THEODORE FRELINGHUYSEN, President of the American Agricultural Society. 

JOSEPH GALES, Jr., Esq., Washington. 

JOHN GREIG, Esq. Geneva, State of New York. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 205 

Mrs. MARY GRIFFITH, Charlies Hope, New Jersey. 

*Mrs. REBECCA GORE, Waltham. 

*STEPHEN GIRARD, Esq., Philadelphia. 

*GEORGE GIBBS, Esq., New York. 

#Hon. ROBERT H. GOLDSBOROUGH, Talbot County, Maryland. 

Le Vicompte HERICART DE THURY, President de la Society d'Horticulture de Paris. 

THOMAS HOPKIRK, Esq., President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 

LEWIS HUNTS, Esq., Huntsburg, Ohio. 

S. P. HILDRETH, M. D., Marietta, Ohio. 

*DAVID HOSACK, M. D., late President of the New York Horticultural Society. 

*Gen. WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, late President of the United States. 

JOSEPH R. INGERSOLL, Esq., Philadelphia. 

#Gen. ANDREW JACKSON, late President of the United States. 

*Mrs. MARTHA JOHONNOT, Salem. 

*THOMAS ANDREW KNIGHT, Esq., President of the Horticultural Society of London. 

*JOHN C. LOUDON, Esq., London. 

Baron H. CAROL VON LUDWIG, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

Le Compte DE LASTEYRIE, Vice President de la Societe Horticulture de Paris. 

FRANKLIN LITCHFIELD, Esq., Porto Cabello. 

JOSHUA LONGSTRETH, Esq., Philadelphia. 

NICHOLAS LONG WORTH, Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

*Gen. LA FAYETTE, La Grange, France. 

*JACOB LORILLARD, Esq., President of the New York Historical Society, N. Y. 

JOHN A. LOWELL, Esq. Roxbury. 

*Hon. THEODORE LYMAN, Brookline. 

Baron JUSTUS LIEBEG, Geissen, Germany. 

Prof. J. LINDLEY, of London. 

Mons. F. A. MICHAUX, Paris. 

MOSSELMAN, Esq., Antwerp. 

Hon. CHARLES F. MERCER, Virginia. 
D. S. M'CAULEY, Esq., Tripoli. 

Mrs. CHARLOTTE MARRY ATT, Wimbledon, near London. 
#Hon. JAMES MADISON, late President of the United States. 
*Hon. JAMES MONROE, late President of the United States. 
*LEWIS JOHN MENTENS, Esq., Bruxelles. 
*SAMUEL L. MITCHELL, LL. D., New York. 

*Hon. ISAAC McKIM, President of the Horticultural Society of Maryland. 
A. S. MUNSON, M. D., President of the New Haven Horticultural Society. 
*Hon. A. N. MORIA, Montreal, C. E. 
Rev. N. VILLNERE, Montreal, C. E. 

Baron OTTENFELS, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 
*Hon. JAMES K. POLK, late President of the United States. 
Hon. JOEL PARKER, LL. D., Cambridge. 
Mons. POITEAU, Professor of the Institute Horticole de Fromont. 
*JOHN H. POWELL, Esq., Powellton, Pennsylvania. 
*WILLIAM PRINCE, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
JOHN PALMER, Esq., Calcutta. 
*HENRY PRATT, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Hon. THOMAS H. PERKINS, Brookline, Mass. 

ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of Roseberry, President of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

51 



206 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Col. JOEL RATHBURNE, Albany, N. Y. 

JOHN SHKPHERD, Esq., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

*JOHN S. SKINNER, Esq., Editor of the Farmer's Library, New York. 

^JOSEPH SABINE, Esq., Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

*Sir WALTER SCOTT. 

*\VILLIAM SHAW, Esq., New York. 

Judge STRONG, Rochester, New York. 

STEPHEN H. SMITH, Esq., President of the Rhode Island Horticultural Society. 

M. TOUGARD, President de la Soci&e Centrale d'Horticulture, Rouen, France. 

JOHN TURNER, Esq., Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

#JAMES THACHER, M. D., Plymouth. 

GRANT THORBURN, Esq., New York. 

Hon. JOHN TALIAFERRO, Virginia. 

M. DU PETIT THOURS, Paris, Poiteau Professor of the Institute Horticole de Fromont. 

Col. W. TONSON, President Horticultural Society, Washington, D. C. 

NATHANIEL TOWNSON, Esq., Washington, D. C. 

Hon. JOHN TYLER, late President of the United States. 

Rev. JOSEPH TYSO, Wallingford, England. 

Gen. TALLMADGE. 

Mons. P. P. A. VILMORIN, Paris. 

*J. B. VAN MONS, M. D., Brussels. 

PETTY VAUGHAN, Esq., London. 

Hon. MARTIN VAN BUREN, late President of the United States. 

JOSEPH R. VAN ZANDT, Esq., Albany. 

FEDERAL VANDERBURG, M. D., New York. 

*BENJAMIN VAUGHAN, Esq. Hallowell, Maine. 

*Gen. STEPHEN VAN RENSALEAR, Albany. 

Hon. DANIEL WEBSTER, Marshfield, Mass. 

*Hon. JOHN WELLES, Boston. 

NATHANIEL WILLICH, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

*JAMES WADSWORTH, Esq., Genesee, New York. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, Professor in Franklin College, Athens, Georgia. 

*FREDERICK WALCOTT, Esq., Litchfield, Conn. 

Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, Boston. 

ASHTON YATES, Esq., Liverpool. 

LAWRENCE YOUNG, Esq., Rhode Island. 



do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

JOHN ADLUM, Esq., Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

Professor LOUIS AGASS1Z, Cambridge. 

THOMAS ALLEN, Esq., St. Louis, Missouri. 

THOMAS ASPINWALL, Esq., London. 

Don FRANCISCO AQUILAR, of Moldonada, in the Banda Oriental. 

A. B. ALLEN, Esq., Editor American Agriculturist. New York. 

NOEL J. BECAR, Esq., Brooklyn, New York. 

JOSEPH BERNARD BAUMANN, Esq., Bolwiller, France. 

AUGUSTIN BAUMANN, Esq., 

NAPOLEON BAUMANN, Esq., 

EUGENE ACHILLE BAUMANN, Esq., 

Mons. TRIPET LE BLANC, Paris. 

Dr. NEHEMIAH BRUSH, East Florida. 

Hon. EDMUND BURKE, Washington, District of Columbia. 

ALEXANDER BURTON, Esq., Cadiz. 

*E. W. BULL, Esq., Hartford, Conn. 

JOHN W. BROWN, Esq., Fort Gaines, Georgia. 

*ISAAC COX BURNETT, Esq., Consul, Paris. 

Rev. HENRY W. BEECHER, Brooklyn, N. Y., late Editor Western Farmer and Gardener. 

ROBERT BUIST, Esq., Philadelphia. 

WILLIAM D. BRINKLE, M. D., Philadelphia. 

EDWARD BECK, Esq., Worton College, Isleworth, near London, England. 

ROBERT CARR, Esq., Philadelphia. 

JAMES COLVILL, Esq., Chelsea, England. 

*FRANCIS G. CARNES, Esq., New York. 

H. W. S. CLEVELAND, Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 

*Rev. HENRY COLMAN, late Massachusetts Agricultural Commissioner, Boston. 

S. L. DANA, M. D., Lowell. 

JAMES DEERING, Esq., Portland, Maine. 

A. J. DOWNING, Esq., Newburg, New York. 

*H. F. DICKEHUT, Esq. 

Hon. HENRY L. ELLSWORTH, Washington, D. C. 

EBENEZER EMMONS, M. D., Williamston. 

A. H. ERNST, Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

GEORGE B. EMERSON, Esq., Boston. 

MICHAEL FLOY, Esq., New York. 

JOHN FOX, Esq., Washington, D. C. 

♦NATHANIEL FELLOWS, Esq., Cuba. 

WILLIAM R. FOSTER, Esq., Baltimore. 

*HENRY J. FINN, Esq., Newport, R. I. 

*Hon. RUSSELL FREEMAN, Sandwich. 

♦BENJAMIN GARDNER, Esq., Consul U. S. at Palermo. 

ROBERT H. GARDNER, Esq., Gardiner, Me. 

ABRAHAM P. GIBSON, Esq., St. Petersburg. 



208 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

R. GLENDENNING, Esq., Chiswick, near London, Eng. 

Capt. JAMES P. GERRY, U. S. Navy. 

Prok ASA GRAY, Cambridge, Mass. 

CHARLES H. HALL, Esq., New York. 

JOHN HAY, Esq., Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

ABRAHAM HALSEY, Esq., New York. 

*Rev. T. M. HARRIS, D. D., Dorchester. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D., Cambridge. 

*ISAAC HURD, Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

ISAAC HUNTER, Esq., Baltimore. 

THOMAS HOGG, Esq., New York. 

BERNARD HENRY, Esq., Philadelphia. 

I. I. HITCHCOCK, Esq.. Baltimore. 

Prof. E. N. HORSFORD, Cambridge. 

EDWARD JARVIS, M. D. Dorchester. 

WILLIAM J. JOHNSON, M. D., Fort Gaines, Georgia. 

DAVID LANDRETH, Esq., late Corresponding Secretary of the Penn. Horticultural Soc. 

E. S. H. LEONARD, M. D., Providence. 

Hon. GEORGE HINT, Newburyport, Mass. 

Mons. LAFFAY, Bellevue, near Paris, France. 

A. H. LATON, Montreal, C. E. 

Mons. ANDRE LEROY, Angus, France. 

C. MACINTOSH, Esq., Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh. 

*JAMES MAURY, Esq., Consul, Liverpool. 

JOHN MILLER, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural Society, Jamaica. 

STEPHEN MILLS, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

Dr. JAMES MEASE, Philadelphia. 

ALLAN MELLVILLE, Esq., New York. 

Rev. JAMES MEANS, Dorchester. 

WILLIAM S. M'LEAY, Esq. 

HORATIO NEWHALL. M. D., Galena, Illinois. 

JAMES OMBROSI, Esq., Florence. 

*DAVID W. OFFLEY, Esq., United States Agent, Smyrna. 

*JOHN L. PAYSON, Esq., Consul, Leghorn. 

*ANDREW PARMENTER, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

JOHN PARKER, Esq., Amsterdam. 

*DAVID PORTER, Esq., Charge des Affaires of the United States at the Ottoman Porte. 

JOSEPH PAXTON, Esq., Chatsworth, England. 

WILLIAM R. PRINCE, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

ALFRED S. PRINCE, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

M. C. PERRY, Esq., U. S. Navy. 

JOHN J. PALMER, Esq., New York. 

J. B. RUSSELL, Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

THOMAS RIVERS, Esq., Sawbridgeworth, England. 

*THOMAS ROTCH, Esq., Philadelphia. 

*WILLIAM FOSTER REDDING, Esq., Baltimore. 

Capt. WILLIAM S. ROGERS, U. S. Navy. 

M. D. REYNOLDS, Esq., Schenectady, N. Y. 

J. S. ROGERS, Esq., Hartford. Conn. 

*JOHN H. RICHARDS, M. D., Illinois. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 209 

Rev. JOHN LEWIS RUSSELL, S. Bingham. 

Mons. J. RINZ, Jr., Frankfort on the Maine, Germany. 

*WILLIAM SHALER, Esq. 

DANIEL D. SMITH, Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 

GIDEON B. SMITH, Esq., Baltimore. 

WILLIAM SHAW, Esq., New York. 

Judge STRONG, Rochester, New York. 

THOMAS H. STEVENS, Esq., U. S. Navy, Middletown, Conn. 

*CALEB R. SMITH, Esq., New Jersey. 

*HORATIO SPRAGUE, Esq., U. S. Consul, Gibraltar. 

FRANCIS SUMMEREST, Esq. 

WILLIAM SUMNER, Esq., Pomerania, S. C. 

WILLIAM F. STRANGE WAY, Esq., British Secretary of Legation at Naples. 

*JAMES P. STURGIS, Esq., Canton. 

GEORGE C. THORBURN, Esq., New York. 

JOHN TILLSON, Jr., Esq., Illinois. 

Prof. TENORE, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples. 

J. E. TESCHEMACHER, Esq., Boston. 

Prof. TINIO, Director of the Botanical Garden at Palermo. 

ROBERT THOMPSON, Esq., London. 

JAMES W. THOMPSON, Esq., Wilmington, Delaware. 

CAREY TYSO, Esq., Wallingford, England. 

LUTHER TUCKER, Esq., Editor of the Cultivator, New York. 

LOUIS VAN HOUTTE, Ghent. 

J. F. W1NGATE, Esq., Bath, Maine. 

JOSHUA WINGATE, Esq., Portland, Maine. 

JOSEPH A. WINTHROP, Esq., South Carolina. 

Mons. EMILIEN DE WAEL, Antwerp. 

*WILLIAM WILSON, Esq., New York. 

J. AMBROSE WIGHT, Esq., Editor of the Prairie Farmer, Chicago, Illinois. 



52 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 



IN THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 



ABERCROMBIE, J.— The Practical Gardner's Companion. Edited by John Abercrombie. 
6th edition, 24to., London, 1829. 

Do. do. 3d ed., London, 1823. 

ADLUM, JOHN. — Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine in America. 2d ed., 12mo., 1S2S. 

ALOYSII COLLA — Illustrat. et Icon. Rar. Stirp Quae in Ejus Horto, &c, 1S27-8. 

AITON, WILLIAM.— General Report of Scotland. Chap. 14, Glasgow, 1812. 

ANDERSON, JAMES. — Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening. By- 
Charles Marshall. To which is added an Essay on Quick Lime. By James Anderson. 
2 vols. 12mo., 1799. 

ARNAUD, C. P. — Recueil de Tombeaux des Quatre Cemetieres de Paris. 2 vols, in one, Svo., 
Paris and Bruxelles, 1825. 

ANNALES D LA SOCIETE D'HORTICULTURE DE PARIS. 5 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1827-9. 
Do. do. (Jan , Fev., Mar., Avril, Mai, Aout, Sept., Novem., Decemb., 1830.) 

AUDUBON. — The Birds of America, from drawings made in the United States and other 
Territories. By John James Audubon. 3 vols. Svo., New York, 1840-41. 

BELGIUM — Pomographie Belgique. Engravings of Pears, presented by Professor Van Mons. 

1831. 
BENOIT, LOUIS.— Physiologie de la Poire. Svo., Paris, 1832. 
BERLESE, L'Abbe. — Iconography du Genre Camellia. 3 vols., 4to., Paris, 1843. 

Monographie du Genre Camellia. — Par L'Abbe Berlese. Svo., Paris, 1840. 

Do. do. do. Translated by H. A. S. Dearborn. Svo., Boston, 183S. 

BIGELOW, JACOB.— American Medical Botany. 3 vols., Svo., 1820. 

Florula Bostoniensis. — A Collection of Plants of Boston and Vicinity. 
8vo., 2ded., Boston, 1824. 
BLAKE, STEPHEN.— The Complete Garden Practice. Small 4to., 1670. 
BLISS, G.-The Fruit Grower's Instructor. 8vo., London, 1825. 
BOSTON JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 3 vols., Svo., Boston, 1835-41. 
BOUTCHER, WILLIAM.— A Treatise on Forest Trees. 4to., Edinburgh, 1775. 
BRADLEY, RICHARD. — New Improvements of Planting and Gardening. Svo., London, 

1717. 
BRIDGEMAN, T.— The Young Gardener's Assistant. 12mo., New York, 1832. 
BROWNE, D. J.— Trees of America. 8vo., New York, 1S46. 
BRYANT, CHARLES.— Flora Diabetica ; or History of Esculent Plants, both Domestic and 

Foreign. 8vo., London, 1783. 
BUIST, R.— Flower Garden Directory. Philadelphia, 1839. 

CHAPTAL, Le Comte.— Chimie Appliquee a l'Agriculture. 2 vols., Svor, 2d ed., Paris, 1829. 

Trate Theorique et Pratique sur la Culture de la Vigne. 2 vols , 
8vo., 2d ed., Paris, 1S01. 



212 CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

COLORED FRUITS.— Author unknown. (Engravings.) 

COXE, WILLIAM.— A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees. 8vo., Philadelphia, 1817. 

CRUIKSHANK, THOMAS.— The Practical Planter. 8vo., London and Edinburg, 1830. 

CULLY, GEORGE.— Observations on Live Stock. 8vo., 4th ed., London, 1807. 

CURTIS, WILLIAM.— Practical Observations on the British Grasses. Gth ed. With Addi- 
tions, by John Lawrence. With a Short Account, &c, by Sir Joseph Banks. 8vo, 
London, 1824. 
Do. do. 5th ed., London, 1812. 

CURTIS, SAMUEL —The Florist's Directory ; with an Appendix. 8vo., London, 1822. 

DAVY, Sir HUMPHREY.— Elements of Agricultural Chemistry. London, 1827. 1 

Do. do. do. New York, 1815. 

DARWIN, ERASMUS.— Phytologia ; or the Philosophy of Agriculture and Gardening. 8vo. 

Dublin, 1800. 
DEANE, SAMUEL, D. D— The New England Farmer. 8vo., 3d ed., Boston, 1822. 
DELPIERRE, LEOCADE.— Trait6 des Bois et Forets. 24to., Paris, 1829. 

Traite de Culture Rurale. 2 vols., 12mo., 1828. 
DICTIONNAIRE UNIVERSELLE D'AGRICULTURE.— 16 vols., 8vo., Paris, 1821-2-3. 
DOWNING, A. J.— Landscape Gardening. 2 copies, 8vo., 1844. 

Fruits and Fruit Trees of America. 3 copies, Svo., 1845. 
Cottage Residences. 8vo., New York, 1844. 

EVELYN, JOHN.— Silva ; or a Discourse of Forest Trees. 2 vols., 4 to., New York, 1812. 
Kalendarum Hortense. 12mo., London, 1691. 

FESSENDEN, THOMAS G.— New American Gardener. 12mo., Boston, 1828. 
FARMER, New England.— 21 vols., 4to., Boston. 

Genesee. — Vols. 1, 2, and 3, 4to., Rochester. 

Yankee. — Vol. 6, 4to., Boston. 
FUSEE, AUBLET.— Histoire des Plantes, 4 vols., 4to., Londres, 1775. 
HARRIS, T. W.— Treatise on some of the Insects of New England. 1842. 



■"i 



HAYNES, THOMAS.— A Treatise on the Improved Culture of the Strawberry, &c. 3d ed., 

8vo., London, 1823. 
HAYWARD, JOSEPH.— The Science of Horticulture. 2d ed., London, 1824. 
HERBERT, Rev. W.— On Bulbous Plants. 8vo., London, 1837. 
HERICART de THURY.— Notice sur un Moulin Cribleur de V invention de M. Moussi. 

12mo., Paris, 1821. 
HINTS FOR AMERICAN HUSBANDMEN, with Communications to the Pennsylvania 

Agricultural Society. 
HITCHCOCK, EDWARD.— Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology of 

Massachusetts. 8vo., Amherst, 1835. 
Atlas to do. 

Final Report on the Geology of Mass., vols. 1 and 2, 4to., 1841. 
HOLLAND, HENRY.— General View of the Agriculture of Cheshire. 8vo. 7 London, 1813. 
HOOKER, WILLIAM. — Pomona Londiensis. Containing colored engravings of the most 

esteemed Fruits in the British Gardens. 4to., vol. 1, London, 1818. 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.— Catalogue of Fruits for 1542. 6 copies. 

Transactions of.— Vol. 1, Part I., 1807. 
HORTICULTURAL TRANSACTIONS OF LONDON.— Vols. 1 to 6, 1812 to 1826. 

Vol. 1, 3d edition, 1830. 
HORTICULTURE.— Our Neighborhood ; or Letters on Horticulture and Natural Phenomena. 

New York, 1831. 
HOSACK, DAVID.— Essays on various subjects of Medical Science. 2 vols., 8vo., 1824. 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 213 

HOSACK, DAVID, and FRANCIS, J. W.— Medical and Philosophical Register. 4 vols., 

Svo., 2d ed., New York, 1814. 
Essays on various subjects ol Medical Science. 

Vol. 3, New York, 1830. 
Memoir of De Witt Clinton. 4to., N. York. 
HOTTON — Manuel de 1' Elaqueur. 16mo., Paris, 1829. 
HOVEY, C. M.— Magazine of Horticulture. Vols. 1 to 17, 8vo., Boston, 1835 to 1852. 

JARDINIER— Le Bon Jardinier. Almanach pour 1' annees 1829, 1830, 1836 et 1841. 
JAMAICA.— -Proceedings of the Society for the Encouragement of Horticulture. Svo., 1825. 
JOLIMONT, E. G. T. De.— Les Mausolees Frangois. Folio, Paris, 1821. 
JULLIEN. — Topographie de tous les vignolles connus. Par A. Jullien. 8vo., Paris, 1816. 

KENRICK, WILLIAM.— The New American Orchardist, 2d ed., 2 copies, Boston, 1835. 

The American Silk Grower's Guide. 16mo., Boston and N.York. 
KOLLAY, VINCEN.— A Treatise on Insects. 12mo., London, 1810. 

LANG, W. B.— Views, with Ground Plans of the Highland Cottages, Roxbury. 1845. 
LANGLEY.— Pomonia. Folio, 1729. 

LARDNER, Rev. DIONYSIUS.— The Cabinet Cyclopaedia. 8vo., London, 1829. 
LAWRENCE, JOHN, M. A.— The Clergyman's Recreation ; or the Art of Gardening. Svo., 

4th ed., London, 1716. 
LAYTON.— Book on Farming. 
LEMOINE, M. LEONOR.— Legons Theor. et Prat. sur. la plant, la cult, et la taille des Arbres 

a fruits et de la Vigne. 24to., Troisieme edition, Paris, 1828. 
LINDLEY, G.— Guide to Orchard and Kitchen Garden. 8vo., London, 1831. 
LINDLEY, J.— Theory of Horticulture. 1840. 
LOUDON.— Suburban Gardens. By J. C. Loudon. Svo., London, 1838. 

Arboretum et Frut. Brit. ; or the Trees and Shrubs of Britain. 8 vols., Svo., 

London, 1834 to 1838. 
A Treatise on Forming, Improving and Managing Country Residences. 2 vols. 

4to., London, 1806. 
Encyclopaedia of Plants. 8vo., 2 copies, 1st and 2d editions, London. 
Encyclopaedia of Gardening. 8vo., 3d ed., London, 1825. 
Encyclopaedia of Agriculture. 8vo., London, 1825. 
Encyclopaedia of Architecture. London, 1839. 
Remarks on the Construction of Hot Houses. 4to., London, 1817, 
Observations on laying out Farms. Folio, London, 1812. 
Gardener's Magazine. 4 vols., London, 1826. 
Repton on Landscape Gardening. London, 1840. 
LOUDON, Mrs. — Bulbs. Beautiful colored plates. 4to., London. 

Annuals. Beautiful colored plates, 4to., London. 
Perennials, Beautiful colored plates. 4to., London. 

MADDOCK, JAMES.— The Florist's Directory. With an Appendix, by Samuel Curtis. 
8vo., London, 1822. 

MALIPHANT, GEORGE— Designs for Sepulchral Monuments. 4to., London. 

MARCHANT DE BEAUMONT.— Manuel et Itinerairedu Cuvieur. Cemet. Pere la Chaise. 
Paris, 1828. 

MARSHALL, Me.— On Planting and Rural Ornament. 2 vols., 3d ed., 1803. 
On Flowers. Vol. 2d, 12mo. 

MARSHALL, CHARLES.— On Gardening. With an Essay on Quick Lime, by James An- 
derson. Vol. 1, Boston, 1799. 

MA WE, THOMAS.— Gardener's Calendar. 14th ed., 12mo., Dublin, 1798. 



214 CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 

McINTOSH.— Green-House. By Charles Mcintosh. 12mo., London, 1S3S. 
Flower Garden. 12mo., London, 1S39. 

Orchard and Fruit Garden, including the Forcing Pit. ISmo., 1840. 
MEMOIRS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.— Svo., Philadel- 
phia, lt>24. 
MERAULT, A. J.— L' Art du Jardinier. IGmo., Paris, 1827. 
M1CHAUX, ANDREW.— Flora Boreali Americana. 2 vols., Svo., Paris, 1803. 
A11CHAUX, ANDREW F — North American Sylva. Vol. 2., Svo., Paris, 1S29. 
MILLER, PHILIP.- The Gardener's and Botanist's Dictionary. With Additions, by Thos. 

Martyn. In two Part, two volumes each, folo, London, 1S07. 
M'MAHON, BERNARD.— The American Gardener's Calendar. Svo., Philadelphia, 1S06. 
MONCEAU, DUHAMEL Du.— La Physique des Arbres. Avec une Dissertation sur 1' utilite 

des Methodes de Botaniques, &c. 2 vols., 4to., Paris, 1758. 
Des Semis et Plantations des Abres ; et de leur Culture. 4to. 

Paris, 1760. 
Des Semis et Traite des Arbres Fruitiers. 7 vols., folio, Paris. 

NATURALIST.— Edited by D. J. Browne. 20 numbers, Boston. 

NICOL, WALTER.— The Practical Planter ; or Forest Planting. 2d ed., 2 copies, 8vo. 
The Planter's Kalendar. 2d ed., Svo., Edinburgh, 1S20. 
The Planter's Kalendar. 4th ed., Svo., Edinburgh, 1S22. 
The Villa Garden Directory. IGmo., Edinburg, 1814. 
NOISETTE, LOUIS.— Manuel Complet du Jardinier, &c. 2d, 3d, and 4th vols., 8vo., Paris. 

Manuel Complet du Jardinier, &c. Supplement. 1828. 
NORFOLK— Agricultural Survey of. By the Secretary of the Board. 8vo., London, 1813. 
NUTTALL, THOMAS, F. L. S — Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory during the 

year 1819. 8vo., Philadelphia, 1821. 
An Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany. 
Cambridge, 1S27. 

OBSERVATIONS ON MODERN GARDENING.— Illustrated by Descriptions. London, 

1770. 

PASCALIS, FELIX. — Practical Instructions and Directions for Silkworm Nurseries. Vol. 1. 
PHILLIPS, HENRY, F. H. S.— Pomarium Britannicum. Svo., London, 1823. 

Do. do. do. do. 1827. 

History of Cultivated Vegetables. 2 vols., 8vo., 2d edition, 
London, 1827. 
PHILLIPS, HENRY, F. H. S.— Sylva Florifera. 2 vols., Svo., London, 1323. 
PHILIPPART, FR.— Voyage Agronomique en Angetterre en 1829. Paris, 1830. 
PLANTING AND RURAL ORNAMENT— Vols. 1 and 2, Svo., London, 1796. 
POMOLOGICAL MAGAZINE— and Descriptions of the most important varieties of Fruit 

cultivated in Great Britain. 3 vols. Svo , 182S, 1829, and 1S30. 
PONTEY, WILLIAM.— The Profitable Planter; a Treatise on the Theory and Practice of 

Planting Forest Trees. With an Appendix. Svo., London, 1828. 
The Forest Pruner ; or Timber-Owner's Assistant. 4th ed., 8vo., 

Leeds, 1826. 
The Rural Improver. 4to., London, 1822. 
PRINCE, WILLIAM R.— Pomological Manual. Svo., New York, 1S32. 

Treatise on the Vine. Svo., New York, 1830. 
PRINCE, WILLIAM.— A Short Treatise on Horticulture. New York, 1828. 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY— 1S41 to 

1844. 
PRUSSE.— Jardins du Roi de Prusse. (Engravings.) 



CATALOGUE OF BOOKS. 215 

QUINCY, Hon. JOSIAH.— History of Harvard University. 2 vols., Cambridge, 1840. 
QUINTINE, LA.— The Complete Gardener. In six Books. 4to. London, 1693. 

RAMON DE LA SAGR A.— Hisloria de la Isla de Cuba. Por Don Ramon de la Sagra. 4to. , 

Habana, 1831. 
Memorias de la Institution Agronoma de la Habana. Svo., Ha- 
bana, 1834. 
REPTON, H. — Enquiry into the changes of Taste in Landscape Gardening. Svo., London, 
1806. 
Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. London, 

1813. 
Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening. London, 1794. 
Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton. London, 1806. 
ROGERS.— Fruit Cultivator. London, 1837. 
RONALDS, HUGH, F. H. S.— Pyrus Mains Brentfordiensis ; or a Concise Description of 

Selected Apples. 4to., London, 1931. 
ROUEN.— Bulletin de la Societe d' Horticulture. Annee 1836. 
RURAL IMPROVEMENT— The Modern and Approaching Style of. (Engravings.) 

SAY, THOMAS. — American Entomology. A Description of the Insects of North America. 

8vo., vols 2 and 3, Philadelphia Museum. 
SAYER. — Treatise on the Cactus and Dahlia. Boston, 1839. 
SINCLAIR, Sir JOHN.— An account of the Systems of Husbandry of Scotland. Vol. 2, 

Edinburgh, 1814. 
SMITH, GERARD EDWARDS.— A Catalogue or Phamogamous Plants in South Kent. 

London, 1829. 
SPEECHLY, WILLIAM.— A Treatise on the Culture of the Vine ; also of the Pine Apple. 

3d ed., Svo., London, 1821. 
STEPHENS.— Book of the Farm. 2 vols., 1842. 
SWEET. ROBERT, F. L. S.— The Florist's Guide, and Cultivator's Directory. London, 

vol. 1, 1827-9, vol. 2, 1829-32, 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D.— The American Orchardist. 12mo., 2d ed., Plymouth, 1825. 

A Practical Treatise on the Management of Bees. 12mo., 1329. 
THOUIN, ANDRE.— Cours de Culture, &c. Atlas. Paris, 1827. 

Cours de Culture et de Naturalisation des Vegetaux. 3 vols., 8vo., 
Paris, 1827. 
THOUIN, GABRIEL.— Plans Raisonnes de Toutes les Especes de Jardins. Folio, Paris, 182S. 
TRANSACTIONS of the New York State Agricultural Society. 1S43. 

of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Vol. 1, Boston. 
TURTON, WILLIAM, M. D.— A General System of Nature. Translated from Gmelin's 
last edition of the celebrated Systema Naturae. By Sir Charles Linne. 7 vols., 8vo., 
Swansea, 1804. 

VATISMENIL — Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, &c. 2 copies, Paris, 1829. 
VENTENAT, E. P.— Description des Plantes Nouvelles et Peu Connues. Folio. 

WESTON, R.— The Gardener's and Planter's Calendar. 3d ed., 12mo., Dublin, 1782. 
WILSON, ALEXANDER.— American Ornithology. Volume of Plates. 

American Ornithology ; or the Natural History of the Birds of 

the United States. 3 vols., N. York and Philadelphia, 1828-9. 

Also, 1 vol. 4to., Plates. 
WORLIDGE, J. — Vinettum Britannicum ; or a Treatise on Cider. lCmo., London, 1691. 

YOUNG, ARTHUR —The Farmer's Calendar. 8vo., London, 1509.